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Networking

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Networking

  1. 1. A networking is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. When these computers are joined in a network, people can share files and peripherals such as modems, printers, tape or CD-ROM drives. When networks at multiple locations are connected using services available from phone companies, people can send e-mail, share links to the global Internet, or conduct video conferences in real time with other remote users. In the simple word if the more then two computer connected to each other to share there resource (hared ware and software) and they are able to send and receive data and information from one location to another location.
  2. 2. Every networking includes  At least two computers Server or Client workstation.  Networking Interface Card's (NIC)  A connection medium, usually a wire or cable, although wireless communication between  networked computers and peripherals is also possible.  Network Operating system software, such as Microsoft Windows NT or 2000, Unix and Linux.
  3. 3. Types of networkingComputer networking is divided in to two types:  On the Bases of architecture  On the bases of geographical area On the Bases of architecture: On the bases of architecture computer network is classified in to two types : 1- Client server network. 2- Peer to peer network.
  4. 4. Client server and peer to peer network Client server network: The client server networking there is a dedicated server, A dedicated server function as a server only not as a client. All the client computer are controlled and manage my server only. Peer to peer network: In peer to peer network there are no dedicated servers or hierarchy among the computers. All of the computers are equal and therefore known as peers. Normally each computer serves as Client/Server and there is no one assigned to be an administrator responsible for the entire network. Peer-to-peer networks are good choices for needs of small organizations where the users are allocated in the same general area.
  5. 5. Diagram
  6. 6. On the bases of geographical are: These network are classified in to three types they are 1- LAN 2-MAN 3-WAN LAN: A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus. It can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. In the simple word if more then two computers are interconnected to each other with in building , office to share there resource and they are able to send and receive the information from one location to another location and maximum distance is 0 to 10 KM. For example Ethernet.
  7. 7. MAN It stands for metropolitan Area network. A MAN is a network which is larger then a LAN. It is called metropolitan because it covers area of city about 10 to 100 km.if the more then two computers are able to share there resource and they send and receive data with in city such type of network is called MAN for example Entrant.  WAN: It stands for wide area network. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services. Wide area networking can be as simple as a modem and remote access server for employees to dial into, or it can be as complex as hundreds of branch offices globally linked using special routing protocols and filters to minimize the expense of sending data sent over vast distances. In the simple word it is larger then MAN. WANS interconnected LANs which may be opposite side of country. This is located around the world. For Example internet
  8. 8. The OSI Model Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model has become an International standard and serves as a guide for networking. This model is the best known and most widely used guide to describe networking environments. Vendors design network products based on the specifications of the OSI model. It provides a description of how network hardware and software work together in a layered fashion to make communications possible. It also helps with trouble shooting by providing a frame of reference that describes how components are supposed to function.
  9. 9. OSI  Physical Layer, is just that the physical parts of the network such as wires, cables, and there media along with the length. Also this layer takes note of the electrical signals that transmit data throughout system.  Data Link Layer, this layer is where we actually assign meaning to the electrical signals in the network. The layer also determines the size and format of data sent to printers, and other devices.  Network Layer, this layer provides the definition for the connection of two dissimilar networks.  Transport Layer, this layer allows data to be broken into smaller packages for data to be distributed and addressed to other nodes (workstations).  Session Layer, this layer helps out with the task to carry information from one node (workstation) to another node (workstation). A session has to be made before we can transport information to another computer.  Presentation Layer, this layer is responsible to code and decode data sent to the node.  Application Layer, this layer allows you to use an application that will communicate with say the operation
  10. 10. Diagram
  11. 11. Protocol Network protocols are standards that allow computers to communicate. A protocol defines how computers identify one another on a network, the form that the data should take in transit, and how this information is processed once it reaches its final destination. In the simple word protocol is a set of rules which is used to send and receive data and information in the network. for example FTP,TCP/IP ,etc.  TCP/IP :TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and IP stands for Internet Protocol. The term TCP/IP is not limited just to these two protocols, however. Frequently, the term TCP/IP is used to refer to a group of protocols related to the internet. This network is basically used to control transmission information and data.  Telnet: Used to connect to a host and emulate a terminal that the remote server can recognize in the network.  FTP Used to send and receive files from a remote host and it is used to upload and download files from client to server and server to client.  HTTP:Used for the web to send documents that are encoded in HTML.  SMTP: It is used to E-Mail over the internet.  Telnet:Used to connect to a host and emulate a terminal that the remote server can recognize in the network.
  12. 12. Topology Network topologies describe the ways in which the elements of network are mapped. They describe the physical and logical arrangement of the network nodes. The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. In the simple way computer topology is a arrangement of computer, wires and components in the network. There are six types of topology they are :  Bus Topology  Star Topology  Ring Topology  Mesh Topology  Tree Topology  Hybrid Topology
  13. 13. Types of topology  Bus Topology: All the nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) on a bus topology are connected by one single cable. A bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end. All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable. Popular on LANs because they are inexpensive and easy to install.  Advantages of Bus Topology  It is Cheap, easy to handle and implement.  Require less cable  It is best suited for small networks.  Disadvantages of Bus Topology  The cable length is limited. This limits the number of stations that  can be connected.  This network topology can perform well only for a limited number of nodes.
  14. 14. Diagram
  15. 15. Ring Topology In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction. A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. To implement a ring network we use the Token Ring technology token, or small data packet, is continuously passed around the network. When a device needs to transmit, it reserves the token for the next trip around, then attaches its data packet to it. Advantage of Ring Topology  Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit.  Easier to Mange than a Bus Network  Good Communication over long distances Disadvantages of Ring Topology  The failure of a single node of the network can cause the entire network to fail.  The movement or changes made to network nodes affects the performance of the entire network.
  16. 16. Diagram
  17. 17. Star Topology In a star network, each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) is connected to a central device called a hub. The hub takes a signal that comes from any node and passes it along to all the other nodes in the network. Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all of the system to a central node. Advantages of Star Topology  Easy to manage  Easy to locate problems (cable/workstations)  Easier to expand than a bus or ring topology.  Easy to install and wire.  Easy to detect faults and to remove parts. Disadvantages of Star Topology  Requires more cable length than a linear topology.  If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.  More expensive because of the cost of the concentrators.
  18. 18. Diagram
  19. 19. Tree Topology A tree topology (hierarchical topology) can be viewed as a collection of star networks arranged in a hierarchy. This tree has individual peripheral nodes which are required to transmit to and receive from one other only and are not required to act as repeaters or regenerators. The tree topology arranges links and nodes into distinct hierarchies in order to allow greater control and easier troubleshooting. This is particularly helpful for colleges, universities and schools so that each of the connect to the big network in some way. Advantages of a Tree Topology  Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.  Supported by several hardware and software vendors.  All the computers have access to the larger and their immediate networks. Disadvantages of a Tree Topology  Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used.  If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.  More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.
  20. 20. Diagram
  21. 21. Mesh Topology In this topology, each node is connected to every other node in the network. Implementing the mesh topology is expensive and difficult. In this type of network, each node may send message to destination through multiple paths. While the data is travelling on the Mesh Network it is automatically configured to reach the destination by taking the shortest route. Advantage of Mesh Topology  No traffic problem as there are dedicated links.  It has multiple links, so if one route is blocked then other routes can be used for data communication.  Points to point links make fault identification easy. Disadvantage of Mesh Topology  There is mesh of wiring which can be difficult to manage.  Installation is complex as each node is connected to every node.  Cabling cost is high.
  22. 22. Diagram
  23. 23. Hybrid Topology  A combination of any two or more network topologies. A hybrid topology always accrues when two different basic network topologies are connected. It is a mixture of above mentioned topologies. Usually, a central computer is attached with sub-controllers which in turn participate in a variety of topologies. Advantages of a Hybrid Topology  It is extremely flexible.  It is very reliable. Disadvantages of a Hybrid Topology  Expensive
  24. 24. Diagram
  25. 25. Transmission media Various physical media can used for actual transmission of information from one place to another place. The transmission media generate path way between sender and receiver. Each transmission media has its own properties like speed,cost,error rate. In the simple word transmission media is path way networked entities use to connect each other. The transmission media includes cable and wireless technology that allow networked device to contact each other. But transmission cannot guarantee that other network device will understand a message. it is divided in to two types : Guided and unguided media
  26. 26. Diagram
  27. 27. Types of transmission media
  28. 28. Guided media Guided media, which are those that provide a conduit from one device to another, include twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable. In guided media the Communication happen throw wires and cable is called guided media. it is further divided in to three types. Types Of Guided Media  Twisted-Pair Cable  Coaxial Cable  Fiber-Optic Cable The wires in Twisted Pair cabling are twisted together in pairs. Each pair would consist of a wire used for the signal. Any noise that appears on 1 wire of the pair would occur on the other wire. This wire is a common schema using e for using copper wire as a telecommunication cable. This cable consist of two insulated strands of copper wire which are twisted with each other.
  29. 29. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable is made of two conductors that share a common axis Coaxial Cable consists of 2 conductors. The inner conductor is held inside an insulator with the other conductor woven around it providing a shield. An insulating protective coating called a jacket covers the outer conductor. The outer shield protects the inner conductor from outside electrical signals. The excellent control of the impedance characteristics of the cable allow higher data rates to be transferred than Twisted Pair cable.
  30. 30. Diagram
  31. 31. Fiber optic cable optic cable is made of a glass or plastic core surrounded by more glass which is called cladding. A fiber optic cable consist of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting message modulated on to light waves.
  32. 32. Diagram
  33. 33. Unguided media  The unguided media we have microwave system, communication satellite system which are used connect other component in the network. In the simple word Unguided media transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. This type of communication is often referred to as wireless communicate. Types of unguided media  Radio Waves  Microwaves  Infrared
  34. 34. Diagram
  35. 35. Radio waves Radio waves are used for multicast communications, such as radio and television, and paging systems. They can penetrate through walls. Highly regulated. Use Omni directional antennas.
  36. 36. Diagram
  37. 37. Satellite transmission  A satellite is an object built and placed by human in earth orbit. These are also called artificial satellite because these man made. These satellite uses microwave transmission frequency . Satellites are used for different purpose ,common type include military, communication,weatherforcasting and research.
  38. 38. MICROWAVES Microwaves are used for uncast communication such as cellular telephones, satellite networks, and wireless LANs.Higher frequency ranges cannot penetrate walls. Use directional antennas -point to point line of sight communications.
  39. 39. Diagram
  40. 40. Infrared Infrared signals can be used for short-range communication in a closed area using line-of-sight propagation.
  41. 41. Mode of communication  The mode of communication shows how . two or more devices communicate each other. They are three types  Simplex  Half Duplex  Full Duplex.
  42. 42.  Simplex: in simplex communication one of the communicating devices can only send data where other can only receive it.Radia, TV are the example of simplex.  Half Duplex: Half Duplex refers to two way communication but only one can transmit data at a time. when one device sending data the other device only receive and vice versa. walkie talkie.  Full Duplex: in full duplex both devices are capable of sending and receive the data at the same time .Bidirectional communication at the same time.

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