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Intr To Html & Xhtml
 

Intr To Html & Xhtml

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    Intr To Html & Xhtml Intr To Html & Xhtml Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to HTML & XHTML
    • Introduction
      • Web developers view web pages as documents that must be created according to authoring and development guidelines
      • Web developers use HTML or XHTML to write code of a web page
      • Web browsers have a built-in interpreter to render the results of the code in its window
    • The World Wide Web
      • Definitions
        • HTML
          • The HyperText Markup Language
          • The language used to structure text-based information in a document
            • by denoting certain text as headings , paragraphs , lists , etc — and to supplement that text with interactive forms , embedded images , and other multimedia objects
        • XHTML
          • The eXtensible HyperText Markup Language
          • XHTML consists of all the elements in HTML 4.01 combined with the syntax of XML.
            • Allows users to define their own “tags” for defining structure, layout, etc.
    • Content of Web Pages
      • A web site may contain a combination of 13 standard elements:
        • Text Sound
        • Lists Video
        • Hyperlinks Tables
        • Colour Layers
        • Graphics Frames
        • Images Forms
        • Image Maps
    • Content of Web Pages
      • The content of a web site can be classified as:
        • Static content – does not change regularly e.g. personal and professional web sites
        • Dynamic content – changes regularly e.g., newspaper web sites, weather report sites…
    • Authoring of Web Pages
      • After a web page layout is designed, one needs to use HTML/XHTML code to implement the design
      • Introduction to XHTML
        • Syntax
        • Document Tags
        • Authoring tools
        • Text formatting
        • Special characters
        • Hyperlinks
        • Lists
        • Meta Data
        • Colours
        • Audio & Video
    • XHTML Syntax
      • XHTML uses tags that are enclosed in brackets < >
      • XHTML content is contained between tags
      • Tags and content form an XHTML element
      • Generic element form: < start-tag > content < end-tag >
      • Start and end tags have the same name, end tag has a ‘/’ before it: <b>This is BOLD</b>
      • XHTML tags can be nested according to the “first open, last closed” rule: <b><i>bold and italic</i></b>
    • XHTML Syntax
      • XHTML rules
        • Tags must be closed
        • XHTML is case sensitive
        • Use lower case tags and attribute names, e.g. width=“100%”
        • All attribute values must be double quoted, e.g. “100%”
        • Tags must not overlap (i.e., during nesting)
        • Comments can be used
          • <!-- This text is a comment -->
      • Do not use obsolete ( deprecated) tags
      • Browsers ignore misspelled tags (and many other things!)
    • Document Tags
      • The tags that make up the framework of a typical XHTML document include the following:
      • Document type definition (DTD) tag – DOCTYPE
        • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN&quot;
        • &quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd&quot;>
        • Describes (to web browsers) what type/version of (x)html is used
        • Specifies rules that apply to the markup of documents
        • Used for document syntax validation (e.g. strict) and for web browser to process document in proper “parsing” mode (impacts on consistency and speed of display)
      • An XHTML document is validated against a Document Type Definition.
      • Top-level tag, generally <html>
        • Tag indicates the beginning and /end of an XHTML document
    • Sample XHTML Document Structure
      • <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC &quot;-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN&quot;
      • &quot;http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd&quot;>
      • <HTML>
      • <HEAD>
      • <TITLE> New Document </TITLE>
      • <META NAME=&quot;Author&quot; CONTENT=&quot;&quot;>
      • <META NAME=&quot;Keywords&quot; CONTENT=&quot;&quot;>
      • <META NAME=&quot;Description&quot; CONTENT=&quot;&quot;>
      • </HEAD>
      • <BODY>
      • webpage content goes here!
      • </BODY>
      • </HTML>
    • Minimal XHTML Document
      • <!DOCTYPE ….> <html>
      • <head> ….. </head>
      • <body>
      • <p>
      • …… .
      • </p> </body> </html>
      HTML element HTML element HTML element HTML element
    • HTML Document Structure
      • <html>
      • <head>
      • <title>HTML Document Structure</title>
      • <meta name=“author” content=“Andrea Curley” />
      • </head>
      • <body>
      • all web page content goes here
      • </body>
      • </html>
    • Document Tags - Header
      • Header section, delimited by <head> tags
        • Provides extra information about the document
        • Serves as a container for styles, global scripts, etc.
        • The main tags used in this section are:
          • <title> - specifies the document title
          • <meta> - provides information to search engines
          • <style> - declares general & local styles for the document
          • <script> - declares any scripting information
    • Meta Tags
      • Web pages are designed for surfers and surf engines
      • The <meta> tag increases the chances of page indexing
      • Meta data refers to data about XHTML document rather than the document content
      • Browsers do not render meta data
      • Search engines use it for indexing and ranking the page hits in a given search
      • Some attributes of this tag are name , content , http-equiv , etc.
    • Meta Tags
      • Most often the meta element is used to provide information that is relevant to browsers or search engines like describing the content of your document.
      • <meta name=“keywords” content=“open, source, PHP, programming, code” />
      • When a search engine indexes the page, it includes the extra information -> open, source, etc.
      • It provides these keywords to search agents requesting them
    • Amazon’s Meta Tags
      • < meta name =&quot;description&quot; content =&quot;Low prices on digital cameras, MP3, LCD TVs, books, music, DVDs, video games, software, home & garden and much, much more. Free delivery on orders over £15.&quot; />
      • < meta name =&quot;keywords&quot; content =&quot;digital camera, LCD TV, books, DVD, low prices, video games, pc games, software, electronics, home, garden, video, amazon&quot; />
    • Document Tags - Body
      • Body section, delimited by <body> tags
        • Section where visible content appears
        • Content is a series of block tags containing inline content
    • How can I write my first web page?
        • Open a text editor e.g., Notepad, Edit Plus
        • Put in code from the HTML Document Structure Slide
        • Save it as Example1.html
        • In web browser (IE/Firefox/Netscape),
          • Select File -> Open
          • Select Example1.html
          • Select OK
    • Authoring Tools
      • Tools needed to develop a web site:
        • Editor
        • Graphics program
        • Digital cameras
        • Scanners
        • Audio & video software
      • Types of editors
        • Text : type in code and view results later -> Bottom-up development
        • HTML : view results as you develop the web page -> top-down development
      • Web author must be familiar with both approaches
        • e.g. “EditPlus”, “MacroMedia Dreamweaver”
    • Text Formatting
      • Paragraphs
      • Line breaks
      • Headings
      • Horizontal Rules
      • Block divisions
    • Paragraphs
      • Main textual blocks, delimited by <p> tags
      • <p> This is a paragraph of text in an XHTML document </p>
      This is a paragraph of text in an XHTML document Line spaces automatically inserted
    • Line breaks
      • Used when you need to break a line prematurely (before the paragraph)
      • The line break tag is <br />
        • Need space between “ br” and “ /” for Netscape browsers to interpret correctly
    • Lines - Example
      • <p> This is a paragraph of text in an XHTML document </p>
      • <p> This is a 2nd paragraph of text in an XHTML document </p>
      • This is a paragraph of text in an XHTML document
      • This is a 2nd paragraph of text in an XHTML document
      • <p> This is a paragraph of text in an XHTML document </p>
      • <p> This is a 2nd paragraph of text <br /> in an XHTML document </p>
      • This is a paragraph of text in an XHTML document
      • This is a 2nd paragraph of text
      • in an XHTML document
    • Headings
      • There are 6 levels of headings <h1> ….. <h6> , the higher the heading number the smaller the text
      • <h1> Heading 1 </h1>
      • <h2> Heading 2 </h2>
      • <h3> Heading 3 </h3>
      • <h4> Heading 4 </h4>
      • <h5> Heading 5 </h5>
      • <h6> Heading 6 </h6>
      Heading 1 Heading 2 Heading 3 Heading 4 Heading 5 Heading 6
    • Horizontal Rules
      • Horizontal rules appear as lines across the browser screen - <hr /> use space between “hr” and “/” so Netscape browsers can interpret correctly
      • Used to separate information visually
      • A line should be drawn under this text <hr />
      • A line should be drawn under this text
    • Block Divisions (div)
      • Sometimes, there is a need to format a large block of text in a similar fashion but in a way that is different from other blocks in the same document e.g. a quoted block of text could appear in a different style than the text around it - <div>
      • <div align= &quot;center&quot;> Text formatted using div tag
      • </div>
      • Text formatted using div tag
    • Text Formatting Text Headings Paragraphs Word/Characters <h1> largest . . <h6> smallest <p> <b> bold <i> italic <br /> line break <div> acts like a line break <hr /> line in a web page,
    • Hyperlinks
      • Hyperlinks <a> link web pages to each other
        • A link is a connection from one source to another
        • Hyperlinks create hypertext and is the driving force of the web
      • Hyperlinks can be used as:
        • inter-document and intra-document links
      • Links start at the source (visible part) and points to the destination (invisible part)
      • <a href=&quot;http://www.w3schools.com/&quot;> Visit W3Schools! </a>
      address of the document to link to (invisible) Text to be be displayed as a hyperlink (visible)
    • Hyperlinks
      • The important attributes of the link <a> tag:
        • href
        • title
        • name
        • charset
        • type
        • rel
        • rev
        • accesskey
        • shape
        • coords
    • Hyperlinks
      • The visible part of the link may have 4 states
        • Link – is not active and has not been visited
        • Active – target of the link is active in another browser window
        • Visited – target of the link has been previously visited
        • Hover – mouse pointer is over the link
      • Redirect Example
      • <html>
      • <head>
      • <meta http-equiv=&quot;Refresh&quot; content=&quot;5;url=http://www.dit.ie&quot; />
      • </head>
      • <body>
      • <p>Sorry! We have moved! The new URL is: <a href=&quot;http://www.dit.ie&quot;>www.dit.ie</a></p>
      • <p>You will be redirected to the new address in five seconds.</p>
      • <p>If you see this message for more than 5 seconds, please click on the link above!</p>
      • </body>
      • </html>
    • Hyperlinks - anchors
      • for “external” link
      • <a href= http ://www. dit . ie target=“_blank” > This is the DIT web site</a>
      • … for “internal” link
      • <a href=“#Section1”> jump to Section 1</a>
      • .
      • <a name=“Section1”>Section 1</a>
      • … for “mail to” link
      • <a href=&quot;mailto:someone@dit.ie&quot;>email [email_address] . ie </a >
    • Lists
      • XHTML supports 3 types of lists:
        • Ordered – <ol>
        • Unordered – <ul>
        • Definition – <dl>
      • Lists may be nested to obtain multiple hierarchy levels
    • Ordered List - <ol>
      • Lists whose elements must appear in a certain order
      • Such lists usually have their items prefixed with a number or letter
      <ol> <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Coconuts</li> </ol>
      • Apples
      • Bananas
      • Coconuts
    • Ordered List - <ol>
      • How can the numbering style be changed??
      • Some other style options:
        • decimal
        • lower-roman
        • upper-roman
        • upper-alpha
      <ol style=“list-style-type: lower-alpha” > <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Coconuts</li> </ol> a. Apples b. Bananas c. Coconuts
    • Unordered List - <ul>
      • Lists whose elements do not have to appear in a numbered order
      <ul> <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Coconuts</li> </ul>
      • Apples
      • Bananas
      • Coconuts
    • Unordered List - <ul>
      • How can the list item marker be changed??
      • Some other style options:
        • disc
        • circle
        • none
      <ul style=“list-style-type: square” > <li>Apples</li> <li>Bananas</li> <li>Coconuts</li> </ul> Apples Bananas Coconuts
    • Definition List - <dl>
      • More complex than the other 2 lists due to their having 2 elements per list item
      <dl> <dt>Internet Explorer</dt> <dd>Developed by Microsoft</dd> <dt>Netscape</dt> <dd>Developed by Netscape</dd> </dl> Internet Explorer Developed by Microsoft Netscape Developed by Netscape
    • Nesting Lists
      • Lists can be nested of the same or different types
      <ul> <li>Send us a letter, including:</li> <ol> <li>Your full name</li> <li>Your order number</li> <li>Your contact information</li> </ol> <li> Use the web form to send an email </li> </ul>
      • Send us a letter, including:
        • Your full name
        • Your order number
        • You contact information
      • Use the web form to send an email
    • Colours
      • Colour is an essential element and greatly improves visualisation
      • A web author can set colours for background and text
      • Tags have a color attribute that enables web authors to set colours for different XHTML elements
      • Colours can be specified using hexadecimal codes for multi-browser consistency
        • Black -> #000000
        • Red -> #FF0000
        • Blue -> #0000FF
      • Colours can be set globally or locally
    • Audio & Video
      • XHTML allows authors to incorporate digital audio and videos in a web page
        • Audio formats – AU, WAV, MIDI, AIFF and MP3
        • Video formats – AVI, QuickTime, MPEG and MJPEG
      • A surfer must have the right hardware and software to be able to play multimedia content of the web page
      • <embed> tag causes a control panel to be displayed for audio and video files in a web page
      • Attributes used are src , width and height , volume , autostart , loop and hidden
    • Audio & Video
      • < embed src=&quot;music.mp3&quot; width=&quot;145&quot; height=&quot;60&quot; volume=&quot;70&quot;> </ embed >
    • Reference
      • Steven M. Schafer (2005), HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Perl, and PHP Programmer's Reference , Hungry Minds Inc,U.S.
      • Dan Cederholm (2005), Bulletproof Web Design: Improving Flexibility and Protecting Against Worst-Case Scenarios with XHTML and CSS , New Riders.
      • Ibrahim Zeid (2004), Mastering the Internet, XHTML, and Javascript