A2 PE Long Term Psychological Prep


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A2 PE Long Term Psychological Prep

  1. 1. A2 Physical Education Long Term Psychological Preparation
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Appreciate the value of long-term psychological planning and interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop applied knowledge and understanding of how to use goal setting over time </li></ul><ul><li>Experience an applied methodology in performance profiling </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concept of motivation and how to explain sports performance through attribution theory </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to develop a performance psychologically through modern psychological trends </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an appreciation of the importance of the group in a successful performance, and how to build cohesion. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Goal Setting? <ul><li>A goal is an objective we set for ourselves, or that is set for us by other influential people </li></ul><ul><li>In a sports activity context we may wish to gain selection to a county team, achieve a personal best, to gain the next belt level in Taekwondo! </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Setting </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why is Goal Setting important? <ul><li>Motivates the performer </li></ul><ul><li>Enables the performer become more organised and efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the performer to plan training and performance programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Provides performers with a structured pathway of development by focusing attention on key elements of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Helps reduce anxiety and control arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Builds self-confidence and increases effectiveness </li></ul>
  5. 5. Subjective and Objective Goals <ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective = general statements of intent – not stated in measurable terms (give an example) </li></ul><ul><li>Objective = statements that focus on attaining a specific standard of proficiency, usually within a specified time (give an example) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Goal <ul><li>Using the book (p104) make notes on the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Adapted from Atherton 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Goal-Setting Structure SMARTER <ul><li>Specific – goals should be clear and concise </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable – goals need to be assessed through formal processes </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed – goals should be discussed and agreed with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic – Goals must be genuine and not beyond the scope of the performer </li></ul><ul><li>Time-bound - goals should reflect the short and long-term objectives of the performer </li></ul><ul><li>Exciting – Goals need to provide the performer with stimulus to progress and achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded - By recording their goals and creating a pathway for development, performers can see their agreed structure, time plan and processes for evaluation and measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Targets </li></ul>
  8. 8. Basic Strategies for Goal Setting <ul><li>Planning and preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation and follow-up </li></ul>Seek help of a tutor/coach and agree on goals Plan and set your goals (short and long-term) Never be afraid to amend your short term goals Never lose sight of the long term goal Put into place strategies you know are realistic Evaluate regularly and reward success Have a PLAN B at hand should things not go according to plan
  9. 9. Factors Affecting Successful Goal Setting <ul><li>Unrealistic Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Too many goals – conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Goals are beyond your control </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate time frame </li></ul><ul><li>No flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate review process </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome goals overtake performance goals </li></ul>
  10. 10. Performance Profiling <ul><li>To identify areas that require psychological interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your psychological skills training (the systematic and consistent practice of mental and psychological skills) </li></ul><ul><li>To aid your motivation and adherence to the programme </li></ul><ul><li>To allow you to compare with and copy successful/elite performers </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Underdogs </li></ul><ul><li>Underdogs2 </li></ul><ul><li>Why do underdogs succeed?? </li></ul><ul><li>Many people have ‘bad games’ or ‘lose concentration’ or ‘freeze’ in a competitive situation – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Yet many don’t seek psychological solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Imagery, channel anxiety, positive arousal, motivation, self-belief, mental rehearsal, self talk, goal setting, muscle relaxation etc can all be trained to help performance </li></ul><ul><li>Bend it like Beckham!! </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Complete the motivation tasks. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Motivation <ul><li>Define the term Motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the text book summarise the following terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement Motivation (Murray and Gill) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naf </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. A Psychological Skills Training Programme <ul><li>Stage 1 – Introduction – learn the importance of the programme and conduct an honest appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 – Construction- Construct a performance profile and undertake a series of strategies to enhance your desired goals profile goals </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 – Implementation – make the psychological skills training programme a daily routine </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 – Assessment – review and reconstruct your profile </li></ul><ul><li>On winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup, Clive Woodward undertook an immediate performance analysis including psychological aspects – Why? </li></ul>
  15. 16. Nach Performers <ul><li>Select challenging Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Perform better when being evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Take Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Are not troubled by fear or failure </li></ul><ul><li>Seek success and pride through high-ranking victories </li></ul>
  16. 17. Naf Performers <ul><li>Seek low risk challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Perform worse when being evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Take the easy option </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to concede defeat early and give up after failure </li></ul><ul><li>Have a drive to avoid shame and failure </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Legend </li></ul><ul><li>Legendary – look at his face! </li></ul>
  18. 19. Situational Factors <ul><li>Probability of success (Ps) versus the probability of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive value of success (Is) versus incentive of failure (If) </li></ul><ul><li>By beating a higher-ranked opponent in tennis you have matched the probability of success to incentive value of winning – by accepting the challenge and being successful, you will have achieved a more valued victory. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Explain how achievement motivation, sport psychology and coaching are important aspects of successful sport. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Case Study <ul><li>Boxers find it difficult to decide who to fight for the next fight. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do high-jumpers choose to miss a jump and enter a competition at a higher height? What factors would they need to take into account? </li></ul>
  21. 22. Attribution Theory <ul><li>Look at the following scenarios and write down what reasons you would give after the event as to why you won or lost: </li></ul><ul><li>You have been training all winter for the opening athletics meeting of the season. The previous year you had been the regional champion and you were confident that you were going to be champion again this season, even though you had gone up an age group. On this occasion you came third. </li></ul><ul><li>Your team has won every game in the league and is now in the cup final against your closest rival. You are playing the match at the rival’s home ground, but you win. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TVUZCpDlaWQ&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UmuHna-mNs </li></ul>
  22. 23. Attribution Theory <ul><li>An approach that attempts to categorise the reasons we give for winning and losing – attribution refers to the perceived causes of events and behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>What questions could we ask as to why a performance occurred the way it did? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Remember <ul><li>The four attributions, or reasons why we may or may not have been successful in a performance are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability – my level of skill, ability and technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort – how hard I work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luck – circumstances and incidents beyond prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task Difficulty – a measure of the task ahead </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Attribution Theory Locus of Causality
  25. 26. Attribution Theory Performers who apply the attribution theory tend to show self-serving bias. Explain
  26. 27. Attribution Theory Explained <ul><li>Attribution Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Locus of causality </li></ul><ul><li>Different Types of Attribution </li></ul>
  27. 28. Learned Helplessness <ul><li>Is when an athlete perceives defeat is inevitable and as a result of stable, internal and uncontrollable events. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on past experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Need attribution retraining </li></ul><ul><li>Low confidence levels </li></ul><ul><li>Poor self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Naf </li></ul><ul><li>Learned Helpnessness </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Alternatively, performers high in achievement, Nach, display mastery orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Confident </li></ul><ul><li>In control of their own destiny </li></ul><ul><li>Expect success </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome failure </li></ul>
  29. 30. Attribution Retraining <ul><li>Focus on positive attribution rather than negative </li></ul><ul><li>Shift focus from internal to external factors </li></ul>
  30. 31. How can you/your coach positively effect the locus of causality? <ul><li>Change tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Blame equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Use a positive approach to failure </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the perfect model and copy </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid citing lack of ability as cause of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Make reasons for losing less personal </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Developing as an athlete! </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E41xcy2gsyg </li></ul>
  32. 33. Characteristics of Successful Performers. <ul><li>Task: From a psychological standpoint, working in pairs suggest characteristics that lead to successful performers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher self-confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More task-orientated thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More positive thoughts, determination & commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Anxiety Levels </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. What Psychological Methodologies can I use? <ul><li>Imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Mental rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Self-talk </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-setting </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive muscle-relaxation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration/attention techniques </li></ul>
  34. 35. Wagon Wheels <ul><li>Wagon wheels can be used to visualize and structure your performance components. These can include, but are not limited to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency in effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self- talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Preparation </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Wagon Wheels
  36. 37. Task <ul><li>Design your own blank Wagon Wheel. You will need to decide the psychological components for analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, using a scale of 1 – 10 (1 = a low/weak assessment; 10 = as good as you can be) complete a psychological profile for your chosen sport. </li></ul><ul><li>It should now be possible to see where your psychological strengths and weaknesses lie. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this subjective or objective? How can we make it better? </li></ul>
  37. 39. How Do we Learn? <ul><li>Can you remember how you learnt to ride a bike? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you remember how you learnt to kick a football? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you learn to do a forward roll? </li></ul>
  38. 40. Task: <ul><li>You have ten minutes in which to learn how to juggle with 3 balls. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be allowed different forms of assistance in completing this task. </li></ul>
  39. 41. 3 Stages of Learning Developed by Fitts and Posner Beginning or Novice Intermediate or Practice Advanced or Fine-tuning Cognitive Associative Autonomous
  40. 42. Cognitive Stage <ul><li>Large # of Errors </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to every detail of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to screen out irrelevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent performance </li></ul><ul><li>Slow, jerky, uncoordinated </li></ul><ul><li>Increase corrective feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Use short verbal cues </li></ul><ul><li>Use demonstrations, videotape, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of opportunities to explore skill </li></ul>Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues
  41. 43. Associative Stage <ul><li>Fewer errors </li></ul><ul><li>Motor program develops </li></ul><ul><li>Performer discovers environmental regularities </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipation develops </li></ul><ul><li>Learns to monitor own feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute corrective feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Stress correct fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate differences in the rate of skill development </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of opportunity for practice </li></ul>Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues
  42. 44. Autonomous Stage <ul><li>Motor program become units of action </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased attention demands </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence increases, self-talks shifts to strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Performance gains are slower </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Work on mental focus </li></ul><ul><li>Develop learner diagnosis of skill </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage, motivate, support </li></ul>Learner Characteristics Teacher Cues
  43. 45. Performance Changes across the Learning Stages Change in the rate of improvement is faster during the cognitive stage CHANGES IN RATE OF IMPROVEMENT
  44. 46. Visualisation <ul><li>The process of creating a mental image of what you want to happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Take a minute and close your eyes. Think of something you want to achieve. Visualise it happening. Now right down the feelings that it brings about. </li></ul>
  45. 47. <ul><li>Case Study One </li></ul><ul><li>Derek Randall </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study Two </li></ul><ul><li>David Beckham </li></ul>
  46. 48. Ritual <ul><li>Ritual has always been a significant psychological tool in sport. </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual reflects culture and serves to unite and build a common spirit with a single uniting cause. </li></ul>What other rituals do you know of? Do you have any pre-match rituals?
  47. 49. Memory <ul><li>Short Term </li></ul><ul><li>Short term Sensory Store can process a limitless amount of information in a short space of time (20-30) seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Important information is passed to the Short Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Work Space’ </li></ul><ul><li>Short Term Memory Test </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Where all our experiences and movement programmes are stored. </li></ul><ul><li>Schema Theory can distinguish non-elite from elite performers </li></ul>
  48. 50. Group Cohesion <ul><li>What is Group Cohesion? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do some groups but not others become Cohesive? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Cohesion develop over time? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the positive and negative consequences of cohesion? </li></ul>TEAM COHESION