07. Mainboard (System Board, Motherboard)

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Motherboard (Mainboard, System Board) පරිගණක දෘඩාංග

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07. Mainboard (System Board, Motherboard)

  1. 1. Motherboard
  2. 2. Motherboard AKA: Mainboard System board
  3. 3. What is the Motherboard?  The main circuit board which holds and connect all main components of a computer system  Mother of all components
  4. 4. Motherboard Diagram
  5. 5.  Motherboard Diagram: More  http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/M otherboard_diagram.svg Donotbreakyourneck;) Justclickonandvisitthelink!...
  6. 6. Bus  In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers
  7. 7. Internal bus ◦ AKA: local bus, internal data bus, memory bus, system bus or Front-Side-Bus ◦ Connects all major internal components of a computer (CPU and Memory) ◦ Quick and Faster
  8. 8. ◦AKA: Expansion bus ◦Connects external devices (Most Input/Output Devices, USB, etc) External bus
  9. 9. FSB (Front Side Bus)  System Bus of Intel-chip-based Motherboards  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Front- side_bus  FSB performance can be measured by FSB Frequency (MHz), Transfers/Cycle, Bus Width and Transfer Rate (MB/sec)
  10. 10.  FSB Transfer Rates ◦ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Front- side_bus#Transfer_rates  Related component speeds ◦ CPU ◦ RAM
  11. 11.  Evolution ◦ More modern designs use point-to-point connections like AMD's HyperTransport and Intel's QuickPath Interconnect (QPI). ◦ These implementations remove the traditional northbridge in favor of a direct link from the CPU to the southbridge or I/O controller ◦ Therefore FSB is no longer used and replaced by DMI
  12. 12. Chipset  A chipset or PC chipset refers to a group of integrated circuits, or chips, that are designed to work together usually marketed as a single product.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chipset
  13. 13.  Well known Chipset vendors ◦ Intel, AMD, VIA, nVidia  More links ◦ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_ch ipsets#Core_i_Series_chipsets  Traditionally chipsets had two major chips called Northbridge and Southbridge
  14. 14. Northbridge  Northbridge typically handles communications among the CPU, in some cases RAM, and Display controller (PCI Express or AGP) and the Southbridge  The high-speed part of a chipset and interconnects the CPU to memory via FSB
  15. 15.  Evolution ◦ With the AMD Athlon64 series CPU's, a new architecture was used where some functions of the north and south bridge chips were moved to the CPU. Intel followed suit with their Core i series CPU's ◦ Due to the push for System-on-a-chip (SoC) processors modern devices increasingly have the northbridge integrated into the CPU die itself ◦ For Intel Sandy Bridge and AMD Accelerated Processing Unit processors introduced in 2011, all of the functions of northbridge reside on the CPU
  16. 16. Southbridge  The southbridge typically implements the slower capabilities of the motherboard in a northbridge/southbridge chipset computer architecture.  Handles most input/output devices  Southbridge communicates with CPU via Northbridge
  17. 17.  Evolution ◦ As modern computers does not contain a Northbridge, nowadays Southbridge communicates with CPU directly ◦ In Intel chipset systems, the southbridge is named Input/output Controller Hub (ICH). In AMD systems it is named as Fusion Controller Hub (FCH)
  18. 18. A newer Motherboard (Core iX 3rd Gen) [NO Northbridge]
  19. 19. A newer Chipset [NO Northbridge]. Intel Z77
  20. 20. Difference between FSB and DMI FSB DMI
  21. 21. BIOS  Basic Input/Output System  BIOS contents is stored on an EEPROM chip  BIOS selects candidate boot devices using information collected by POST and configuration information from EEPROM, CMOS RAM
  22. 22.  BIOS, a set of computer instructions in firmware that control input and output operations  BIOS provides a way for programs and operating systems to interact with input/output devices.  Variations in the system hardware are hidden by the BIOS from programs that use BIOS services instead of directly accessing the hardware  BIOS Manufacturers AMI, Award, Phoenix….. Etc.
  23. 23.  A BIOS settings menu
  24. 24. UEFI  Unified Extensible Firmware Interface  Successor of EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface)  UEFI is meant to replace BIOS firmware interface  But in practice most (all!), most UEFI images provide legacy support for BIOS services
  25. 25.  UEFI  OS Support  Most newer OS support UEFI (Windows 8, Newer Linux Distributions etc.)  OS like Windows 7 support EFI, but not UEFI
  26. 26. UEFI BIOS
  27. 27. Form Factor  Form Factor decides many things such as Casing Size and Power supply type of a motherboard
  28. 28. CPU Socket  CPU socket plays an important role in Motherboards as it limit the CPU support  More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPU_socket
  29. 29. RAM Type  RAM type also important  Normally a motherboard support only single type of RAM (DDR2, DDR3)
  30. 30. Expansion Slots +  PCIe and PCI slots  SATA, IDE ports  USB ports  Other
  31. 31. References  https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Compute r+Motherboards  https://www.google.com/search?q=M otherboard
  32. 32. Thank You! Ayubowan!

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