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  1. 1. Personality<br />
  2. 2. Concept<br /> Personality is a continuous concept. It can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behavior in organizations.<br />
  3. 3. Definition<br />Personality can be defined as the sum total of ways in which an individual interacts with people and reacts to situations.<br />It can be defined as traits exhibited by a person during interaction with others.<br />According to Fred Luthans, “Personality means how a person affects others and how he understands and views himself as well as the pattern of inner and outer measureable traits, & the personality interaction.”<br />
  4. 4. Characteristics of Personality<br />It accounts for consistent patterns of behaviour and their relative stability is sought.<br />It induces the commonalities and differences in the behaviour of people as compared to others.<br />The ability to behave in the manner as required by social pressures or biological pressures.<br />
  5. 5. Personality Determinants<br />Biological Factors<br />Family and Social factors<br />Situational Factors<br />
  6. 6. Types of Personality<br />Type A<br />Type B<br />Introvert<br />Extrovert<br />Authoritative<br />Manipulative(Machiavellianism)<br />
  7. 7. Type A Personality<br />Restless<br />Impatient<br />Desire for quick achievement and perfectionism<br />2. Type B Personality<br />Easy going<br />Relaxed<br />Less competitive<br />Have balanced outlook towards life<br />
  8. 8. Introvert<br />Shy<br />Prefer to be Alone<br />Quiet<br />Well ordered<br />Emotionally unexpressive<br />Prefer small groups<br />
  9. 9. Extrovert<br />Outgoing<br />Aggressive<br />Emotionally expressive<br />Seeking novelty<br />Sociable<br />Carefree <br />
  10. 10. Authoritative<br />Obedient<br />Respect for authority<br />Endorse strong parental control<br />Close minded<br />Adhere to conventional values<br />Make good followers<br />Work better under directive supervision <br />
  11. 11. Machiavellianism<br />Manipulate others<br />Work for personal gains<br />Have high self confidence<br />High self esteem<br />Calculative<br />Do not feel guilt in using unethical means<br />
  12. 12. Personality attributes influencing OB<br />Locus of control<br />Self esteem<br />Self monitoring<br />Risk taking<br />
  13. 13. Locus of Control<br />It refers to an individuals perception of what controls his or her fate.<br />Internal:- Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.<br />External:- Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance. <br />
  14. 14. Self Esteem<br />Refers to the degree of respect a person has for himself<br />Measure of self confidence and respect for one’s ability and motivation<br />Related to assertiveness, independence and creativity<br />People with high self esteem take up challenging jobs and people with low self esteem lack confidence and look for approval from others<br />
  15. 15. Self Monitoring<br />Individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external factors<br />Pays closer attention to behavior of others<br />More successful in managerial positions<br />High self monitors can play multiple and even contradictory roles<br />Low self monitors find it difficult to disguise their true feelings, emotions and reactions and cannot adapt quickly to situations <br />
  16. 16. Risk Taking<br />Refer to the extent to which an individual is prepared to take risks<br />People differ in their willingness to take chances<br />High risk taking people make decision quickly without searching for much information<br />Research has indicated that the accuracy of decisions made by both risk taking and risk averse people is almost the same<br />
  17. 17. Risk-Taking<br />High Risk-taking Managers<br />Make quicker decisions<br />Use less information to make decisions<br />Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations<br />Low Risk-taking Managers<br />Are slower to make decisions<br />Require more information before making decisions<br />Exist in larger organizations with stable environments<br />
  18. 18. Theories Of personality<br />Psychoanalytical Theory<br />Trait Theory<br />Self concept Theory<br />Social Learning Theory<br />
  19. 19. Psychoanalytical Theory<br />Freudian Stage Theory<br />Freudian believed that the personality structure is primarily founded on unconscious framework and human behavior and motivation is the outcome of 3 concepts i.e. id, ego & super ego<br />
  20. 20. Id:-The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality. <br />The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension.<br />
  21. 21. Ego:- It is conscious in nature and is a mechanism to relate our conscious urges to the outside real world. It keeps id in check through the realities of the external environment. Id demands immediate gratification, whatever the cost, ego controls it so that these gratification are granted at an appropriate time and in an acceptable manner. <br />
  22. 22. Super Ego:- ego is supported by super ego to control id. It is the higher level restraining force and can be described as conscience of person. The conscience creates standards of what is right or what is wrong and is generally developed by the absorption of cultural and ethical values of social environment. <br />
  23. 23. Trait Theory<br />It is understood as being an enduring attribute of a person that appears consistently in a variety of situations <br />A trait of an individual is abstracted from his behavior, and serves as an useful ‘unit of analysis’ to understand personality<br />A personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represent a trait<br />The individuals can be described by using trait terms as friendly, cautious, excitable, intelligent, etc.<br />Chances are that you would list a number of traits, such as outgoing, kind and even-tempered. A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways.<br />
  24. 24. Self concept theory<br />Carl Rogers is associated with this theory<br />This is organized around the concept that personality and behavior are largely determined by the individual himself<br />We tend to act in ways that are consistent with our own image of who we are<br />
  25. 25. Contd’<br />The best vantage point of understanding behavior is from the internal frame o reference of individual himself<br />It is a result of person’s interaction with his environment. This interaction in the form of learning experience helps us to develop , grow and mature, and we modify our self- concept as a result of these experiences.<br />
  26. 26. Social Learning Theory<br />Personality is more a result of social variables than biological drives<br />Motives can be traced to known and conscious needs and wants rather than unconscious and latent desires<br />The sum total of what a person has learned<br />
  27. 27. The Big Five Model<br />Extroversion:- outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive<br />Agreeableness:- trusting, good natured, co-operative, soft- hearted<br />Conscientiousness:- dependable, responsible, achievement- oriented, persistent<br />Emotional stability:- relaxed, secure, unworried<br />Openness to experience:- sensitive, intellectual, imaginative, curious, broadminded<br />
  28. 28. Matching Personalities with Jobs<br />John Holland proposed the personality job- fit theory<br />This theory establishes relationship between personality characteristics, the requirements of a job and job performance<br />Acc. to John Holland, the job satisfaction of an individual and his tendency to quit a job are determined by the extent to which his personality matches with the work environment and requirements of the job<br />
  29. 29. Holland’s Typology of Personality and congruent Occupation<br />Realistic:- Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength and coordination. This kind of people are shy, genuine, persistent, stable, confirming and practical. They are generally mechanic, operators, assembly line workers, farmer, etc.<br />
  30. 30. Investigative:- Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing and understanding. People with such type of personality are analytical, original, curious and independent. They are in the job of economist, news reporter, mathematician.<br />Social:- Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others. They are sociable, friendly, co-operative and understanding. They prefer to be social worker, counselor, psychologist <br />
  31. 31. Conventional:- Prefers rule- regulated, orderly and unambiguous activities. They are efficient, practical, unimaginative and inflexible. They are generally accountant, corporate manager, bank teller and file clerk.<br />Enterprising:- Prefers verbal activities where there are opportunities to influence others and attain power. Such people are self- confident, ambitious, energetic and domineering. They should ideally be lawyer, real estate agent, PR specialist.<br />
  32. 32. Artistic:- Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression. They are imaginative, emotional and impractical. Such people are painter, musician, writer, interior decorator<br />
  33. 33. Attitude and consistency<br />Research by Behavioural theorists has shown not only do people try to achieve consistency among their various attitudes but also try to behave in a manner that is consistent with their attitudes<br />Eg. Sales Representative who has to promote their product<br />