Reading, the most essential skill for success in all educational contexts, remains a skill of paramountimportance as we create assessments of general language ability.
Two primary hurdles must be cleared in order to become efficient readers: a. be able to master fundamental bottom up strategies for processing separate letters, words and phrases, as well as top-down, conceptually driven strategies for comprehension. b. as part of the top-down approach, second language readers must develop appropriate content and format schemata—background information and cultural experience—to carry out those interpretations effectively.
The assessment of reading ability does not end with the measurement of comprehension. Strategic pathways to full understanding are often importantfactors to include in assessing learners, especially in the case of most classroom assessments that are formative in nature. All assessment of reading must be carried out by inference.
GENRES OF READING1. Academic Reading general interest articles (in magazines,newspapers) technical reports (e.g., lab reports),professional journal articles reference material (dictionaries) textbooks. theses essays, papers test directions editorials and opinion writing
GENRES OF READING3. Personal Reading newspapers and magazines letters, emails, greeting cards, invitations messages, notes, lists schedules (train, bus, plane) recipes, menus, maps, calendars advertisements (commercials, want ads) novels, short stories, jokes, drama, poetry financial documents (e.g., checks, tax forms,loan applications) forms, questionnaires, medical reports,immigration documents comic strips, cartoons
Importance of Genres of Reading It enables the readers to apply certain schemata that will assist them in extracting appropriate meaning. Efficient readers have to know what their purpose is in reading a text, the strategies for accomplishing that purpose and how to retain the information.
Microskills for Reading1. Discriminate among the distinctive graphemes andorthographic patterns of English.2. Retain chunks of language of different lengths in short termmemory.3. Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit thepurpose.4. Recognize a core of words, and interpret word order patternsand their significance.5. Recognize grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs), systems(tense, agreement, pluralization), patterns, rules and ellipticalforms.6. Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed indifferent grammatical forms.7. Recognize cohesive devices in written discourse and their rolein signaling the relationship between and among clauses.
Macroskills for Reading1. Recognize the rhetorical forms of written discourse and theirsignificance for interpretation.2. Recognize the communicative functions of written texts,according to form and purpose.3. Infer context that is not explicit by using backgroundknowledge.4. From described events, ideas, etc., infer links and connectionsbetween events, deduce causes and effects and detect suchrelations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, giveninformation, generalization and exemplification.5. Distinguish between literal and implied meaning.6. Detect culturally specific references and interpret them in acontext of the appropriate cultural schemata.7. Develop and use a battery of reading strategies such asscanning and skimming, detecting discourse markers…
Some Principal Strategies for Reading Comprehension1. Identify your purpose in reading a text.2. Apply spelling rules and conventions forbottom-up decoding.3. Use lexical analysis (prefixes, roots,suffixes, etc.) to determine meaning.4. Guess at meaning (of words, idioms, etc.)when you aren’t certain.5. Skim the text for the gist and for mainideas.6. Scan the text for specific information(names, dates, key words).
Some Principal Strategies for Reading Comprehension7. Use silent reading techniques for rapidprocessing.8. Use marginal notes, outlines, charts, orsemantic maps for understanding andretaining information.9. Distinguish between literal and impliedmeanings.10. Capitalize on discourse markers toprocess relationships.
TYPES OF READING Perceptive- involve attending to the components oflarger stretches discourse: letters, words,punctuation and other graphemicsymbols.- bottom-up processing is implied.
TYPES OF READING Selective- this is largely an artifact of assessmentformats.-certain typical tasks are used such aspicture-cued tasks, matching, true/false,multiple choice.- stimuli include sentences, briefparagraphs and simple charts and graphs.- brief responses are intended and acombination of bottom-up and top-downprocessing may be used.
TYPES OF READING Interactive - include stretches of language of several paragraphs to one page or more in which the reader must interact with the text.- genres: anecdotes, short narratives anddescriptions, excerpts from longer texts,questionnaires, memos, announcements,directions, recipes and the like.- focus: to identify relevant features (lexical,symbolic, grammatical and discourse)within texts of moderately short length withthe objective of retaining the informationthat is processed.
TYPES OF READING Extensive- it applies to texts of more than a page,up to and including professional articles,essays, technical reports, short storiesand books.- purpose: to tap into a learner’s globalunderstanding of a text, as opposed toasking test-takers to “zoom in” on smalldetails.- Top-down processing is assumed formost extensive tasks.
Perceptive Reading At the beginning level of reading a secondlanguage lies a set of tasks that are fundamentaland basic: recognition of alphabetic symbols,capitalized and lowercase letters, punctuation,words and grapheme-phoneme correspondences. LITERACY tasks: implying that learner isin the early stages of becoming “literate”.
Perceptive Reading READING ALOUD- the test taker sees separate letters, wordsand/or short sentences and reads them aloud,one by one, in the presence of an administrator.- any recognizable oral approximation of thetarget response is considered correct.
Perceptive Reading WRITTEN RESPONSE- the same stimuli is presented, and the testtaker’s task is to reproduce the probe in writing.- evaluation of the test taker’s response must becarefully treated.
Perceptive Reading MULTIPLE CHOICEGrapheme recognition taskTest takers read: Circle the “odd” item, the one that doesn’t“belong”. 1. piece peace piece 2. book book boot
Perceptive ReadingMinimal pair distinctionTest takers read: Circle “S” for same or “D” for different.1. led let S D2. bit bit S D3. seat set S D4. too to S D
Perceptive Reading PITURE-CUED ITEMS- test takers are shown a picture along witha written text and are given possible tasksto perform.
Perceptive ReadingA. B. Picture-cued matching word identification Test Takers read: 1. washing the dishes ____C. D. 2. chatting with a friend ____ 3. studying the lesson ____ 4. washing the clothes ____
Selective Reading focus on formal aspects of language (lexical,grammatical and a few discourse features). it includes what many incorrectly think of astesting “vocabulary and grammar”.
Selective Reading MULTIPLE CHOICEMultiple-choice vocabulary/grammar tasks1. He’s not married. He’s __________.A. youngB. singleC. firstD. a husband2. If there’s no doorbell, please __________ on the door.A. kneelB. typeC. knockD. shout
Selective Reading3. The mouse is __________ the bed.A. underB. aroundC. between4. The bank robbery occurred __________ I was in therestroom.A. thatB. duringC. whileD. which
Selective ReadingContextualized multiple-choice vocabulary/grammartasks1. Oscar: Do you like champagne? Lucy: No. I can’t __________.A. standB. preferC. hate2. Manager: Do you like to work by yourself? Employee: Yes, I like to work __________.A. independentlyB. definitelyC. impatiently
Selective ReadingMultiple-choice cloze vocabulary/grammar tasksI’ve lived in the United States (21) _____ three years. I (22) _____live in Costa Rica. I (23) _____ speak any English. I used to (24)_____homesick, but now I enjoy (25) _____ here. I never (26) _____ backhome (27) _____ I came to the United States, but I might (28) _____to visit my family soon.21. A. since 23. A. couldn’t 25. A. live 27. A. when B. for B. could B. to live B. while C. during C. can C. living C. since22. A. used to 24. A. been 26. A. be 28. A. go B. use to B. be B. been B. will go C. was C. being C. was C. going
Selective Reading MATCHING TASKSVocabulary matching taskWrite in the letter of the definition on the right that matchesthe word on the left.____1. exhausted a. unhappy____2. disappointed b. understanding of others____3. enthusiastic c. tired____4. empathetic d. excited
Selective ReadingSelected response fill-in vocabulary task1. At the end of the long race, the runners were totally _____.2. My parents were _____ with my bad performance on thefinal exam.3. Everyone in the office was _____ about the new salaryraises.4. The _____ listening of the counselor made Christina feelwell understood.Choose from among the following: disappointed empathetic exhausted enthusiastic
Selective Reading Matching task ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE- it offers an alternative - it become more of ato traditional multiple- puzzle-solving processchoice or fill in the blank than a genuine test offormats and are easier to comprehension as test-construct than multiple takers struggle with thechoice item. search for a match.
Selective ReadingEDITING TASKS-editing for grammatical or rhetorical errorsis a widely used test method for assessinglinguistic competence in reading.- it does not only focus on grammar but alsointroduces a simulation of the authentic taskof editing or discerning errors in writtenpassages.
Selective ReadingMultiple-choice grammar editing task (Phillips,2001,p. 219)Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct.1. The abrasively action of the wind wears away softer layers of rock. A B C D2. There are two way of making a gas condense: cooling it or putting it A B C Dunder pressure.3. Researchers have discovered that the application of bright light can A Bsometimes be uses to overcome jet lag. C D
Selective Reading PICTURE-CUED TASKS Multiple-choice picture-cued response (Phillips, 2001, p. 276)Carlo has a bar of chocolate. He gives half a bar of chocolate tohis brother. See the following four pictures. Choose the picture thatshows the relative amount of chocolate left to Carlo.A. B. C. D.
Selective ReadingGAP-FILLING TASKS-the response is to write a word or phrase.-to create sentence completion items wheretest-takers read part of a sentence and thencomplete it by writing a phrase.
Selective ReadingSentence Completion taskOscar: Doctor, what should I do if I get sick?Doctor: It is best to stay home and ________________. If you have a fever, ______________________. You should drink as much _________________. The worst thing you can do is _______________. You should also __________________________.
Selective Reading Gap Filling Task DISADVANTAGE It has a questionable assessment of reading ability. The task requires both reading and writing performance, thus, rendering it of lowvalidity in isolating reading as the sole criterion. Scoring the variety of creative responses that are likely to appear is another drawback. A number of judgment is needed on what comprises a correct response.
Interactive Reading tasks at this level have a combination of form-focused and meaning-focused objectives but withmore emphasis on meaning. it implies a little more focus on top-downprocessing than on bottom-up. texts are a little longer from a paragraph to asmuch as a page or so in the case of ordinaryprose. Charts, graphs and other graphics aresomewhat complex in their format.
Interactive Reading CLOZE TASKS-the ability to fill in gaps in an incompleteimage (visual, auditory or cognitive) and supply(from background schemata) omitted details.-cloze tests are usually a minimum of twoparagraphs in length in order to account fordiscourse expectancies.
Interactive Reading CLOZE TASKS-typically, every seventh word (plus or minus two)is deleted (known as fixed-ratio deletion) butmany cloze test designers instead use a rationaldeletion procedure of choosing deletions accordingto the grammatical or discourse functions of thewords.
Interactive Reading Two approaches to the scoring of cloze test Exact word method- gives credit to test-takers only if they insert the exact word that wasoriginally deleted. Appropriate word method- gives credit to thetest-taker for supplying any word that isgrammatically correct and that makes good sensein the context.
Interactive ReadingCloze procedure, fixed ratio deletion (every seventhword)The recognition that one’s feelings of (1) ____ and unhappinesscan coexist much like (2) ____ and hate in a close relationship(3) ____ offer valuable clues on how to (4) ____ a happier life. Itsuggests, for (5) ____ that changing or avoiding things that (6)____ you miserable may well make you (7) ____ miserable butprobably no happier.
Interactive ReadingCloze procedure, rational deletion (prepositions andconjunctions)The recognition that one’s feelings (1) ____ happiness (2) ____unhappiness can coexist much like love and hate (3) ____ aclose relationship may offer valuable clues (4) ____ how to leada happier life. It suggests, (5) ____ example, that changing (6)____ avoiding things that make you miserable may well makeyou less miserable (7) ____ probably no happier.
Interactive Reading Variations on Standard Cloze Testing C-test- the second half (according to the numberof letters) of every other word is obliterated and thetest-taker must restore each word. Cloze-elide procedure- it inserts words into atext that do not belong. The test-taker’s task is todetect and cross out the “intrusive” words.* Cloze-elide procedure is actually a test of readingspeed and not of proofreading skill.
Interactive Reading* Cloze-elide procedure is actually a test of readingspeed and not of proofreading skill. DISADVANTAGES Neither the words to insert nor the frequency of insertion appears to have any rationale. Fast and efficient readers are not adept at detecting the intrusive words. Good readers naturally weed out such potential interruptions.
Interactive Reading IMPROMPTU READING PLUSCOMPREHENSION QUESTIONS-the traditional “Read a passage and answer somequestions” technique which is the oldest and themost common.-Examples: Reading comprehension passage(Phillips, 2001, pp. 421-422) and Computer-basedTOEFL* reading comprehension item.
Interactive Reading SHORT-ANSWER TASKS-a reading passage is presented and the test-takerreads questions that must be answered in asentence or two.Open-ended reading comprehension questions1. What do you think is the main idea of this passage?2. What would you infer from the passage about the future of airtravel?3. In line 6, the word sensation is used. From the context, whatdo you think this word means?4. Why do you think the airlines have recently experienced adecline?
Interactive Reading EDITING (LONGER TEXTS) ADVANTAGES authenticity is increased. the task simulates proofreading one’s ownessay, where it is imperative to find and correct errors. if the test is connected to a specific curriculum, the test designer can draw upspecifications for a number of grammatical andrhetorical categories that match the content of the courses.
Interactive Reading SCANNING-it is a strategy used by all readers to find relevantinformation in a test.-test-takers are presented with a text (prose orsomething in a chart or graph format) and requiringrapid identification of relevant bits of information.
Interactive Reading SCANNING-possible stimuli include: a one to two page news article an essay a chapter in a textbook a technical report a table or chart depicting some research findings an application form
Interactive Reading SCANNING-the test-taker must locate: a date, name or place in an article; The setting for a narrative story; the principal divisions of a chapter; the principal research finding in a technical report; a result reported in a specified cell in a table; the cost of an item on a menu; and specified data needed to fill out an application.
Interactive Reading ORDERING TASKS- sometimes called the “strip story” technique.- variations on this can serve as an assessment ofoverall global understanding of a story and of thecohesive devices that signal the order of events orideas.
Interactive ReadingSentence-ordering taskIt was almost midnight. John was still awake because he did not have to getup early in the morning. His favorite actor’s movie on TV had just finished.The bell rang. He opened the door. It was his flat-mate, Tom. He hadforgotten his keys at home in the morning. He seemed too tired to chat withJohn so he went to bed as soon as possible. John felt lonely and decided togo to bed. He went to the bathroom and brushed his teeth. When he cameinto his bedroom, he noticed some candies on the table. He ate a few ofthem. The candies reminded him of his childhood. Since he did not want tosleep, he decided to look at some old photos. He felt sad when he saw hisex-girlfriend Laura in a photo. He remembered the days they had spenttogether. He checked his watch and went to bed.
Interactive ReadingSentence-ordering taskPut the scrambled sentences into the correct order that they happened.(…..) A. John ate some candies.(…..) B. John felt sad.(…..) C. Tom went to bed and John felt lonely.(…..) D. John watched a film on TV.(…..) E. John remembered his childhood.(…..) F. The bell rang and Tom came home.(…..) G. John looked at the photos.(…..) H. John brushed his teeth.
Interactive Reading INFORMATION TRANSFER: READING CHARTS, MAPS, GRAPHS, DIAGRAMS- it requires not only an understanding of thegraphic and verbal conventions of the medium butalso a linguistic ability to interpret the informationto someone else.- it is often accompanied by oral or written discoursein order to convey, clarify, question, argue anddebate, among other linguistic functions.
Interactive Reading INFORMATION TRANSFER: READING CHARTS, MAPS, GRAPHS, DIAGRAMS-to comprehend information in this medium,learners must be able to: comprehend specific conventions of the various typesof graphics; comprehend labels, headings, numbers and symbols; comprehend the possible relationships amongelements of the graphic; and make inferences that are not presented overtly.
Interactive ReadingThe act of comprehending graphics includes the linguistic performance of oral or written interpretations, comments, questions, etc. Thisimplies a process of information transfer from one skill to another, in this case, from reading verbal/nonverbal information to speaking/writing.
Extensive Reading it involves somewhat longer texts. Journalarticles, technical reports, longer essays, shortstories and books fall into this category. reading of this type of discourse almost alwaysinvolves a focus on meaning using mostly top-downprocessing, with only occasional use of targetedbottom-up strategy.
Extensive ReadingTasks that can be applied in extensive reading: impromptu reading plus comprehension questions short answer tasks editing scanning ordering information transfer and interpretation (discussed under graphics)
Extensive Reading SKIMMING TASKS- it is the process of rapid coverage of reading matterto determine its gist or main idea.- it is a prediction strategy used to give a reader asense of topic and purpose of text, the organizationof the text, the perspective or point of view of thewriter, its case or difficulty and its usefulness to thereader.
Extensive Reading Skimming TaskThe test-taker skims the text and answer the following questions.What is the main idea of this text?What is the author’s purpose in writing the text?What kind of writing is this (newspaper, article, manual, novel, etc.)?What type of writing is this (expository, technical, narrative, etc.)?How easy or difficult do you think this text will be?What do you think you will learn from the text?How useful will the text be for your (profession, academic needs,interests)?
Extensive Reading SUMMARIZING AND RESPONDING SUMMARIZING- it requires a synopsis or overview of the text.Directions for SummarizingWrite a summary of the text. Your summary should be about oneparagraph in length (100-150 words) and should include yourunderstanding of the main idea and supporting ideas.
Extensive ReadingEvaluating summaries is difficult.Criteria for assessing a summary (Imao, 2001, p. 184)1. Expresses accurately the main idea and supporting ideas.2. Is written in the student’s own words; occasional vocabulary from theoriginal text is acceptable.3. Is logically organized.4. Displays facility in the use of language to clearly express ideas in thetext.
Extensive Reading RESPONDING- it asks the reader to provide his/her own opinionon the text as a whole or on some statement or issuewithin it.Directions for RespondingIn the article “Poisoning the Air We Breathe”, the author suggeststhat a global dependence on fossil fuels will eventually make airin large cities toxic. Write an essay in which you agree or disagreewith the author’s thesis. Support your opinion with information fromthe article and from your own experience.
Extensive Reading Scoring is also difficult in responding because of the subjectivityHolistic Scoring scale for summarizing and responding3 Demonstrate clear, unambiguous comprehension of the main and supporting ideas.2 Demonstrates comprehension of the main idea but lacks comprehension of some supporting ideas.1 Demonstrates only a partial comprehension of the main and supporting ideas.0 Demonstrates no comprehension of the main and supporting ideas.
Extensive Reading NOTE-TAKING and OUTLINING- they fall on the category of informal assessment- their utility is in the strategic training that learnersgain in retaining information through marginal notesthat highlight key information or organizationaloutlines that put supporting ideas into a visuallymanageable framework.