Foreign Policy
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Foreign Policy

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Foreign Policy Foreign Policy Presentation Transcript

  • US Foreign Policy: Part I
    • Who is involved in formulating US foreign policy?
    • What ideas are fundamental in foreign policy creation?
  • Global Perspective
  • Definition
    • Foreign Policy-
      • A nation’s external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them. (Schmidt et. al)
    View slide
  • Policymaking Process Implementation Policy Formation Policy Evaluation Agenda Setting Policy Adoption View slide
  • Foreign Policy Change
    • Source of policy change is external
      • “ Geographical ‘realities’ and ideological challenges from potential aggressors” (Kegley and Wittkopf)
      • Includes all factors “of America’s external environment or any actions occurring abroad that…influence the choices made by its officials” (Rosenau)
  • Institutions Struggle
  • Institutions: Policy Formation
    • Government Institutions in Policy Formation
      • Invitation to Struggle
        • “ America’s unique constitutional system creates an ‘invitation to struggle’ between the president and Congress in the foreign policy process” (Crabb and Holt)
          • Federal structure of national, state and local levels
          • Three branches of government
          • Competing bureaucratic agencies
  • Institutions: Struggle for Influence
    • Executive/Congressional relations may be described as exhibiting a “pendulum or cyclical effect”
    • Phases of Executive / Congressional Relations:
      • Up until WW II: Congress played limited role
      • 1945 – late 1950s: Collaboration
      • 1960s – early 1970s: Imperial Presidency
        • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964
      • 1973 – 1980s: Congress re-asserts itself
        • War Powers Act- 60 day limit
      • 1980- present: Tense Sharing of Responsibility
  • Institutions: Foreign Policy Formation
    • Institutions
      • Executive Branch
        • President
        • Constitutional Powers
          • Commander and chief of the armed forces
          • Make treaties
          • Appoint ambassadors and executive officers
          • Receive/refuse to receive ambassadors
        • Joint Chief of Staff
        • Secretary of State
        • Secretary of Defense
        • National Security Advisor
  • Institutions: Policy Formation
    • Institutions
      • Bureaucratic politics model
      • “ Where you stand depends on where you sit”
      • Competition for power and influence
        • Pentagon
        • CIA
        • FBI
        • Intelligence community
        • Department of Defense
        • Department of State
  • Institutions: Policy Formation
    • Institutions
      • Congress
        • Constitutional Powers
        • Power to declare war
        • Power of the purse
        • Responsible for raising and supporting the armed forces
        • Legislative power
  • Interest
  • Interests: Policy Formation
    • Increasing voice of domestic and foreign interest groups
      • Domestic and foreign policy issues are related
      • Increasingly interconnected
      • Military Industrial Complex
      • Defence industry
      • Peace Groups
        • The Quakers
        • The Raging Grannies
  • Interests: Defense Industry Influence 109% (Fortune 500 website) 871 Raytheon 37% 2,572 Boeing 44% 1,825 Lockheed Martin Percentage Change From 2004 Profits in 2006 (in millions) Company
  • Ideas: Policy Formation
    • Moral Idealism
      • “ American National Style”
        • Moralistic
          • Moral mission
          • Immorality of communism
        • Liberalism
        • America as a unique state
          • Europe and War; U.S. and Peace
        • Advocate of Middle-Class Capitalism
        • Consent of the majority
  • Ideas: Policy Formation
    • Realism
      • Nations act in own interest
        • World is a dangerous place
          • Act to survive
        • Policy based on basic cold calculations without regards to morals
        • Must be militarily prepared because other nations are also self interested
  • Ideas: Policy Formation
    • Neo-realism (Structural realism)
      • The international structure constrains state behavior.
      • The structure then limits cooperation among states through fears of relative gains made by other states, and the possibility of dependence on other states.
      • Violence is part of the structure of the international system it is likely to continue in the future.
  • Ideas: Policy Formation
    • The sources of ideology
      • Individual (personality) Source
        • Personal makeup makes a difference in the kinds of decisions that are made
          • Clinton Doctrine- national interest partly in terms of humanitarian interventions
          • Bush Doctrine- National interest may require pre-emption
        • However, “individuals’ influence [over] foreign policy outcomes are likely to be much subtler than popular impressions would have us believe” (K/W)
  • Bush’s Personality
    • Political Cartoon
  • Implementation: Foreign Policy
    • Actions
      • Carrot- persuade foreign nation with non-aggressive means
        • Trade agreements
        • Economic aid
        • Technical assistance
        • Economic Sanctions
        • Diplomacy
      • Stick-persuade foreign nations through aggressive means
        • Military Intervention
  • Quiz
    • Which most greatly influences foreign policy creation, institution, ideas, or interest?