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Types of AchievementsMeasurement Achievement -Completing a task to acertain degree.Measured against:- other player’s performance.- their own past performance.- standard set by game designer.It is evaluative in nature.
Types of AchievementsMeasurement Achievement -Completing a task to a certaindegree. Measurement AchievementsMeasured against: are evaluative because they allow learners to reflect on their- other player’s performance. performance in relation to goal- their own past performance. they have set for themselves or- standard set by game designer. that have been set in the game.It is evaluative in nature. Think of a scale.
Types of AchievementsCompletion Achievement -Completing a task.Does not tell a learner how well they have done.Primarily binary—you’ve completed a task or you haven’t
Best PracticeUse measurement achievements insteadof completion achievements to increaseIntrinsic motivation through feedback.
Types of TaskBoring Task –Something a learner doesn’t want to do.A task the learner would not engage in unless they received somethingin return.
Type of TaskInteresting Task –Task the player would engage in without anyadditional motivation.No need to provide rewards but, do provide feedback.Make achievementsattentional.
Type of TaskInteresting Task –Task the player would engage in without anyadditional motivation.No need to provide rewards but, do provide feedback.Make achievements Attentional-Focus the learner’sattentional. attention on important lessons or strategies used for the task.
Best PracticeReward players for boring tasks and givethem feedback for interesting tasks.Make achievements for interesting tasksattentional.
Achievement DifficultyAchievement Difficulty–An achievement should be the result ofovercoming a challenging goal for a learner to fulfill as moderatedifficulty leads to superior gains in performance and a greater senseof accomplishment upon completion.Achieving a goal increases a learner’s confidence.
Achievement DifficultyUse verbal “boosts” to motivate players throughdifficult achievements.
Best PracticeMake achievements challenging for thegreatest returns in learner performanceand learning. Phrase achievements anddesign interaction to increase playerconfidence and reflection on task.
Good job! You have Good job! You haveX properly aligned the properly aligned the antenna by placing it 14 antenna by placing it 14 inches from the plane. inches from the plane.
Goal OrientationPerformance Orientation – Learners who favor performanceorientation are concerned with other people’s assessment oftheir competence.These are direct goals like time and points earned.This tends to result in less risk-taking and less in-gameexploration.When individuals are given performance-oriented goals, theytypically perform better only with simple, non-complex tasks.
Goal OrientationMastery Orientation – Learners who favor mastery orientation areconcerned with improving their proficiency.Learner’s with this mindset will accept errors and seek challengingtask that provide them with an opportunity to develop theircompetences.
Goal OrientationMastery Orientation –When given mastery goals, players will have more self-confidenceand utilize more effective strategies. Research shows that peoplegiven master-oriented goals perform better on complex tasks.Create achievements that acknowledge that effort players areputting forth and support them during challenges.
Achievement ExpectancyUnexpected Achievement– Occur when a learner did not anticipatereceiving an achievement. They perform a task with no expectancyof receiving a reward.Unexpected achievements can be used to encourage creative playand exploration in a game environment.
Achievement ExpectancyExpected Achievement– Expected achievements allow learners toset goals for themselves before they begin. There are for well-established benefits to having learners set goals for themselves.1- Goals will allow the learner to have objectives and allocate theirresources to complete them.2-Having a goal increases the amount of effort someone is willing toput into a task.3-Learners who have goals are less likely to give up when theyencounter a difficult task.4-Learners who set goals for themselves will acquire new knowledgeand skills to meet those goals.
Best PracticePrimarily use expected achievements so playerscan establish goals for themselves and create aschema of the game (information to belearned).Make sure achievement descriptions accuratelyreflect what needs to be done by the player andwhat is important.
Negative AchievementsNegative Achievement– Earning a negative achievement can causea player to lose their sense of competence and independence whichwill make their game playing experince less fulfilling. .
Best PracticeDon’t use negative achievements as apunishment for failure. Provide feedbackwithin the system that can assiststruggling players.
Achievements as CurrencyCurrency– Earned achievements can be sued as virtual currency ingames. The learner then can then “buy” items or rewards they seeas valuable within the game. Currency rewards have a high returnon task performance.
Best PracticeOffer players currency for completingtasks instead of rewards to give them agreater sense of control. Use a currencysystem to enhance a game, but becareful that currency acquisition doesn’tbecome the main reason the learnersplay the game.
Incremental & Meta AchievementsIncremental– Occur for completing more than one task in sequence.Incremental achievements are awarded in a chain for performingthe same task through scaling levels of difficulty.Make the spacing between the incremental achievements, both intime and in-game location, separated enough so the players don’tfeel too controlled.
Incremental & Meta AchievementsIncremental and meta achievements can be used as a type ofscaffolding, a “training wheels” approach used in teaching. Here,learners are given a seemingly complex task to do, only its brokeninto smaller pieces and sequenced. Each time they perform a smallportion of the task they are rewarded.
Best PracticeUse incremental and meta achievementsto hold the learner’s interest for longerperiod of time and guide them to relatedactivities.
Cooperative AchievementsCooperative Achievements – Earned by learners working toward agoal together. Cooperative environments have been associated withacademic achievement increased self-esteem and higher positivitywhen evaluating peers.A good way to do this is to encourage experienced learners to helpnovices within the game.
Cooperative AchievementsThe metrics used for earning achievements should assess individualperformances within the group setting.The groups should be kept relatively small to decrease social loafingand process loss.
Best PracticeTo foster a cooperative environment,offering achievements for moreadvanced learners to assist lessexperienced learners should beconsidered as an option. Keep groupssmall.
Summary• Type of Achievement,• Achievement Difficulty• Goal Orientation• Expected or Unexpected• Achievement as Currency,• Don’t Use Negative Achievements,• Incremental and Meta-achievement• Cooperative Achievements.
Assignment:Create a reward structure for the project you are current workingon.Considerations:Type of task, type of achievement, achievement difficulty, goalorientation, expected or unexpected, currency, negativeachievement, meta-achievement and/or cooperative achievements.