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Course outline, a os, aims, hyps, iv, dv, sampling

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  • 1. • Evidence to support psychological ideas is gathered through research. • Validated evidence = scientific progress. • Scientific knowledge changes when new evidence provides a better explanation. Psychology’s foundation inresearch is what it shares with other sciences.
  • 2. So, yes Psychology is regarded as the science of behaviour…for the purposes of your AS level. However, this statement is certainly up for debate.
  • 3. UNIT 1: PSYA1 50% AS Cognitive Psychology With me 3 hours (25% A2) Developmental Psychology per week. Research Methods Why not divide your UNIT 2: PSYA2 into the 6 folder With Mrs Gordon- 50% AS sections? Biological Psychology Smart 2 hours per (25% A2) Social Psychology 1 3 for Unit 3 for Unit 2 week. Individual Differences- Knowledge of HOW Psychologists gather information is vital to your success as AS level. - KNOWLEDGE of and APPLICATION of research methods.
  • 4. UNIT 1: PSYA1 Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Research Methods- Knowledge of HOW Psychologists gather information is vital to your success as AS level. - KNOWLEDGE of and APPLICATION of research methods.
  • 5. AO1: Knowledge and understanding- recognise, recall and show understanding.- Select, organise and communicate relevant information.AO2: Application of knowledge and understanding- analyse and evaluate knowledge and processes.- apply knowledge and processes to unfamiliar situations.- assess validity, credibility and reliability.AO3: Psychology as a science- describe ethical process and select appropriate methods.- know how to make, record and communicate reliable and valid observations/measurements, with accuracy and using a variety of sources.- analyse, interpret, explain and evaluate methodology, results and impact of own and others research.
  • 6. Grading• At AS, Grading is A – E(U= ungraded).• For A2, the grading changes to the full A* - E.
  • 7. Content & ExamsThe latest Content:AS resultswere 80% • At AS, there is a lot of compulsory content = A-C less choice. This is • This prepares you for A2 = more choice.fantastic! Examinations: • The AS course is examined in June – for both Units 1 and 2.
  • 8. The content is split into three parts:1. Methods and techniques2. Investigation design3. Data analysis and presentation L/O: - To be able to explain the purpose of psychological research. - To be able to create clear aims and hypotheses for research. Research Methods
  • 9. The content is split into three parts:1. Methods and techniques2. Investigation design3. Data analysis and presentationBut first, let’s establish the first steps for aPsychologist carrying out research. Research Methods
  • 10. TaskIn pairs, define the words:• OBJECTIVE:• SUBJECTIVE: Challenge: How might these words relate to research?
  • 11. • Empirical evidence is information gathered about human behaviour based on careful observation and measurement.• Empirical research assumes that observations are objective – not influenced by emotions or personal opinions. This is difficult to achieve, wh y? How might a researcher make their research more objective?
  • 12. AIMS• Psychologists (particularly Research Psychologists) have a real desire to seek out the origins and motives of human behaviour.• An AIM is a reasonably precise idea about the area of study and what the study is going to try to achieve. To describe the effects of stress on our memory. To look at whether listening to music while revising helps us remember things.
  • 13. • The HYPOTHESIS predicts what a researcher expects to find. • The idea is that your research will try to find evidence to support your hypothesis. HYPOTHESIS: The moreAIM: To describe the stressed we are, the effects of stress on worse our memory will memory. be. TASK: create a hypothesis for THE the second example aim: To look at whether listening toHYPOTHESIS music while revising helps us remember things.
  • 14. L/O:- To be able to explain the purpose of psychological research.- To be able to create clear aims and hypotheses for research. Swap notes with someone near you. Is their aim and hypothesis clear? Aim: states purpose, not detailed. Hypothesis: predicts what we expect to find. Can we?
  • 15. Write down these key terms for hypotheses:YouExperimentalahypothesis H1because we can never rule out the must always have NULL HYPOTHESIS In experiments, researchersresults H1 because it predicts what will possibility that use a are due to chance. happen. Alternative hypothesis HA the null hypothesis Accept your hypothesis = reject OR When collecting opinions or observing behaviour, researchers use Reject your hypothesis = accept the null hypothesis a HA because it does not attempt to identify the causes .of behaviour. Null hypothesis H0 Predicts that what we find in our research just happened by chance. It looks like the opposite of our main hypothesis. L/O: to be able to differentiate between experimental, alternative, null, directional and non-directional hypotheses.
  • 16. DateTask: Which is which?Experimental hypothesis H1Alternative hypothesis HANull hypothesis H01. Channel changing is caused by theboring content of adverts. L/O: to be able to differentiate between experimental, alternative, null, directional and non-directional hypotheses.
  • 17. DateTask: Which is which?Experimental hypothesis H1Alternative hypothesis HANull hypothesis H02. Being good at maths means that you willalso be good at chess. L/O: to be able to differentiate between experimental, alternative, null, directional and non-directional hypotheses.
  • 18. DateTask: Which is which?Experimental hypothesis H1Alternative hypothesis HANull hypothesis H03. Students who use Yahoo for answers areless likely to complete homeworkindependently. L/O: to be able to differentiate between experimental, alternative, null, directional and non-directional hypotheses.
  • 19. DateTask: Which is which?Experimental hypothesis H1Alternative hypothesis HANull hypothesis H04. Children who eat oily fish for six monthsdo not show a higher IQ increase thanchildren who do not. L/O: to be able to differentiate between experimental, alternative, null, directional and non-directional hypotheses.
  • 20. Answers: Which is which?1. Experimental hypothesis H12. Experimental hypothesis H13. Alternative hypothesis HA4. Null hypothesis H0 L/O: to be able to differentiate between experimental, alternative, null, directional and non-directional hypotheses.
  • 21. N e Children who eat oily fish for six months do not show au x higher IQ increase than children who do not.l pl e rt i Children who eat oily fish for six monthso m show a higher IQ increase than children e who do not. n t a l What do you notice about this experimental hypothesis? Look closely at the words. HINT: See the L/O.
  • 22. • Variables: The things that change or vary during the research.Example:You decide to see if whether taking a differentjourney to the shops makes your journey timechange. What are the two variables here?
  • 23. • Variables: The things that change or vary during the research.Example:You decide to see if whether taking a different journeyto the shops makes your journey time change.Route taken = variable under your controlINDEPENDENT variable.Journey time = variable that varies because of theroute you have taken DEPENDENT variable.
  • 24. L/O: to be able to differentiate betweenexperimental, alternative, null, directional and non-directionalhypotheses. 1. Define each. 2. What might be the advantages and disadvantages of directional vs. non-directional hypotheses? Can we?
  • 25. • Experimental hypothesis: predicts the cause of the change you are hypothesising will happen.• Alternative hypothesis: usually used in surveys or behavioural observations, does not predict a causal relationship between the variables. How did you do?• Null: opposite of your hypothesis, must be included as w can never rule out the possibility of something being due to chance.• Directional: predicts a direction in the change e.g. better/worse memory, higher/lower IQ.• Non-directional: predicts simply a change.
  • 26. REMINDER:Variables: The things that change or vary during the research. Matching task Independent variable IV What the researcher measures, changes as a result of the IV. Dependent variable DV Anything else that influences the DV, a researcher must predict these Extraneous variable and try to control them. The researcher changes Confounding variable (manipulates) this variable. An extraneous variable becomes one of these if it is found to influence the DV, despite controls by the researcher.
  • 27. Independent variable IV The researcher changes (manipulates) this variable.Dependent variable DV What the researcher measures, changes as a result of the IV. Anything else that influences theExtraneous variable DV, a researcher must predict these and try to control them.Confounding variable An extraneous variable becomes one of these if it is found to influence the DV, despite controls by the researcher.
  • 28. In pairs/threes - apply• Discuss some potential EXTRANEOUS variables in the different research ideas we came across yesterday.• Consider what a researcher might do to try to control them and prevent them from becoming CONFOUNDING variables in the research.
  • 29. need to be observable/measureable. Task: need to be specified in the hypothesis – AIM: tothey relate to one and other. how investigate the relationship between social class and intelligence.Putting a variable into a measurable form is called What are the variables?OPERATIONALISING the variable. Which is IV and DV? Are they operationalised?
  • 30. AIM: to investigate the relationship between social class and intelligence.You have the variables.But are they operationalised? What is the What is the definition of definition of social class? intelligence?Task:If social class is OPERATIONALISED as ‘annual family income’ andIntelligence is OPERATIONALISED by ‘score on a standard IQ test’1. What would our much clearer AIM become?2. Write the hypotheses for this research. a. directional one, b. non-directional one, c. the null.
  • 31. Exam tipsYou will be asked to create directionaland non-directional hypotheses.Within this, you will be expected tooperationalise the variables in thehypotheses.
  • 32. Operationalise the variables in the study yesterday: HYPOTHESIS: The moreAIM: To describe the stressed we are, the effects of stress on worse our memory will memory. be. HELP? Memory: remember a list of words, remembering items revealed earlier and noting which are missing?
  • 33. • Eating potatoes for dinner makes you sleep more.• Eating potatoes for dinner alters the amount you sleep.Directional or non – directional?
  • 34. To note:• Directional hypothesis AKA one-tailed hypothesis.• Non-directional hypothesis AKA two-tailed hypothesis. Evaluation of directional: - harder to support, easier to reject. + if support is found it is regarded highly.
  • 35. To note:• Directional hypothesis AKA one-tailed hypothesis.• Non-directional hypothesis AKA two-tailed hypothesis. Evaluation of non-directional: + if a researcher thinks something might happen but not sure what. - not regarded so highly, easier to accept.
  • 36. How might a researcher get an idea of a direction of the change they might find? This way, they could have a directional hypothesis = optimal. Pilotstudy?
  • 37. SAMPLING• Participant sampling is important in psychological research.Why?What do you want your participant group to be? People who take part in research = participants.
  • 38. • Typical• Representative• Cross section of people= can generalise findings to general population.IF NOT: Sample bias Population = the group of people your participants come from.
  • 39. Pg. 16-17 textbook.• Read and take notes on one sampling method for sharing with the group.• Random• Opportunity• Volunteer