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CSS Grid Layout
Rachel Andrew
CSS Day, June 2015
Rachel Andrew
http://rachelandrew.co.uk
@rachelandrew
http://grabaperch.com
The trouble with CSS layout
• Floats and clearfix hacks
• Absolute positioning means elements are taken
out of document fl...
https://www.flickr.com/photos/zervas/2810241612
Flexbox?
Seeing Flexbox as the silver bullet for
layout issues is likely to lead us down
another path of layout hacks.
The cost of taming layout methods
• Developer hours spent learning non-obvious
concepts.
• Compromises in terms of documen...
We need a designed for purpose
layout system for the sites and
applications we develop today.
CSS Grid Layout
Our HTML consists of a
div with a class of
wrapper and six child
elements.
<div class="wrapper">
<div class="a">A</div>
<d...
To create a grid we use a
new value of the display
property.
display: grid
.wrapper {
display: grid;
}
We describe the grid using
the new properties:
grid-template-columns
grid-template-rows
.wrapper {
display: grid;
grid-tem...
We position items using the
new properties:
grid-column-start

grid-column-end

grid-row-start

grid-row-end
.a {
grid-col...
To position an item bottom
centre, I start at column
line 3, this is the line after
the gutter track.
.b {
grid-column-sta...
To span more tracks we
just change the end row or
column line.
.b {
grid-column-start: 3;
grid-column-end: 6;
grid-row-sta...
The longhand for line-
based placement means
up to 4 properties to
position each element. .a {
grid-column-start: 1;
grid-...
Declare start and end
values with grid-column
and grid-row.
Values are separated by a
/ symbol.
.a {
grid-column: 1 / 2;
g...
Declare all 4 values using
the grid-area property.
.a {
grid-area: 1 / 1 / 2 / 2;
}
.b {
grid-area: 3 / 3 / 4 / 6;
}
Grid lines relate to writing mode. In
a right to left language such as
Arabic the first column line is the
right-hand line.
Grid Terminology
Grid Lines
Lines can be horizontal or vertical. They
are referred to by number and can be
named.
Highlighted is Column Lin...
Grid Track
A Grid Track is the space between two
Grid Lines. Tracks can be horizontal or
vertical (rows or columns).
The h...
Grid Cell
The smallest unit on our grid, a Grid Cell
is the space between four Grid Lines. It’s
just like a table cell.
Th...
Grid Area
Any area of the Grid bound by 4 Grid
Lines. It can contain many Grid Cells.
The highlighted Grid Area is between...
All examples can be found at http://gridbyexample.com. Use Chrome. Enable “Experimental Web Platform Features” flag.
Line-based placement
http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout9.html
The HTML around my
page content.
The various areas of my
page are child elements
of a div with a class of
wrapper.
<div cl...
Declaring a grid on
wrapper.
The grid has three
columns, and four rows.
.wrapper {
width: 100%;
max-width: 960px;
margin: ...
Positioning our elements
using the grid-column and
grid-row shorthand.
This is all we need to do
to create our layout.
.ma...
I can add a footer to this
layout.
<div class="wrapper">
<header class="mainheader"></header>
<div class="panel"></div>
<d...
Positioning the footer
between row lines five
and six.
.mainfooter {
grid-column: 1 / 4;
grid-row: 5 / 6;
}
Our grid only has 5 row
lines specified - yet we
placed an item between
row lines 5 and 6.
Grid creates an implicit
grid l...
Grid lines can be explicit or implicit
• Explicit grid lines are those specified using grid-
template-rows or grid-templat...
Grid is “table like” however …
• Unlike a table for layout Grid does not rely on
your content being a particular order in ...
Power and Responsibility
• As with Flexbox you can use your ability to
change how things are ordered for good or evil.
• G...
Using Grid to order the
page elements in a single
column for narrow screen
widths.
.wrapper {
display: grid;
grid-template...
Redefine the Grid at min-
width 550 pixels.
Position items as in the
earlier example.
@media (min-width: 550px) {
.wrapper...
Named Grid Lines
http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout10.html
Name lines with the name
in parenthesis.
Remember we name grid
lines and not grid tracks.
.wrapper {
display: grid;
grid-t...
Here we are positioning
based on line numbers.
.mainheader {
grid-row: 2 / 3;
}
.content {
grid-row: 4 / 5;
}
.panel {
gri...
Here we are positioning
by named lines.
.mainheader {
grid-row: row-header-start / row-header-end ;
}
.content {
grid-row:...
15th May Editor’s
Draft
Spec changed to use square brackets
instead of parenthesis for named grid
lines. Shipped by Igalia...
Named Areas
http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout11.html
We assign a name to the
elements on our page.
I am doing this outside of
any Media Queries.
.mainheader {
grid-area: heade...
Describe the layout on
the parent element using
the grid-template-areas
property.
A period “.” indicates that
this grid ce...
Redefining the template
areas for the wider
layout. @media (min-width: 550px) {
.wrapper {
grid-template-columns: 30% 5% 6...
Another syntax change!
The May 15th Editor’s
Draft allows for multiple
full stop characters to be
used to indicate an empt...
Implicit Named Grid Lines
Named grid areas create
four implicit named lines.
You can use these in the
same way as lines you
have explicitly named.
....
Items on the Grid can be layered
using the z-index property.
A 12 column, flexible grid
The Bootstrap grid, and
those in other
frameworks relies on our
describing the layout in
the markup.
<!-- Stack the column...
With CSS Grid Layout we describe the
layout in the CSS and can redefine
that description at any breakpoint.
getskeleton.com
You can use the repeat
keyword to repeat all or
part of the grid definition.
This would create 4 200
pixel wide tracks,
se...
The fr unit is a flexible
length that represents a
fraction of the available
space in the grid
container.
grid-template-co...
We can give multiple grid
lines the same name.
This means we can use
the span keyword to span
n number of lines, rather
th...
The markup used to
create the Grid using the
Skeleton framework.
Like the Bootstrap Grid
and other similar
frameworks it r...
When using CSS Grid
Layout we have no need
to describe our grid in
markup.
<div class="wrapper skeleton">
<h1 class="heade...
Defining the 12 column
grid.
The repeat keyword
repeats the pattern of
columns or rows the
number of times specified
befor...
Placing box1 on the grid.
Multiple lines have the
same name. This means we
can use the span keyword.
Here I place box1 sta...
Placing box8 on the grid.
Starting on column line 7,
spanning 3 gutter lines.
In the 3rd row named row,
spanning 1 gutter ...
With Grid Layout we can
easily span rows just like
columns.
.box1b {
grid-column: col / span gutter 4;
grid-row: row / spa...
The header and footer
span the full grid.
The content and panel
display side by side.
.mainheader {
grid-column: col / spa...
http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout13.html
The header and footer
span the full grid.
The content and panel
display side by side.
.mainheader {
grid-column: col / spa...
I change three values to
make our panel extend to
the foot of the page.
.mainheader {
grid-column: col / span gutter 12;
g...
Grid Item Placement Algorithm
http://dev.w3.org/csswg/css-grid/#grid-item-placement-algorithm
“The following grid item placement
algorithm resolves auto...
My markup is an
unordered list with a
class of wrapper.
The first list item
contains text. The rest an
image.
Two list ite...
Narrow screen layout,
before any media queries.
A single column, single
row grid.
Grid layout will create
implicit rows fo...
At a 460 pixel breakpoint
we redefine the grid to
have two equal columns.
With grid-auto-flow set
to dense gaps are not le...
We move to 4 equal
columns at 660 pixels.
I position the li with a
class of text between
column lines 2 and 4, and
row lin...
http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout8.html
The complete CSS for this
grid.
.wrapper {
display: grid;
max-width: 960px;
grid-template-columns: 1fr;
grid-template-rows...
We change the value of
grid-auto-flow to sparse.
.wrapper {
display: grid;
max-width: 960px;
grid-template-columns: 1fr;
g...
Grid Gotchas
The Gutter Problem
Defining the 12 column
grid.
We define Grid Tracks
that will be used as
columns, preceded by a
line named ‘col’ and those
...
A proposal for column-gap and row-gap
has been shifted to Level 2 of the CSS
Grid Specification.
With dynamic content we
may not know how many
rows we will need in a
Grid. Grid will create
implicit row lines for
extra c...
Level 1 includes the ability
to repeat a pattern auto
number of times.
This is currently not
implemented.
.wrapper {
displ...
Nested Grids and Subgrids
In this markup the boxes
e, f and g are children of
the element with a class
of d.
<div class="wrapper">
<div class="box a...
I have declared a grid on
the wrapper div, and
positioned the immediate
children - the elements
with classes a to d.
.wrap...
To make box d a grid itself
I declare a grid as normal
then position the children
of this element.
They take their grid li...
http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/example21.html
Declaring a subgrid
In our existing layout we
are creating a completely
new grid on box d.
.d{
grid-column: col 3 / span gutter 2;
grid-row: r...
If we declare that this
grid is a subgrid, we can
then position the children
of this element on the
same grid their parent...
http://dev.w3.org/csswg/css-grid/
“The following features are at-risk, and may
be dropped during the CR period:
the subgri...
Without subgrid we create the potential for
accessibility problems. Authors may remove
semantic markup in order to use gri...
http://fantasai.inkedblade.net/style/discuss/subgrid-markup/
Grid needs your feedback!
Enable Experimental Web Platform Features in Chrome.
Play with my examples and think up ways you...
Browser Support
All my examples work in Chrome unprefixed - you need to enable
the Experimental Web Platform Features flag...
All examples can be found at http://gridbyexample.com. Use Chrome. Enable “Experimental Web Platform Features” flag.
Thank you!
http://rachelandrew.co.uk/presentations/css-grid
@rachelandrew
CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout
CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout
CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout
CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout
CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout
CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout
CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout
CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout
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CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout

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My presentation on CSS Grid Layout for CSS Day in Amsterdam, June 2015.

Published in: Technology

CSS Day: CSS Grid Layout

  1. 1. CSS Grid Layout Rachel Andrew CSS Day, June 2015
  2. 2. Rachel Andrew http://rachelandrew.co.uk @rachelandrew http://grabaperch.com
  3. 3. The trouble with CSS layout • Floats and clearfix hacks • Absolute positioning means elements are taken out of document flow and risk overlaps • Redundant markup and positioning oddities with display: table • White space issues with inline-block
  4. 4. https://www.flickr.com/photos/zervas/2810241612 Flexbox?
  5. 5. Seeing Flexbox as the silver bullet for layout issues is likely to lead us down another path of layout hacks.
  6. 6. The cost of taming layout methods • Developer hours spent learning non-obvious concepts. • Compromises in terms of document semantics in order to achieve responsive layouts. • Needing to lean on frameworks to help with complex math. • Adding markup to create grids • Using preprocessors to abstract layout hacks
  7. 7. We need a designed for purpose layout system for the sites and applications we develop today.
  8. 8. CSS Grid Layout
  9. 9. Our HTML consists of a div with a class of wrapper and six child elements. <div class="wrapper"> <div class="a">A</div> <div class="b">B</div> <div class="c">C</div> <div class="d">D</div> <div class="e">E</div> <div class="f">F</div> </div>
  10. 10. To create a grid we use a new value of the display property. display: grid .wrapper { display: grid; }
  11. 11. We describe the grid using the new properties: grid-template-columns grid-template-rows .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: 100px 10px 100px 10px 100px; grid-template-rows: auto 10px auto; }
  12. 12. We position items using the new properties: grid-column-start
 grid-column-end
 grid-row-start
 grid-row-end .a { grid-column-start: 1; grid-column-end: 2; grid-row-start: 1; grid-row-end: 2; }
  13. 13. To position an item bottom centre, I start at column line 3, this is the line after the gutter track. .b { grid-column-start: 3; grid-column-end: 4; grid-row-start: 3; grid-row-end: 4; }
  14. 14. To span more tracks we just change the end row or column line. .b { grid-column-start: 3; grid-column-end: 6; grid-row-start: 3; grid-row-end: 4; }
  15. 15. The longhand for line- based placement means up to 4 properties to position each element. .a { grid-column-start: 1; grid-column-end: 2; grid-row-start: 1; grid-row-end: 2; } .b { grid-column-start: 3; grid-column-end: 4; grid-row-start: 3; grid-row-end: 4; }
  16. 16. Declare start and end values with grid-column and grid-row. Values are separated by a / symbol. .a { grid-column: 1 / 2; grid-row: 1 / 2; } .b { grid-column: 3 / 6; grid-row: 3 / 4; }
  17. 17. Declare all 4 values using the grid-area property. .a { grid-area: 1 / 1 / 2 / 2; } .b { grid-area: 3 / 3 / 4 / 6; }
  18. 18. Grid lines relate to writing mode. In a right to left language such as Arabic the first column line is the right-hand line.
  19. 19. Grid Terminology
  20. 20. Grid Lines Lines can be horizontal or vertical. They are referred to by number and can be named. Highlighted is Column Line 2.
  21. 21. Grid Track A Grid Track is the space between two Grid Lines. Tracks can be horizontal or vertical (rows or columns). The highlighted Grid Track is between Row Lines 2 and 3.
  22. 22. Grid Cell The smallest unit on our grid, a Grid Cell is the space between four Grid Lines. It’s just like a table cell. The highlighted Grid Cell is between row lines 2 and 3 and column lines 2 and 3.
  23. 23. Grid Area Any area of the Grid bound by 4 Grid Lines. It can contain many Grid Cells. The highlighted Grid Area is between row lines 1 and 3, column lines 2 and 4.
  24. 24. All examples can be found at http://gridbyexample.com. Use Chrome. Enable “Experimental Web Platform Features” flag.
  25. 25. Line-based placement
  26. 26. http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout9.html
  27. 27. The HTML around my page content. The various areas of my page are child elements of a div with a class of wrapper. <div class="wrapper"> <header class="mainheader"></header> <div class="panel"></div> <div class="content"></div> </div>
  28. 28. Declaring a grid on wrapper. The grid has three columns, and four rows. .wrapper { width: 100%; max-width: 960px; margin: 0 auto; display: grid; grid-template-columns: 30% 5% 65%; grid-template-rows: 40px auto 20px auto; }
  29. 29. Positioning our elements using the grid-column and grid-row shorthand. This is all we need to do to create our layout. .mainheader { grid-column: 1 / 4; grid-row: 2 / 3; } .panel { grid-column: 1 / 2; grid-row: 4 / 5; } .content { grid-column: 3 / 4; grid-row: 4 / 5; }
  30. 30. I can add a footer to this layout. <div class="wrapper"> <header class="mainheader"></header> <div class="panel"></div> <div class="content"></div> <footer class="mainfooter"></footer> </div>
  31. 31. Positioning the footer between row lines five and six. .mainfooter { grid-column: 1 / 4; grid-row: 5 / 6; }
  32. 32. Our grid only has 5 row lines specified - yet we placed an item between row lines 5 and 6. Grid creates an implicit grid line for us. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: 30% 5% 65%; grid-template-rows: 40px auto 20px auto; } .mainfooter { grid-column: 1 / 4; grid-row: 5 / 6; }
  33. 33. Grid lines can be explicit or implicit • Explicit grid lines are those specified using grid- template-rows or grid-template-columns. • Implicit lines are created when you place something into a row or column track outside of the explicit grid. • Default behaviour is those tracks are auto sized. You can specify a size with the grid-auto- columns and grid-auto-rows properties.
  34. 34. Grid is “table like” however … • Unlike a table for layout Grid does not rely on your content being a particular order in the source.
 • Being entirely described in CSS we can move things around the Grid at different breakpoints, introduce or redefine a Grid for any breakpoint.
  35. 35. Power and Responsibility • As with Flexbox you can use your ability to change how things are ordered for good or evil. • Good = creating the most accessible source order and using Grid to get the optimal display for each device. • Bad = using Grid as an excuse to forget about the source. • Terrible - stripping out semantic elements to make everything a child of the grid.
  36. 36. Using Grid to order the page elements in a single column for narrow screen widths. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-rows: 10px auto 10px auto 10px auto 10px auto; } .mainheader { grid-row: 2 / 3; } .content { grid-row: 4 / 5; } .panel { grid-row: 6 / 7; } .mainfooter { grid-row: 8 / 9; }
  37. 37. Redefine the Grid at min- width 550 pixels. Position items as in the earlier example. @media (min-width: 550px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 30% 5% 65%; grid-template-rows: 40px auto 20px auto 20px auto; } .mainheader { grid-column: 1 / 4; grid-row: 2 / 3; } .panel { grid-column: 1 / 2; grid-row: 4 / 5; } .content { grid-column: 3 / 4; grid-row: 4 / 5; } .mainfooter { grid-column: 1 / 4; grid-row: 6 / 7; } }
  38. 38. Named Grid Lines
  39. 39. http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout10.html
  40. 40. Name lines with the name in parenthesis. Remember we name grid lines and not grid tracks. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-rows: 10px [row-header-start] auto [row-header-end] 10px [row-content-start] auto [row-content-end] 10px [row-panel-start] auto [row-panel-end] 10px [row-footer-start] auto [row-footer-end]; }
  41. 41. Here we are positioning based on line numbers. .mainheader { grid-row: 2 / 3; } .content { grid-row: 4 / 5; } .panel { grid-row: 6 / 7; } .mainfooter { grid-row: 8 / 9; }
  42. 42. Here we are positioning by named lines. .mainheader { grid-row: row-header-start / row-header-end ; } .content { grid-row: row-content-start / row-content-end; } .panel { grid-row: row-panel-start / row-panel-end ; } .mainfooter { grid-row: row-footer-start / row-footer-end; }
  43. 43. 15th May Editor’s Draft Spec changed to use square brackets instead of parenthesis for named grid lines. Shipped by Igalia for Blink on June 5th - I’ll update my examples online once in Chrome.
  44. 44. Named Areas
  45. 45. http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout11.html
  46. 46. We assign a name to the elements on our page. I am doing this outside of any Media Queries. .mainheader { grid-area: header; } .content { grid-area: content; } .panel { grid-area: sidebar; } .mainfooter { grid-area: footer; }
  47. 47. Describe the layout on the parent element using the grid-template-areas property. A period “.” indicates that this grid cell is empty. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-rows: 10px auto 10px auto 10px auto 10px auto; grid-template-areas: "." "header" "." "content" "." "sidebar" "." "footer"; }
  48. 48. Redefining the template areas for the wider layout. @media (min-width: 550px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 30% 5% 65%; grid-template-rows: 2em auto 1em auto 1em auto; grid-template-areas: ". . ." "header header header" ". . ." "sidebar . content" ". . ." "footer footer footer" } }
  49. 49. Another syntax change! The May 15th Editor’s Draft allows for multiple full stop characters to be used to indicate an empty cell. This means you can line up your ascii art more neatly. @media (min-width: 550px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 30% 5% 65%; grid-template-rows: 2em auto 1em auto 1em auto; grid-template-areas: "....... ...... ......." "header header header " "....... ...... ......." "sidebar ...... content" "....... ...... ......." "footer footer footer " } }
  50. 50. Implicit Named Grid Lines
  51. 51. Named grid areas create four implicit named lines. You can use these in the same way as lines you have explicitly named. .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 30% 5% 65%; grid-template-rows: 2em auto 1em auto 1em auto; grid-template-areas: ". . ." "header header header" ". . ." "sidebar . content" ". . ." "footer footer footer" } .test { z-index: 100; background-color: red; grid-column: content-start / content-end; grid-row: content-start / footer-end; }
  52. 52. Items on the Grid can be layered using the z-index property.
  53. 53. A 12 column, flexible grid
  54. 54. The Bootstrap grid, and those in other frameworks relies on our describing the layout in the markup. <!-- Stack the columns on mobile by making one full-width and the other half-width --> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-12 col-md-8">.col-xs-12 .col-md-8</div> <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div> </div> <!-- Columns start at 50% wide on mobile and bump up to 33.3% wide on desktop --> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div> <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div> <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div> </div> <!-- Columns are always 50% wide, on mobile and desktop --> <div class="row"> <div class="col-xs-6">.col-xs-6</div> <div class="col-xs-6">.col-xs-6</div> </div>
  55. 55. With CSS Grid Layout we describe the layout in the CSS and can redefine that description at any breakpoint.
  56. 56. getskeleton.com
  57. 57. You can use the repeat keyword to repeat all or part of the grid definition. This would create 4 200 pixel wide tracks, separated by a 20 pixel wide gutter track. grid-template-columns: repeat(4, 200px 20px);
  58. 58. The fr unit is a flexible length that represents a fraction of the available space in the grid container. grid-template-columns: 5fr 1fr 10fr 1fr 5fr;
  59. 59. We can give multiple grid lines the same name. This means we can use the span keyword to span n number of lines, rather than specifying a specific grid line. .wrapper { grid-template-columns: repeat(4, [col] 200px [gutter] 20px); } .content { grid-column: col 2 / span gutter 2; }
  60. 60. The markup used to create the Grid using the Skeleton framework. Like the Bootstrap Grid and other similar frameworks it requires classes that describe the grid to be added to the markup. <div class="container"> <h1>Skeleton Grid</h1> <div class="example-grid"> <div class="row"> <div class="four columns">Four columns</div> <div class="four columns">Four columns</div> <div class="four columns">Four columns</div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="eight columns">Eight columns</div> <div class="four columns">Four columns</div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="three columns">Three columns</div> <div class="three columns">Three columns</div> <div class="three columns">Three columns</div> <div class="three columns">Three columns</div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="six columns">Six columns</div> <div class="six columns">Six columns</div> </div> </div>
  61. 61. When using CSS Grid Layout we have no need to describe our grid in markup. <div class="wrapper skeleton"> <h1 class="header">CSS Grid Layout Version</h1> <div class="box1">Four columns</div> <div class="box2">Four columns</div> <div class="box3">Four columns</div> <div class="box4">Eight columns</div> <div class="box5">Four columns</div> <div class="box6">Three columns</div> <div class="box7">Three columns</div> <div class="box8">Three columns</div> <div class="box9">Three columns</div> <div class="box10">Six columns</div> <div class="box11">Six columns</div> </div>
  62. 62. Defining the 12 column grid. The repeat keyword repeats the pattern of columns or rows the number of times specified before the comma. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(11, [col] 4fr [gutter] 3.5fr ) [col] 4fr [gutter]; grid-template-rows: auto repeat(4, [row] auto [gutter] 15px); }
  63. 63. Placing box1 on the grid. Multiple lines have the same name. This means we can use the span keyword. Here I place box1 starting at the first line named col, spanning to the 4th line named gutter. In the first row named row, spanning to the first line named gutter. .box1 { grid-column: col / span gutter 4; grid-row: row / span gutter; }
  64. 64. Placing box8 on the grid. Starting on column line 7, spanning 3 gutter lines. In the 3rd row named row, spanning 1 gutter line. .box8 { grid-column: col 7 / span gutter 3; grid-row: row 3 / span gutter; }
  65. 65. With Grid Layout we can easily span rows just like columns. .box1b { grid-column: col / span gutter 4; grid-row: row / span gutter 2; } .box2b { grid-column: col 5 / span gutter 4; grid-row: row / span gutter 3; }
  66. 66. The header and footer span the full grid. The content and panel display side by side. .mainheader { grid-column: col / span gutter 12; grid-row: row /span gutter; } .mainfooter { grid-column: col / span gutter 12; grid-row: row 3 /span gutter; } .content { grid-column: col 5 / span gutter 8; grid-row: row 2 / span gutter; } .panel { grid-column: col / span gutter 4; grid-row: row 2 / span gutter; }
  67. 67. http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout13.html
  68. 68. The header and footer span the full grid. The content and panel display side by side. .mainheader { grid-column: col / span gutter 12; grid-row: row /span gutter; } .mainfooter { grid-column: col / span gutter 12; grid-row: row 3 /span gutter; } .content { grid-column: col 5 / span gutter 8; grid-row: row 2 / span gutter; } .panel { grid-column: col / span gutter 4; grid-row: row 2 / span gutter; }
  69. 69. I change three values to make our panel extend to the foot of the page. .mainheader { grid-column: col / span gutter 12; grid-row: row /span gutter; } .mainfooter { grid-column: col 5 / span gutter 8; grid-row: row 3 /span gutter; } .content { grid-column: col 5 / span gutter 8; grid-row: row 2 / span gutter; } .panel { grid-column: col / span gutter 4; grid-row: row 2 / span gutter 2; }
  70. 70. Grid Item Placement Algorithm
  71. 71. http://dev.w3.org/csswg/css-grid/#grid-item-placement-algorithm “The following grid item placement algorithm resolves automatic positions of grid items into definite positions, ensuring that every grid item has a well-defined grid area to lay out into.”
  72. 72. My markup is an unordered list with a class of wrapper. The first list item contains text. The rest an image. Two list items have a class of ‘wide’. <ul class="wrapper"> <li class="text"><p>…</p></li> <li><img src="../images/balloon1.jpg" alt="hot air balloon" /> <p>Balloons 1</p></li> <li><img src="../images/balloon2.jpg" alt="hot air balloon" /> <p>Balloons 2</p></li> <li><img src="../images/balloon3.jpg" alt="hot air balloon" /> <p>Balloons 3</p></li> <li class="wide"><img src="../images/balloon4.jpg" alt="hot air balloon" /> <p>Balloons 4</p></li> <li><img src="../images/balloon5.jpg" alt="hot air balloon" /> <p>Balloons 5</p></li> <li><img src="../images/balloon6.jpg" alt="hot air balloon" /> <p>Balloons 6</p></li> <li class="wide"><img src="../images/balloon7.jpg" alt="hot air balloon" /> <p>Balloons 7</p></li> <li><img src="../images/balloon8.jpg" alt="hot air balloon" /> <p>Balloons 8</p></li> </ul>
  73. 73. Narrow screen layout, before any media queries. A single column, single row grid. Grid layout will create implicit rows for any additional list items. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr; grid-template-rows: auto; grid-auto-flow: dense; }
  74. 74. At a 460 pixel breakpoint we redefine the grid to have two equal columns. With grid-auto-flow set to dense gaps are not left in the grid if they can be filled. @media (min-width: 460px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr; } .text { grid-column: 1 / 3; } .wide { grid-column: auto / span 2; } }
  75. 75. We move to 4 equal columns at 660 pixels. I position the li with a class of text between column lines 2 and 4, and row lines 1 and 3. @media (min-width: 660px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr 1fr 1fr; } .text { grid-column: 2 / 4; grid-row: 1 / 3; } }
  76. 76. http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/layout8.html
  77. 77. The complete CSS for this grid. .wrapper { display: grid; max-width: 960px; grid-template-columns: 1fr; grid-template-rows: auto; grid-auto-flow: dense; } @media (min-width: 460px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr; } .text { grid-column: 1 / 3; } .wide { grid-column: auto / span 2; } } @media (min-width: 660px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr 1fr 1fr; } .text { grid-column: 2 / 4; grid-row: 1 / 3; } }
  78. 78. We change the value of grid-auto-flow to sparse. .wrapper { display: grid; max-width: 960px; grid-template-columns: 1fr; grid-template-rows: auto; grid-auto-flow: sparse; } @media (min-width: 460px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr; } .text { grid-column: 1 / 3; } .wide { grid-column: auto / span 2; } } @media (min-width: 660px) { .wrapper { grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr 1fr 1fr; } .text { grid-column: 2 / 4; grid-row: 1 / 3; } }
  79. 79. Grid Gotchas
  80. 80. The Gutter Problem
  81. 81. Defining the 12 column grid. We define Grid Tracks that will be used as columns, preceded by a line named ‘col’ and those used as gutters, preceded by a line named ‘gutter’. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(11, [col] 4fr [gutter] 3.5fr ) [col] 4fr [gutter]; grid-template-rows: auto repeat(4, [row] auto [gutter] 15px); }
  82. 82. A proposal for column-gap and row-gap has been shifted to Level 2 of the CSS Grid Specification.
  83. 83. With dynamic content we may not know how many rows we will need in a Grid. Grid will create implicit row lines for extra content - but won’t add a gutter track for us. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(11, [col] 4fr [gutter] 3.5fr ) [col] 4fr [gutter]; grid-template-rows: auto repeat(4, [row] auto [gutter] 15px); }
  84. 84. Level 1 includes the ability to repeat a pattern auto number of times. This is currently not implemented. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(11, [col] 4fr [gutter] 3.5fr ) [col] 4fr [gutter]; grid-template-rows: auto repeat(auto, [row] auto [gutter] 15px); }
  85. 85. Nested Grids and Subgrids
  86. 86. In this markup the boxes e, f and g are children of the element with a class of d. <div class="wrapper"> <div class="box a">A</div> <div class="box b">B</div> <div class="box c">C</div> <div class="box d"> <div class="box e">E</div> <div class="box f">F</div> <div class="box g">G</div> </div> </div>
  87. 87. I have declared a grid on the wrapper div, and positioned the immediate children - the elements with classes a to d. .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(4, [col] 150px [gutter] 10px); grid-template-rows: repeat(2, [row] auto [gutter] 10px ); } .a { grid-column: col / span gutter 2; grid-row: row; } .b { grid-column: col 3 / span gutter 2; grid-row: row; } .c { grid-column: col / span gutter 2; grid-row: row 2; } .d{ grid-column: col 3 / span gutter 2; grid-row: row 2; }
  88. 88. To make box d a grid itself I declare a grid as normal then position the children of this element. They take their grid lines from the grid declared on box d. .d{ grid-column: col 3 / span gutter 2; grid-row: row 2; display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr 10px 1fr; grid-template-rows: auto 10px auto; } .e { grid-column: 1 / 4; grid-row: 1; } .f { grid-column: 1; grid-row: 3; } .g { grid-column: 3; grid-row: 3; }
  89. 89. http://gridbyexample.com/examples/code/example21.html
  90. 90. Declaring a subgrid
  91. 91. In our existing layout we are creating a completely new grid on box d. .d{ grid-column: col 3 / span gutter 2; grid-row: row 2; display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr 10px 1fr; grid-template-rows: auto 10px auto; }
  92. 92. If we declare that this grid is a subgrid, we can then position the children of this element on the same grid their parent is placed on. .d{ grid-column: col 3 / span gutter 2; grid-row: row 2; display: grid; grid-template-columns: subgrid; grid-template-rows: subgrid; }
  93. 93. http://dev.w3.org/csswg/css-grid/ “The following features are at-risk, and may be dropped during the CR period: the subgrid value of grid-template-columns and grid-template-rows, and its component parts individually”
  94. 94. Without subgrid we create the potential for accessibility problems. Authors may remove semantic markup in order to use grid layout.
  95. 95. http://fantasai.inkedblade.net/style/discuss/subgrid-markup/
  96. 96. Grid needs your feedback! Enable Experimental Web Platform Features in Chrome. Play with my examples and think up ways you would use Grid. Follow the CSS Grid conversation on www-style by searching for [css-grid]. See the current issues in the Editor’s Draft http://dev.w3.org/ csswg/css-grid/#issues-index
  97. 97. Browser Support All my examples work in Chrome unprefixed - you need to enable the Experimental Web Platform Features flag. You can also use Webkit nightlies, with the -webkit prefix. The work in Blink and Webkit is being done by Igalia, sponsored by Bloomberg. IE10 and up has support for the old syntax, with an -ms prefix. Mozilla are currently implementing Grid in Firefox. There is a Polyfill under active development: https://github.com/ FremyCompany/css-grid-polyfill/
  98. 98. All examples can be found at http://gridbyexample.com. Use Chrome. Enable “Experimental Web Platform Features” flag.
  99. 99. Thank you! http://rachelandrew.co.uk/presentations/css-grid @rachelandrew

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