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Network topology and devices

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  • 1. Network Topology And Devices
  • 2. NETWORK A Computer Network, or simply a Network, is a collection of computers and other hardware interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. A network is a group of devices connected to each other. Networks may be classified into a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, benefit, and organizational scope.
  • 3. NETWORK CLASSIFICATION  A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building using network media.  A metropolitan area network (MAN) are high speed networks that connects LAN’s in a metropolitan area. Managed by a consortium of users or a single network provider.  A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area i.e. any telecommunications network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries.
  • 4. NETWORK TOPOLOGYNetwork topology is the arrangement of the various elements(links, nodes, etc.) of a computer or a biologicalnetwork. Essentially it is the topological structure of a networkand may be depicted physically or logically. Topologies areeither: Physical Logical
  • 5. TYPES OF PHYSICAL TOPOLOGY Point to Point Bus Star Ring Mesh Tree Hybrid
  • 6. POINT TO POINTPoint-to-Point topology is a point-to-point communicationchannel that appears to the user to be permanentlyassociated with the two endpoints. A tin can telephone is thebest example.
  • 7. BUSAll computers and devices are connected to single cable orBUS. It consists of a main run of cable with a terminator ateach end. It is popular on LANs as they are inexpensiveand easy to install.
  • 8. STARIn local area networks with a star topology, each network host isconnected to a central hub with a point-to-point connection. In Startopology every node is connected to central node called hub or switch.
  • 9. RINGA network topology that is set up in a circular fashion in whichdata travels around the ring in one direction and each deviceon the right acts as a repeater to keep the signal strong as ittravels. Each device incorporates a receiver for the incomingsignal and a transmitter to send the data on to the next devicein the ring.
  • 10. MESHIn mesh topology each computer is connected to each other byseparate cables. There is a point tom point connectionbetween each node.This type of topology is generally used in military area.
  • 11. TREEThe type of network topology in which a central root node (the top level ofthe hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one levellower in the hierarchy (i.e., the second level) with a point-to-point linkbetween each of the second level nodes and the top level central rootnode
  • 12. HYBRIDHybrid networks use a combination of any two or moretopologies in such a way that the resulting network doesnot exhibit one of the standard topologies.
  • 13. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OFTHE 4 MOST COMMONLY USEDNETWORK TOPOLOGIES
  • 14. BUS TOPOLOGYAdvantages Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cables than any other topologies. Doesn’t requires any specialized network equipment.Disadvantages Difficult to trouble shoot. Network disruption when more computers are added to it. A break in the cable will prevent all systems from accessing the network.
  • 15. RING TOPOLOGYAdvantages Cable faults are easily located making trouble shooting easier Ring networks are moderately easily to install.Disadvantages Expansion to the network can cause network disruption A single break in the cable can disrupt the entire network
  • 16. MESH TOPOLOGYAdvantages Provides redundant path between the devices Network can be expanded without any inconvenience to current user.Disadvantages Requires more cables than any other toplology Complicated implementations
  • 17. STAR TOPOLOGY ADVANTAGES Easy to install and wire. Security can be implemented in the hub/switch. Easy to detect faults and remove parts. DISADVANTAGES Requires more cable length. If the hub or concentrator fails nodes attached are disabled More expansive due to he cost of concentrators associated with it.
  • 18. NETWORKING DEVICESNetworking devices typically refers to hardware that facilitatesthe use of a computer network. Computer networkingdevices are units that mediate data in a computernetwork. Some of the networking devices are: Gateway Router Switch Bridge Hub Repeater Multiplexer Modem
  • 19. GATEWAYA device sitting at a network node forinterfacing with another network that usesdifferent protocols.
  • 20. ROUTER A specialized network device that determinesthe next network point to which it can forward adata packet towards the destination of thepacket.
  • 21. SWITCHA device that allocates traffic from one networksegment to certain lines (intended destinations)which connect the segment to another networksegment.
  • 22. BRIDGEA device that connects multiple networksegments along the data link layer.
  • 23. HUBA device connects multiple Ethernet segments togethermaking them act as a single segment. When using a hub,every attached device shares the same broadcast domain andthe same collision domain. Therefore, onlyone computer connected to the hub is able to transmit at atime.
  • 24. REPEATERA device to amplify or regenerate digital signalsreceived while sending them from one part of anetwork into another.
  • 25. MULTIPLEXERA device that combines several electricalsignals into a single signal.
  • 26. MODEMA device that modulates an analog "carrier" signal (such assound), to encode digital information, and that alsodemodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmittedinformation, as a computer communicating with anothercomputer over the telephone network.
  • 27. BROUTERBrouters are a combination of router and bridge. ABrouter transmits two types of traffic at the exact sametime: bridged traffic and routed traffic.
  • 28. NETWORK INTERFACE CARDNetwork Interface Card, or NIC is a hardware card installedin a computer so it can communicate on a network. Thenetwork adapter provides one or more ports for the networkcable to connect to, and it transmits and receives data ontothe network cable. Network Card Wireless LAN Card
  • 29. TRANSCEIVERSTransceiver short for transmitter-receiver, a device that bothtransmits and receives analog or digital signals. The term isused most frequently to describe the component in local-areanetworks that actually applies signals onto the network wire anddetects signals passing through the wire. For many LANs, thetransceiver is built into the network interface card.
  • 30. FIREWALLFirewall is a piece of hardware and/or software whichfunctions in a networked environment to prevent somecommunications forbidden by the security policy, analogousto the function of firewalls in building construction.
  • 31. PROXIES A proxy device acts as a firewall by responding to input packets (connection requests, for example) in the manner of an application, whilst blocking other packets. A proxy server acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource available from a different server and the proxy server evaluates the request as a way to simplify and control their complexity
  • 32. NETWORKING CABLESNetworking cables are used to connect one networkdevice to other network devices or to connect two or morecomputers to share a printer, scanner etc. Different typesof network cables like Coaxial cable, Optical fibre cableetc. Optical fibre Ethernet cable Coaxial cable

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