Module 4. motherboard.

5,070 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,070
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
14
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
346
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Module 4. motherboard.

  1. 1. PC Hardware Basic GuideModule 4 - Motherboard
  2. 2. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Module 4 - Motherboard  Overview ◊ It is a Printed Circuit Board that performs the key functions to enable smooth running of the computer.  Lesson Covered in this Module ◊ Motherboards ◊ Standard Expansion Buses 2
  3. 3. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Lesson 1 - Motherboards  Introduction ◊ Motherboard is a Printed Circuit Board which possesses different components for various purposes. It contains • CPU • BIOS, • Memory • I/O ports • External I/O connectors • I/O controllers • Expansion slots • Chipsets. 3
  4. 4. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Module 4 - Motherboard  Topics Covered in this Lesson ◊ Physical Form Factors ◊ Motherboard Components ◊ System Chipsets and Controllers ◊ CMOS Settings ◊ Power On Self Test (POST) ◊ System Resources 4
  5. 5. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 1 - Physical Form Factors  Personal Computer – Extended Technology (PC-XT) ◊ Introduced by IBM, 8088 microprocessor was used. ◊ It has socket for the processor and chips 5
  6. 6. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 1 - Physical Form Factors  AT and Baby AT ◊ To overcome the problem created by AT Form factor, the Baby AT form factor was introduced. ◊ Baby AT is designed to hold the peripheral devices like keyboard, video and mouse. ◊ It could not accommodate the combination of processor, heat sink and fan. Cooling 6
  7. 7. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 1 - Physical Form Factors  ATX and Micro ATX form factor ◊ Here expansion slots were placed on separate riser cards. ◊ It provides software controlled shut down and power up.  Micro ATX form factor ◊ More space for I/O connectors was provided at the rear end. 7
  8. 8. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 1 - Physical Form Factors  LPX and Mini-LPX ◊ It has sound and video to be integrated on to the motherboard. ◊ It is not suitable for upgrading and offers poor cooling.  NLX ◊ Small in size ◊ Suited for low profile desktop cases 8
  9. 9. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 2 - Motherboard Components  The major components of the motherboard ◊ Processor socket or slot ◊ Chipset ◊ Super I/O chip ◊ BIOS ◊ SIMM/DIMM sockets ◊ Bus slots 9
  10. 10. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 2 - Motherboard Components  Chipset and Functions ◊ Different chips integrated to a single chip called the chipset. ◊ North bridge and South bridge was introduced to the motherboard with PCI slots. ◊ The south bridge controls the slower I/O components like the Serial ports, USB ports and the IDE. 10
  11. 11. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 2 - Motherboard Components  The new technology, Intel Hub Architecture (IHA) uses two chips called hub controllers.  The hub controllers are ◊ Graphics and Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) ◊ I/O Controller Hub (ICH)  The chipset determine ◊ The voltage provided to the processor ◊ Number of processors that can be supported ◊ The speed of the processor ◊ The different memory modules that are supported ◊ Bus speed ◊ The different expansion bus that are supported ◊ Power Management 11
  12. 12. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers ◊ The system chipset and controllers are the intelligence of the motherboard. ◊ Chipset has a effect on the quality, feature set and speed of the computer. ◊ Controllers found on motherboards • The system chip • The keyboard controller • The super I/O chip • Additional built-in controllers 12
  13. 13. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers ► Qualities and Functions of Chipset  Chipset Processor Support ◊ Support for Processor Class and Optimization - Supports one generation of processors ◊ Support for Processor Speed - Fast processors need chipset control circuitry that has the capacity to manage them. ◊ Support for Multiple Processor - Chipset support the capability for building motherboards with two or four processors on them. 13
  14. 14. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers ◊ Chipset Cache Support - The cache stores recent memory accesses by the processor • Size of Secondary Cache - Chipsets support cache of 256KB or 512 KB. • Type of Secondary Cache - three major kinds of cache, Asynchronous, Synchronous burst, Pipeline burst. • Write Policy of Secondary Cache - A write-through cache and a write back cache. • Cacheability of System Memory - The amount of cacheable memory is dependent on the chipset control circuitry and the amount of tag RAM on the board. 14
  15. 15. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers • Chipset Memory Support - The chipset determines several permissible features of the memory • Support for Maximum Memory-Determines the maximum quantity of RAM a system can have on the motherboard • DRAM Technology - Regulates whether motherboard can make use of FPM, EDO, BEDO, or SDRAM memory. • Support for DRAM Packaging and Size - Two main types of memory packages are, single in-line memory module (SIMM) and dual in-line memory module (DIMM). • Support for Parity and Error Correction - Error correction logic is offered as part of the memory control circuits of the chipset. 15
  16. 16. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers ◊ Chipset Peripheral and I/O Bus Control - Most recent computers use two buses, (ISA) bus and l component (PCI) bus. • Bus Types - The chipset determines what type of buses the system can support. • Bus Bridges – Bridge is used for connecting together devices on two different buses. • IDE/ATA Hard Disk Controller - All motherboards have integrated into them support for four IDE hard disks • DMA Controller and DMA Mode Support – Process of transferring information directly to and from memory with no interference of the processor. 16
  17. 17. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers ◊ Interrupt Controller ◊ USB Support ◊ AGP Support ◊ Plug and Play 17
  18. 18. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers ◊ Chipset Power Management Support – Works through a number of BIOS settings that determine when to shut down different parts of the computer • Energy Star • Advanced Power Management • Display Power • Management Signalling • System Management Mode • Hard Disk Spindown 18
  19. 19. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers ◊ Super I/O Controller Chip super I/O controller handles three ports • Serial Port Control – controls the serial ports, UART • Parallel Port Control – manages and controls the parallel port • Floppy Disk Drive Control – supports the Floppy Disk Drive and floppy based tape drives 19
  20. 20. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers  Processor  Two major components ◊ Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) – performs Arithmetic and Logic Operations ◊ Control Unit (CU) – provides the control signals for performing different operations.  Cache Memory ◊ It is high speed storage memory made of Static RAM (SRAM). ◊ Two types of cache memory are L1 or the internal cache and L2 cache or the external cache. 20
  21. 21. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers  I/O Ports ◊ Each device connected to a computer uses I/O port address. ◊ Functions of I/O address • Sending commands to the peripheral device • Receiving the status of the device whether it is idle or busy • Send and receive data • Configure the device for interrupts  Bus Speed ◊ The speed of the bus refers to the amount of the data that can be transferred across the bus. 21
  22. 22. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers  Some of the bus types are, ◊ Front side Bus - The bus speed in general refers to the speed of the Front Side Bus (FSB). ◊ AGP Bus – It connects the video card to the memory and the CPU. ◊ Back side Bus – It connects the processor to the L2 Cache 22
  23. 23. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers ◊ Memory bus – It connects the north bridge to the memory. ◊ IDE or ATA bus – It connects the south bridge to the disk drives. ◊ PCI Bus – It connects the PCI slots to the south bridge. 23
  24. 24. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - System Chipset and Controllers  Jumpers ◊ It is a small connector which can be placed between two pins to make electrical connections.  DIP switch ◊ The dual inline package switch is a small block provided with a lever. 24
  25. 25. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  CMOS BIOS ROM  Stores the basic system configuration. The four major components of BIOS are ◊ POST ◊ Bootstrap Loader ◊ CMOS Setup ◊ BIOS ROM 25
  26. 26. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  CMOS Battery ◊ Battery is used to power up the Real time Clock Chip. ◊ This chip maintains the system date and time.  System Configuration ◊ The BIOS should find an operating system on a hard disk or floppy disk drive to start the computer.  Starting the Setup Program ◊ The settings made in the BIOS setup program are stored in the nonvolatile RAM of the CMOS chip. 26
  27. 27. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  Step-by-Step CMOS/BIOS Configuration ◊ From the CMOS setup menu, select the menu point to examine or change setting and choose Standard CMOS setup to begin. 27
  28. 28. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings ◊ From the standard CMOS configuration screen you can set Date, Time, Hard drives connected to the IDE interface, Floppy disk drive types for drives 28
  29. 29. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  Advanced CMOS Configuration ◊ Here,you can perform the Number Lock setting, keyboard repeats speed, type of video, settings for cache memory, and other special features. 29
  30. 30. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  Recommended Advanced CMOS Settings ◊ Depending on the BIOS version, you have to press the ESC key, to return to the main menu 30
  31. 31. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  Power Management Configuration ◊ After a user defined period of inactivity of devices like the monitor, the hard drive, or the CPU will go into different low power modes. • Standby mode • Suspend mode 31
  32. 32. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  Built-In Ports/Peripherals Setup ◊ It can enable or disable ports which built in new systems. 32
  33. 33. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  Security/Passwords ◊ Two types of passwords are ◊ One must be entered to allow any use of the system ◊ Another one must be entered to allow access to the BIOS/ CMOS setup  Saving and Recording BIOS/CMOS Settings ◊ BIOS allows you to save the changes and it will reject the changes that happen accidentally. ◊ Record the critical BIOS settings 33
  34. 34. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  BIOS Upgrades ◊ Change the physical chip or to change its contents with software  Flash BIOS Upgrade ◊ Install the BIOS upgrade loader and BIOS image to a floppy disk  Incorrect CMOS Configuration ◊ Restart by using the BIOS Setup auto-configure options, double-check drive configurations, save changes, and restart. 34
  35. 35. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - CMOS Settings  Incorrect Flash BIOS or Failed Update ◊ If the update cant be installed, the motherboard might have jumpers that write-protects the flash BIOS.  Clearing the BIOS Password ◊ It can be cleared by using a CMOS jumper that is present in the motherboard. 35
  36. 36. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 5 - Power On Self Test (POST) Error codes  Some main functions of BIOS during POST ◊ Helps to start the Operating System. ◊ Check for the integrity of the BIOS code  Some error beeps ◊ No beep - Power supply or system board problem ◊ 1 long, 1 short beep - System board problem ◊ Long beeps - 3270 keyboard card  Some error codes ◊ 100 to 199 - System board ◊ 200 to 299 - Memory ◊ 300 to 399 - Keyboard 36
  37. 37. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 6 - System Resources  System resources are components that are required to communicate between the hardware components in a PC.  Interrupt Request Channels (IRQ) ◊ Hardware devices use IRQ signal to the processor ◊ There are 16 IRQ channels . 37
  38. 38. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 6 - System Resources  The snapshot shows the different IRQ channels associated with different devices. 38
  39. 39. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 6 - System Resources  Direct Memory Access (DMA) channels ◊ Here the data is transferred between the peripheral device and the memory without the intervention of the CPU. ◊ Devices connected to serial and parallel port do not use DMA channels  I/O Port Address ◊ It is an interface present in a PC to connect devices ◊ The port address ranges from 0000h to FFFFh 39
  40. 40. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 6 - System Resources  The snapshot displays the I/O address range used by different devices 40
  41. 41. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 6 - System Resources ► Checking for Resource Availability ◊ For Windows 3.x or MS-DOS, the resource settings can be verified by using the MSD command present in the DOS directory. ◊ For Windows 2000 or Windows XP, follow the step given below to identify the resources used by the different devices Click Start  Programs  Accessories System Tools-> System Information 41
  42. 42. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Lesson 2 - Standard Expansion Buses  Introduction ◊ The expansion slots are used to enhance the features of the PC. ◊ The expansion slots can hold expansion cards like the sound card, VGA card, AGP card, Network card etc ◊ There are different types of expansion slots. Industrial Standard Architecture (ISA) bus • Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) Bus • Extended ISA (EISA) Bus • Video Electronics Standard Association (VESA) Bus • Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)Bus • Peripheral Component Interconnect – X • Accelerated Graphics Port • Audio Modem Raiser and Communication Network Raiser 42
  43. 43. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Lesson 2 - Standard Expansion Buses  Topics Covered in this Lesson ◊ PC Bus ◊ Industrial Standard Architecture (ISA) Bus ◊ Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) Bus ◊ Extended ISA (EISA) Bus ◊ Video Electronics Standard Association (VESA) Bus ◊ Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus ◊ Accelerated Graphics Port ◊ Audio Modem Raiser and Communication Network Raiser 43
  44. 44. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 1 – PC Bus  PC bus is an 8 bit expansion slot to connect 8 bit expansion cards. 44
  45. 45. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 2 - Industrial Standard Architecture (ISA) Bus ◊ ISA bus is a 16 bit slot present in 80286, 80386, 80486 and Pentium systems. ◊ The ISA card is configured through jumpers or switches 45
  46. 46. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 - Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) Bus ◊ Bus Mastering - The components that can take control over the bus are called bus masters.  Features of MCA ◊ It is a 16 or 32 bit bus created by IBM ◊ Supports bus mastering ◊ Operates at 10-12 MHZ ◊ Can be configured through software ◊ Has Lower Noise Level 46
  47. 47. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 4 - Enhanced ISA ◊ It is a 32 bit bus. ◊ Capable of using multiple bus mastering devices. ◊ Compatible 8 bit PC bus, 16 bit ISA bus. ◊ Software setup capability for boards 47
  48. 48. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 5 - Video Electronics Standard Architecture (VESA) bus ◊ It is a 32 bus. ◊ It is used to connect video cards, I/O cards and multimedia expansion cards  Disadvantages of the VESA ◊ 80486 dependence ◊ Limited number of slots ◊ No bus mastering ◊ Boards are configured through jumpers 48
  49. 49. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 6 - Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus  PCI ◊ Operates at a speed of 33 MHz or 66 MHz ◊ It is a 64 bit bus ◊ Communicates with processor using a bridge circuit.  PCI-X ◊ Operates at 133 MHz bus speed ◊ Offers 64 bit Band width ◊ Supports 1 GB/Sec data transfer rate ◊ Supports efficient bus operation ◊ Provides backward Compatibility 49
  50. 50. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 7 - AGP Bus ◊ It is designed for connecting video cards. ◊ PCI bus with 2.1 version at 66MHZ is the basis for AGP slot. ◊ It supports a new technique called texture cache. 50
  51. 51. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 8 - Audio Modem Raiser and Communication Network Raiser ◊ This specification developed by Intel. ◊ The function of the modem and the analog I/O audio circuitry are combined together on a small circuit board ◊ The small circuit board is called raiser card ◊ The AMR card enhances the performance by providing better quality audio solutions. 51
  52. 52. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 8 - Audio Modem Raiser and Communication Network Raiser  Communication Network Raiser Card ◊ This is a standard developed by Intel ◊ It contains chips for the functioning of modems and audio devices.  PCMCIA or PC Card ◊ It is an expansion board used for laptop and notebook computers. ◊ It is used for interfacing components like the Memory, fax/modems, SCSI adapters 52
  53. 53. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 8 - Audio Modem Raiser and Communication Network Raiser ◊ The following figure shows different Bus interfaces and the devices that can be connected to each of them 53
  54. 54. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Lesson 3 - Choosing, Installing and Troubleshooting a Motherboard  Introduction ◊ Motherboard is the most important component of the computer. ◊ This is the central component to which every other component is attached,  Topics covered in this module ◊ Choosing a Motherboard ◊ Installing a Motherboard ◊ Troubleshooting a Motherboard 54
  55. 55. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 1-Choosing a Motherboard  Choosing a Motherboard ◊ Choosing an appropriate motherboard can be quite a challenging task. A lot of factors affect the choice of the motherboard. ◊ Future upgradeability of the system is the most important one ◊ It should support a higher hard drive capacity, a higher Memory slot on the motherboard, whether it has an AGP slot. 55
  56. 56. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 1-Choosing a Motherboard  IT should support the following ◊ Mother form factor ◊ CPU compatibility ◊ Functionality ◊ Connectors 56
  57. 57. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 2-Installing a Motherboard  Installing a Motherboard ◊ Installing a motherboard should be done with a lot of care. ◊ Connect the motherboard to the mounting holes and tighten the screws. ◊ Set the jumpers and switches to the appropriate positions. ◊ Once the motherboard is secure, then start connecting the different wires to their appropriate sockets. 57
  58. 58. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Topic 3 – Troubleshooting a Motherboard  Troubleshooting a Motherboard ◊ Troubleshooting the motherboard is the trickiest part for a technician. ◊ This requires a lot of time, patience and documentation. Since the troubleshooting has to be done at the chip- level, troubleshooting a motherboard can cost more time and money than buying a new one. 58
  59. 59. PC Hardware Basic Guide Module 4 - Motherboard Conclusion ◊ PC bus is an 8 bit expansion slot to connect 8 bit expansion cards ◊ The major components of the motherboard are • Processor socket or slot • Chipset • Super I/O chip • BIOS • SIMM/DIMM sockets • Bus slots ◊ ISA bus is a 16 bit slot present in 80286, 80386, 80486 and Pentium systems ◊ Future upgradeability of the system is the most important one 59

×