Types of Teams Hierarchical the formal chain of command Specialist groups – work teams given a specific function Boundary spanning – between organisations These are all formal groups
Why are informal groups significant? Informal groups are either friendship or interest groups. Often have unwritten rules and group norms and are greatly significant.
What are the benefits of organising employees into teams to the individual and the organisation?
Factors can encourage groups to work effectively together:
Clear objectives set for the group
Allowed for follow the stages of development
Forming learn about each other and nature of the group and decisions on structure/hierarchy of group Storming confrontation – disputes and power struggles arise. Questioning/criticism/conflict Norming conflicts resolved – this is the who does what phase Performing Collaboration – decision making established and members get on with their work
Why is it important for a successful group to follow Tuckman’s model?
What makes an effective team?
Nature of the task?
Clarity of the task?
Belbin identified 9 roles that members of effective teams should possess
Group members behave in different ways when they interact and work with others
A single team member may fulfil more than one role and each successful team does not need to have 9 members
To make memorisation simpler, the roles can be split into 3 areas: cerebral , action–orientated and people-orientated
INNOVATOR – A creative and imaginative problem solver
A poor communicator who is likely to be an introvert
MONITOR EVALUATOR – Criticises options and identifies strengths and weaknesses
Tend to lack warmth and can demotivate others
SPECIALIST – Has specialist knowledge but provides it occasionally
Dwells on technicalities and is narrow in outlook
SHAPER – Thrives on pressure and is dynamic.
Offends other peoples feelings in the process of getting the job done
IMPLEMENTER – Disciplined and reliable, turns ideas into practical actions.
Inflexible and slow to adapt to changes
COMPLETER FINISHER – Painstaking attention to detail and delivers on time
Tends to worry unnecessarily and finds it difficult to delegate
CO-ORDINATOR – A good chairperson that clarifies goals and is good at facilitating the group
Can be seen as manipulative and off-loads tasks to other members
RESOURCE INVESTIGATOR – Extrovert and inspiring
Very enthusiastic at the start but can lose interest over time
SUPPORTER – Identifies problems and promotes harmony within the group
Avoids making decisions that will cause conflict
Which team role/s do you feel would suit your personality/skills set? What are the implications of Belbin’s theory for Management?
Communication between team members?
Group processes and procedures?
Interaction between members is essential. There needs to therefore be task and maintenance functions. What would be necessary to maintain a football teams success?
Maintenance? Tasks? Initiating Seeking information Diagnosing Opinion seeking Evaluating Decision making Encouraging Compromising Peacekeeping Clarifying and summarising Standard setting
Potential Issues with a Team Inter group Conflict why may it occur? Resource competition, differing perceptions, loyalty, domination, conflicting goals How could this conflict be prevented? Moving staff between groups regularly, motivating teams to work together, publish the wider goals of the organisation, regularly exchange tasks between groups
Intra group Conflict why may it occur? Members perceiving goals differently, communication poor, personal disputes, changing expectations How could this conflict be prevented? Appointing a strong leader, creating a compromise scenario, look for new approaches
Group decision making What are the benefits and drawbacks of groups making decisions?