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Mentoring Reading 4.11


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Mentoring Reading 4.11

  1. 1. Division 1 - HULIS Mentoring Program SY 2009-2010 <ul><li>TEACHING READING </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Nguyen Tuan Anh </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Reading Process <ul><li>Look at reading as a process rather than a product (Wallace, 1992, p. 39). </li></ul><ul><li>A process view investigates how the reader may arrive at a particular interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>A product view relates only to what the reader has “got out of” the text. </li></ul><ul><li>A dynamic relationship between </li></ul><ul><li>text and reader </li></ul>
  3. 3. Meaning is realized.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Frank Smith (1971) was one of the first to characterize reading as process by describing reading as “the reduction of uncertainty”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The captain ordered the mate to drop the an____”. </li></ul><ul><li>4 factors constrain our choices of what to select: </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic information (knowledge of English Spelling) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetic information (possible sound combinations) </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactic information (noun or adjective) </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic and genre information ( anchor, anticyclone, angry mermaid ) </li></ul><ul><li>Kenneth Goodman: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading as a “psycholinguistic guessing game ” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Interpretive communities <ul><li>Readers are members of interpretive communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Texts are interpreted in the light of schemas which are constructed in different social groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interpretations will never be identical because of our multiple social identities , any of which may be salient in our reading of a particular text. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reader and Writer <ul><li>Writers take for granted that their readers are in possession of certain kinds of knowledge of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not one of the group of intended readers, the effect when reading is of eavesdropping on a dialogue between the writer and the writer’s imagined or model reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Submissive and Resistant readers: POSITIONING </li></ul><ul><li>If too submissive, a reader may accumulate information without accommodating it into the schematic structure of existing knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>If too assertive, ‘he may distort the writer’s intentions and deny access to new knowledge and experience.’ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Text Genres <ul><li>Genre was traditionally a term used to describe literary forms (ballad, novel, epic poem), then extended to include other types of text (menu, shopping list), and further extended to include the whole range of culturally recognizable types of language activity (medical examination, joke, essay, thesis). </li></ul><ul><li>Genre vs. Register </li></ul><ul><li>Genre naturally serves a communicative function. </li></ul><ul><li>Register is described as the characteristic lexis and structures used in talking about particular topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Genre carries meaning about the conventional social occasions on which text arises. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Schemata <ul><li>Genre Schemas: What kind of text is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Jokes are frequently created by overturning the schema. </li></ul><ul><li>Topic Schemas: What is the text about? </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural Schemas </li></ul>
  9. 9. The role of text in ESL classroom <ul><li>Should the text : </li></ul><ul><li>be a vehicle for teaching specific language structure and vocabulary? </li></ul><ul><li>present content which is familiar and of interest to the learners? </li></ul><ul><li>be at the appropriate language level? </li></ul><ul><li>be authentic (naturally occurring text)? </li></ul><ul><li>be exploitable in the classroom (that is, lead to a range of classroom activities)? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classroom Reading Procedures <ul><li>Pre-reading Activities: </li></ul><ul><li>may be questions, </li></ul><ul><li>may offer compensation for second language readers’ inadequacies (linguistic and sociocultural), </li></ul><ul><li>may remind readers of what they do in fact already know and think. </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVATE EXISTING SCHEMATIC KNOWLEDGE </li></ul>
  11. 11. Brainstorming as a pre-reading task <ul><li>Requires little teacher preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Allows learners freedom to call up their own prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the whole class </li></ul><ul><li>less threatens learners </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>While-reading activities: generally aim to encourage students to be flexible, active, and reflective readers. </li></ul><ul><li>Post-reading activities: traditionally include questions with or without reference to the text and may be designed according to types of genre </li></ul><ul><li>Beaumont’s (1983) scheme for achieving goals </li></ul><ul><li>Text struture – How is it linked together, how can we work out unfamiliar words? </li></ul><ul><li>Text purpose – What is the text for? Who is it written for? What does it do? How does it fulfill its purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Reading for information – What are the topic and the main ideas? Supporting ideas? How can we distinguish between the main and supporting ideas? </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation – What are the opinions of the writer? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Extensive Reading <ul><li>Rapid reading of large quantities of material and longer readings for general understanding with the focus generally on the meaning what is being read than on the language. </li></ul><ul><li>A supplementary class library scheme without pressures of testing or marks. </li></ul><ul><li>USSR (Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading), DEAR (Drop Everything and Read), Silent Uninterrupted Reading for Fun (SURF), Book Flood Approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive reading and extensive reading are not in opposition as both serve different but complementary purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled Readers vs. Skilled Readers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Methodological Principles for teaching Reading <ul><li>Students can generally deal with a higher level of language in receptive skills than with productive skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials designed should be at least simulated-authentic. </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to convince ESL students that English can be understood despite unknown vocabulary items and structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher modeling is essential in creating expectations and enthusiasm for the text to be read. </li></ul>
  15. 15. DRA Directed Reading Activity <ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Directed silent reading </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension check and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Oral rereading </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up activities </li></ul>
  16. 16. DR-TA Directed Reading-Thinking Activity <ul><li>Ask students to skim a reading selection prior to reading it. </li></ul><ul><li>Have them note titles, subheadings, illustrations, captions, sidebars, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to predict the content or perspective of the text passage. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask them to identify why they reached these conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick a reasonable &quot;break point&quot; in the reading selection and have students read up to this point. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge students to evaluate their predictions and refine them if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the process in steps 1 and 2 throughout all the logical &quot;break points&quot; in the text until the selection is completed. </li></ul>
  17. 17. K-W-L <ul><li>Step K - What I k now. </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Generating categories of information </li></ul><ul><li>Step W - What do I w ant to learn? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students write down questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step L - What I l earned </li></ul><ul><li>Group work is advised for steps K and W. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Anticipation Guide <ul><li>Indentify major concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Determine students’ knowledge of these concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Create statements </li></ul><ul><li>Decide statement order and presentation mode </li></ul><ul><li>Present guide </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss each statement briefly </li></ul><ul><li>Direct students to read the text </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct follow-up discussion </li></ul>
  19. 19. QARs Question-Answer Relationships <ul><li>Right There </li></ul><ul><li>Think and Search </li></ul><ul><li>On My Own </li></ul><ul><li>Author and You </li></ul>