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How Technologies like Long Term Evolution (LTE), Wimax are changing wireless eco-system and making Mobile the center of activity.

How Technologies like Long Term Evolution (LTE), Wimax are changing wireless eco-system and making Mobile the center of activity.

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  • Source of pictures: http:// images.google.com / Lets consider roadways in two cities, Providence, capital of Rhode Island and New York city. The traffic management in the two cities would be completely different as volume of traffic load on roads, kind of road traffic, check point for entry in New York city, toll tax in New York city would be completely different. Due to congestion in road traffic in New York, the residents of New York, specially high profile personalities, like CEO of company, Supreme court judge, would want to have a guarantee time to reach office and not just best effort by the driver to reach office and so planning would be required. Though best effort might be fine in Providence as volume of traffic and complexities of traffic might be low. Similar was the case between IP based networks of early 1990’s and ATM in late 1990’s. However, ATM based network has its limitations and so IP based networked evolved from Integrated services to Differentiated services and currently MPLS, Multi-protocol Label switching. MLPS is demand for some years as it overcomes some of the limitations of old IP (1990) and ATM. Integrated services, Diff Serve, MPLS was needed to provide a level of guarantee in IP traffic for services ranging from Voice over IP to Video over IP in environment where Internet traffic has grown many fold as well type of traffic by adding features of controllability in IP traffic and thereby offers various types of Quality of service in network by identifying packet flow in network. [1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Published in IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2007.
  • Source of pictures: http://images.google.com/ and Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 630 lecture class.
  • Source of pictures: http://images.google.com/ The type of data transfer has changed, to give a analogy, similar to the way, from diesel operated cars to electric cars which have higher mileage capabilities, cars that have little carbon emission. Similar is the case with data. From days of simple email, FTP, browsing to today when consumers wants real-time voice and video on smart phones. According to YOUNG-JUNE CHOI and KWANG BOK LEE, the 4G networks should have two different visions: “ Revolution developing an innovative system and Evolution – inter-working with existing systems”. “ The inter-working model takes an approach that integrates cellular networks, wireless metropolitan area networks (WMAN), wireless local area networks (WLAN), and wireless personal area networks (WPAN). This model covers a future scenario of ubiquitous networking where anyone can access a network anytime, anywhere, and anyway”. [1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Published in IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2007.
  • Image Source: Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch Forrester researcher Christopher Mines, in his presentation, “The next big thing for IT” in June 2005 professed about the “ The fourth wave of IT ” [1] . Mines visioned four eras of IT and consequently named each era as four waves of Information technology as per their respective eras. His classification of these eras are, first wave, from 1956 to 1976, the era of main frame computers, the second wave , from 1976 to 1992, the era of personal computers, the third wave, from 1992 to 2008, the era of networked computing and fourth wave, the era of IT everywhere [1] Forrester researcher, Christopher Mines, presentation, “Internet anywhere : The next big thing for IT” http:// www.forrester.com/rb/analyst/christopher_mines [2] Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch
  • Ramjee Prasad in his paper explains why we are now seeing rise of Mobile as the new client server frontier replacing the Laptop and desktop. He mentions that there is a convergence of Networks, applications and technology. 1. Technology and Networks convergence: A. Architecture upgrade: The networks architecture are maturing from days of using ATM, to all IP, making things simpler. B. Quality of service upgrade: From days of best effort service, networking has moved to Diffserve and MPLS providing control over data control and preference in data flow required for efficient handling of data traffic in today’s age of network traffic congestion. C. Network Access upgrade: With advent of Wimax specially the Wimax 16e, a technology which is compatible with both fixed and mobile Wimax and technologies like LTE, convergence is taking place amongst the network providers be it Wireless, fixed and broadcast. D. Chips, software and components upgrade: Along with these companies like Intel, Qualcomm developed small and better processors for mobile, better chips for enabling reception of dual technologies like GSM, GPRS, WiFi on single chip and software defined radio for military use. E. Hardware updates: Coupled with high data rates came the proliferation of devices from Smartphones like I-phone to Netbook GPS, E-reader, Mobile internet device (MID) based on newer and better operating systems like Apple mobile, Windows mobile and recently Android operating system has led to better mobile hardware systems. F. Applications upgrade: These advancements in the mobile and wireless technology has made possible, what was impossible a decade ago possible now – emergence of mobile applications market. G. Allowable Data requirements upgrade: High throughput rates on Mobile due to advent of 2.5G and 3G technologies, smaller form factor of mobile making it easy to carry around and type emails on mobile coupled with consumer’s need for applications ranging from instant information to emails to mobile maps to mobile banking to Voip calls from mobile to watching favorite video streamed on smartphones calls, this has created a mobile ecosystem. H: Browser updates: This along with better browsers for mobile like Opera has made possible opening of mobile applications market from companies like Apple, Blackberry, Android etc that have been enabling the successful deployment of mobile applications. [1] I: Form factor upgrade: This movement of applications from desktop platforms to wireless and mobile configurations may have a significant impact on future daily activities. [2] These developments have led to fundamental change in Internet delivery from days of Cable when the Data was provided over the copper wires to now when Voice is being provided over the Data over Fiber to Home in fixed wireless and wireless over Wimax. [1] TOWARDS MORE USABLE MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Dr. W. M. Lim, Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, 2005 2nd International Conference on [2] Comparative study of "functional" mobile applications, Papadopoulos Homer, Athens, Greece speaking at Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2008. PIMRC 2008. IEEE 19th International Symposium on
  • Image Source: Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective By Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University and Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics [2] Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch
  • Image Source: Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch [1] Home Networking with Universal Plug and Play by Brent A. Miller, IBM Corporation, Toby Nixon, Microsoft Corporation, Charlie Tai, Intel Corporation, Mark D. Wood, Eastman Kodak Company – article appeared in IEEE Communication magazine for December 2001. In a music festival, birthday or a family or social event, users would take pictures, videos and wish to watch those photos, video on their instantly on ther handhelds and also share with their friends. Universal plug and play protocol (UnUP) protocol in Home network – is the glue sticking all the multitude device types with multitude of networking connectivity methods in the home together from Netbooks, to Wii to Internet connected TV, to i-phone and even Android operated devices. “ In spite of their heterogeneity, these technologies shall be seamlessly integrated in 4G networks, creating by nature an open architecture”. [2] A NEW MODEL FOR SERVICE AND APPLICATION CONVERGENCE IN B3G/4G NETWORKS by MARIO MUÑOZ AND CARLOS GARCIA RUBIO, UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS III DE MADRID published in IEEE Wireless Communications • October 2004
  • Image Source: Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch Personalization Transfer “ Bluetooth-UPnP bridge takes as lightweight as about 57KB so that it is believed to work in wearable computing environment with limited resources. The bridge allows a non-IP Bluetooth device to work as an IP based UPnP device. Upon discovering a Bluetooth device, the bridge creates an associated UPnP virtual device and generates its UPnP description automatically from the Bluetooth profile. After then, any other UPnP device can access the Bluetooth device in a seamless way. We also showed the time overhead involved is negligible”. [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective By Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics published in IEEE Network • January/February 2006
  • Image Source: Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch [1] A NEW MODEL FOR SERVICE AND APPLICATION CONVERGENCE IN B3G/4G NETWORKS by MARIO MUÑOZ AND CARLOS GARCIA RUBIO, UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS III DE MADRID published in IEEE Wireless Communications • October 2004
  • Source: Google images: and then graphic embedding by me [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective By Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics [2] SERVICE-ORIENTED OPERATING SYSTEMS: FUTURE WORKSPACES by LUTZ SCHUBERT, ALEXANDER KIPP, BASTIAN KOLLER, AND STEFAN WESNER, UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART 1. Changing office space: According to the needs of the users, their time constraints, their space constraints in office or home, their plan for the day must me done in the most efficient way. On their way to office in a bus, train or meeting at distant plane during their travel by plane and in between time, the users would like to browse the web for the latest news, check their emails, listening to music or watching a film or a TV show and checking the least congested route on way back home etc. 2. SERVICE-ORIENTED OPERATING SYSTEMS: FUTURE WORKSPACES - The author (s) say that the “recent developments in the area of service-oriented computing, embedded devices, and networking will enable user-specific virtual working and private environments on the basis of new approaches toward distributed operating systems”. They suggest that the current employee whose large part of effort goes administration of tasks would be able to focus on work and with convenience as more development takes place into service-oriented operating systems. They add that this will extend the current limited capabilities of local devices to work from remote locations.
  • Source: Google images: and then graphic embedding by me [1] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication [2] Migration to 4 G: Mobile IP based Solutions by K.R.Santhi*, G. Senthil Kumaran, Kigali Institute of Science, Technology & Management, Rwanda The second generation of wireless mobile communication systems like GSM, iDEN, D-AMPS, IS-95, PDC, CSD, PHS, GPRS, were a huge success story in their time.
  • Source: Google images: and then graphic embedding by me [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class.
  • Source: Google images: and then graphic embedding by me [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class. [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
  • Source: Google images: and then graphic embedding by me “ Third-generation (3G) access networks, like WCDMA (wideband code division multiple access) and cdma2000, have a complicated network structure and define many protocols to cover the system structure. Accordingly, it is expected that fourth-generation (4G) networks will have a simple structure based on all-IP [1] where Internet Protocol (IP) packets traverse an access network and a backbone network without any protocol conversion”. [1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
  • Source: Google images [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective b y Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University and Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics published in IEEE Network • January/February 2006. “ 4G will be a convergence platform providing clear advantages in terms of coverage, bandwidth, and power consumption. Moreover, it will offer a variety of new heterogeneous services, from pop-up advertisements to location based and IP data-casting ones. All these characteristics will be supported by multimode/reconfigurable devices and the implementation of interworking ones”. [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication and More “user-centric” System. : Offer rich multimedia content services. user friendliness , user personalization , terminal heterogeneity , and network heterogeneity . Defining 4G Technology from theUser’s Perspective
  • Source: Google images: and then graphic embedding by me [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class. [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication
  • Google images: and then graphic embedding by me [2] Migration to 4 G: Mobile IP based Solutions by K.R.Santhi*, G. Senthil Kumaran, Kigali Institute of Science, Technology & Management, Rwanda
  • Google images: http:// www.broadbandwatchdog.co.uk/mifi.jpg Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective by Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics published in IEEE Network • January/February 2006.
  • [2] SERVICE-ORIENTED OPERATING SYSTEMS: FUTURE WORKSPACES by LUTZ SCHUBERT, ALEXANDER KIPP, BASTIAN KOLLER, AND STEFAN WESNER, UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART, IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2009 13. GSM system – past its prime and its limitations. [1] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine [2] Migration to 4 G: Mobile IP based Solutions by K.R.Santhi*, G. Senthil Kumaran, Kigali Institute of Science, Technology & Management, Rwanda Proceedings of the Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (AICT/ICIW 2006) The IEEE Computer Society magazine, 2006 14. GSM – Limitations. [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class. 15. CDMA system – improvement from GSM systems. [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class. [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine 16. CDMA system – Limitations. [1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Published in IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2007. [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine 17. Wimax : Next generation for Wired and wire line services. [1] Defining 4G Technology from theUser’s Perspective b y Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University and Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics From IEEE Network • January/February 2006 [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine 18. Wimax – Beam formation advantage. [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class. [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine 19. Wimax features: MIMO, Beam formation. [1] Migration to 4 G: Mobile IP based Solutions by K.R.Santhi*, G. Senthil Kumaran, Kigali Institute of Science, Technology & Management, Rwanda, Proceedings of the Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (AICT/ICIW 2006) The IEEE Computer Society magazine, 2006 20. Expected Features from Wimax. [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective by Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University, Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics. Published in IEEE Network • January/February 2006 21. References. 22. References. Slide 1 : Source of pictures: http://images.google.com/ Slide 1 -[1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT by YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Slide 2- [1] Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch Slide 2 - Source of pictures: http://images.google.com/ Slide 3 -[1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT by YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Slide 4 - [1] Forrester researcher, Christopher Mines , presentation, “The next big thing for IT” http://www.forrester.com/rb/analyst/christopher_mines Slide 4- [2] Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch Slide 16 -[1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT by YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Slide 16 [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

Wimax and changing wireless eco system Wimax and changing wireless eco system Presentation Transcript

    • Wimax –
    • the glue enabling Convergence of networks, services, its impact on
    • changing internet eco-system
    • by Kartik Mehta,
    • Howe School of management,
    • Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ
    • Under guidance of Professor Dr. Kevin Ryan,
    • Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ
  • Table of contents
    • 1. Wimax the glue enabling Convergence of networks, services, its impact on
    • changing internet eco-system.
    • 2. Index
    • 3. Has the internet traffic changed?
    • 4. Traffic changes from telephone in age of Copper wires to Wireless as part of lifestyle.
    • 5. Need for new infrastructure new highways, new vehicle for changing internet traffic.
    • 6. From Mainframe computing to Mobile internet, resulting in increasing Integration.
    • 7. Convergence of networks, technology, applications and services, changing eco-system.
    • 8. Is wireless infrastructure changing?
    • 9. Convergence of Consumer hardware space bring growth of Mobile computing.
    • 10. Wireless Mobility effect: Multitasking in personal space.
    • 11. Mobile internet: Unified digital locker enabling convenient, low cost, instant services.
    • 12. Wireless Mobility effect: Shrinking office space.
    • 13. GSM system – past its prime and its limitations.
    • 14. GSM – Limitations.
    • 15. CDMA system – improvement from GSM systems.
    • 16. CDMA system – Limitations.
    • 17. Wimax : Next generation for Wired and wire line services.
    • 18. Wimax – Beam formation advantage.
    • 19. Wimax features: MIMO, Beam formation.
    • 20. Expected Features from Wimax.
    • 21. References.
    • 22. References.
  • Has the internet traffic changed?
    • Traffic of 1970 - 90 Traffic of 2010
    • Light easy going traffic Heavy, complex, long ques.
    • No traffic or control priortisation Control, priortisation, traffic required as easy going. shaping, beacon for emergengy
    • No beacon required by Police or Ambulance required
    • Use of IP or ATM arch Use of RSVP, Diff serve, MPLS
    • Less accident, drop prone Prone to higher accident, drop rate.
  • Traffic changes from telephone in age of Copper wires to Wireless as part of lifestyle Data explosion: Internet traffic has changed from days of dial-up modem to 4G and mobile internet networks. From FTP, HTTP to Real time Voice & video over the IP using protocols like SIP, Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP), Bluetooth, UnUP. Changing architecture from ATM to all IP. From Routing to Switching. PSTN and long distance to Mobile, distance independent calling. From Best effort, First come first serve QoS to Integrated Service architecture (ISA), Diffserv, MPLS. From watching Broadcasts on TV to online youtube videos on TV, Smartphone.
  • Need for new infrastructure new highways, new vehicle for changing internet traffic
  • From Mainframe computing to Mobile internet, wearable devices resulting in increasing Integration
    • “ IT everywhere – The next big thing for IT ” said Forrester researcher, Christopher Mines in June, 2005 reporter stating that current wave is the fourth wave of IT and it belongs to “Mobile computing”.
    • “ Mobile internet would be bigger than what most think” – Morgan Stanley Technology report, presented at Web Summit, 2009.
    • Mobile Internet bringing changes in way we do business in office, social, home and personal space.
    [1]
  • Convergence of networks, technology, applications and services changing eco-system Mobile as the new client server replacing laptop and Desktop. Convergence of networks – Wired, wireless, interoperability of services with Wimax 16e between Wired and wireless. Better chips enabling reception of GSM, GRPS, UMTS, EDGE and CDMA combinations on single mobile chip. From graphical user interface (GUI) on desktop and laptops to Mobile application Widgets store – making life simple. Protocols like UnUP, Bluetooth enabling varous networks to talk to each other without the clutter of wires. Convergence to all IP architecture.
  • Is wireless infrastructure changing?
    • Lets begin with GPS.
    • Have GPS : Good bye Tourist guide, maps books, traffic news on TVWe start with GPS:
    • Convenience of locating new location and distant places for sight seeing, nearest hotels, school, stations.
    • Last minute alerts about traffic congestion & alternate routes.
    • Ease of use
    • Smartphone making GPS a low cost utility rather luxury.
    • Use of augmented reality in future that can reduce long cues at the museum, historical places of interest.
    • Pin-pointed location based advertising as against high cost and mass hoarding that could enable growth of location based services.
  • Convergence in hardware space bring growth of Mobile computing
    • Universal plug and play protocol (UnUP) protocol in Home network – the glue sticking all the multitude device types with multitude of networking connectivity methods in the home together from Netbooks, to Wii to Internet connected TV, to i-phone and even Android operated devices.
    • “ Universality that allows many physical networks to connect to various types of devices using any platform and any operating system”.
    • UnUP is leveraging existing internet standards that are already widely deployed.
    • Suited for cross device cross network network deployment.
    • Open UnUP standard is supported by many companies from multiple industries.
    • Emphasis ease of use like device addressing, appliance discovery, device control, eventing and presentation.
    Source: Morgan Stanley December 2009 Technology report
  • Wireless Mobility effect: Multitasking in personal space Personal area and ad hoc networks. Protocols like UnUP, Bluetooth bridging the gaps between multitude of devices and multitude of networks. The User-Centric System 1. Dynamic collaboration. 2. User friendly 3. Personalization 4. Freedom from infrastructure nodes. 5. Freedom from administration of linking multitudes of systems. 6. Good bye to clutter of wires. 7. Multitasking made easy. 8. Small size, wearable computing. Source: Google images: and then graphic embedding by me
  • Mobile internet: Unified digital locker enabling convenient, low cost, instant services. Shopping electronics, books – from stores to instant search, compare & buy at amazon.com Making costly calls from PSTN to low cost VoIP calls using SIP protocol from Smartphone. Once-in-a-blue meeting with old friends, relatives to 24x7 digital connection via Social networks. Watching Broadcaster fed news along with long commercials to browsing user’s led multiple news and entertainment content on TV, mobile via Wii, Playstation applications like Tversity. Reading & collecting books filling up huge shelf space to numerous books, magazines on ebook
  • Wireless Mobility effect: Shrinking office space Future employee workspaces will concentrate much more on mobility reducing employee administration effort and enhancing user experience. 1. Connecting to office for an urgent meeting while still in train. 2. Attending child parents teachers meet from airport lounge. Pico cells, Femto cells, MiFi, off - course WiFi and hot spots doing the service.
  • GSM system – past its prime and its limitations
    • 2nd generation wireless – huge success story as it brought high quality speech, global roaming, better services for user to buy.
    • However, for growing demands for network capacities it is unsuitable, namely,
    • Does not collect Multipath signals.
    • Frequency reuse factor 3,6, need to have guard bands for preventing co-channel interference.
    • Each conversation uses one timeslot, based on TDMA.
    • Resulting, Hard hand off, inefficient use of frequency and limited capacity.
  • GSM – Limitations Attenuation of signal as the distance from the transmitter increases. Shadow fading, scattering, multi-path fading due to obstacles between the Base Station and the Mobile User. Co-channel interfering cells, capacity fixed while growing number of customers require more bandwidth. Like CDMA, no Universal Cell reuse. No Quality of service methodology, other than Best Effort service. No labeling of packet, ATM based. Low data rates.
  • CDMA system – improvement from GSM systems.
    • Accepts Multi path signals.
    • 2. Signals transmitted into small sets of frequency decreasing chances of data loss in transmission compared to GSM.
    • 3. Use of CDMA instead of TDMA ensures very low co-channel interference.
    • 4. Universal Cell reuse of 1.
    • 5. Use of rake receiver for Soft handoff.
    • 6. Higher data rates than GSM.
    • 7. 3G system have small customer base and offer few improvements over 2G and 2.5G
  • CDMA system – Limitations
    • Limitations
    • Multiple standards of 3G make it difficult to interoperate across various networks and offer global roaming.
    • Users might not be able to take the advantage of rich multimedia services with 3G.
    • Complicated network architecture
    • Not as scaleable as 4G.
    • Small customer base.
    • Improved services compared to GSM family of systems but little improvement seen by the for average user.
    • Data rates better than GSM but still not good for offering Multimedia services.
  • Wimax : Next generation for Wired and wire line services
    • Convergence of wired and wireline services with protocols 802.16 and 802.16 e protocols respectively.
    • Interoperability between fixed and mobile standards, that is, 802.16 e is interoperable with 802.16.
    • Mobility
    • Higher data rates.
    • Wider coverage area than CDMA.
    • Roaming between networks
    • Network heterogeneity.
    • High speed handoffs.
    • Non Line of site operation makes it suitable for urban use.
    • Access techniques of OFDMA means scalable modulation and high interference tolerance levels.
    • Multi antenna processing.
    • Multiple levels of QoS support
    • Adaptive modulation techniques.
  • Wimax – Beam formation advantage
    • WiMAX can support:
      • Suitable for VoIP calls.
      • Mobile entertainment
        • Streaming content to portable media players
        • IP-TV
        • GPS and consequently location based services
      • Mobile gaming
      • Non Line of sight makes it suitable for urban area usuage.
      • Can travel to greater distances than CDMA and so suitable for rural areas which have customers spread out in big geographical area where installation of fiber could be too costly.
      • Mobile WiMAX.
      • Unlike LMDS, MMDS no high cost antenna required at the customer location in fixed Wimax
  • Wimax features: MIMO, Beam formation
    • Multiple input multiple output
    • Instead of sending signals from one omni directional antenna, Wimax can receive signals from multiple signals from multiple antenna due to the orthogonality of signals.
    • Cater to high consumer base by a single tower reducing infrastructure costs in long run.
    • Beam formation
    • Beam formation increases capacity of at a particular region.
    • Suitable for events and locations like music concert, soccer match, shopping complex large number of user need access.
  • Expected Features from Wimax
    • User centric
    • User friendliness & user personalization – systems like GPS, Augmented reality.
    • Personalisation data transfer –VoIP calls, iTunes, pictures, video on the go.
    • Mobilty
    • Terminal heterogeneity
    • Network heterogeneity
  • References
    • 3. Has the internet traffic changed?
    • [1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Published in IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2007.
    • 4. Traffic changes from telephone in age of Copper wires to Wireless as part of lifestyle.
    • [1]Source of pictures: http://images.google.com/
    • [2]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 630 lecture class.
    • 5. Need for new infrastructure new highways, new vehicle for changing internet traffic.
    • [1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Published in IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2007.
    • 6. From Mainframe computing to Mobile internet, wearable devices resulting in increasing Integration.
    • [1] Forrester researcher, Christopher Mines, presentation, “Internet anywhere : The next big thing for IT” http:// www.forrester.com/rb/analyst/christopher_mines
    • [2] Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch
    • 7. Convergence of networks, technology, applications and services, changing eco-system.
    • [1] TOWARDS MORE USABLE MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
    • Dr. W. M. Lim, Mobile Technology, Applications and Systems, 2005 2nd International Conference on
  • References
    • [2] Comparative study of "functional" mobile applications, Papadopoulos Homer,
    • Athens, Greece speaking at Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2008. PIMRC 2008. IEEE 19th International Symposium on
    • 8. Is wireless infrastructure changing?
    • [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective
    • By Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University and Marcos Katz, Samsung Electronics, IEEE Network • January/February 2006
    • [2] Morgan Stanley Economy + Internet report October 2009 at Web 2.0 Summit – San Francisco www.morganstanley.com/techresearch
    • 9. Convergence of Consumer hardware space bring growth of Mobile computing.
    • [1] Home Networking with Universal Plug and Play by Brent A. Miller, IBM Corporation, Toby Nixon, Microsoft Corporation, Charlie Tai, Intel Corporation, Mark D. Wood, Eastman Kodak Company – article appeared in IEEE Communication magazine for December 2001.
    • [2] A NEW MODEL FOR SERVICE AND APPLICATION CONVERGENCE IN B3G/4G NETWORKS by MARIO MUÑOZ AND CARLOS GARCIA RUBIO, UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS III DE MADRID published in IEEE Wireless Communications • October 2004
    • 10. Wireless Mobility effect: Multitasking in personal space.
    • [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective By Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.PFitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University, Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics published in IEEE Network • January/February 2006
    • 11. Mobile internet: Unified digital locker enabling convenient, low cost, instant services.
    • [1] A NEW MODEL FOR SERVICE AND APPLICATION CONVERGENCE IN B3G/4G NETWORKS by MARIO MUÑOZ AND CARLOS GARCIA RUBIO, UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS III DE MADRID published in IEEE Wireless Communications • October 2006
    • 12. Wireless Mobility effect: Shrinking office space.
    • [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective
    • By Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University and Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics IEEE Network • January/February 2006
    • [2] SERVICE-ORIENTED OPERATING SYSTEMS: FUTURE WORKSPACES by LUTZ SCHUBERT, ALEXANDER KIPP, BASTIAN KOLLER, AND STEFAN WESNER, UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART, IEEE Wireless Communications • June 2009
    • 13. GSM system – past its prime and its limitations.
    • [1] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
    • 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine
    • [2] Migration to 4 G: Mobile IP based Solutions by K.R.Santhi*, G. Senthil Kumaran, Kigali Institute of Science, Technology & Management, Rwanda
    • Proceedings of the Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and
    • International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (AICT/ICIW 2006) The IEEE Computer Society magazine, 2006
    • 14. GSM – Limitations.
    • [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class.
    • 15. CDMA system – improvement from GSM systems.
    • [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class.
    • [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine
  • References
    • 16. CDMA system – Limitations.
    • [1] ALL-IP 4G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR EFFICIENT MOBILITY AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT YOUNG-JUNE CHOI, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN by KWANG BOK LEE AND SAEWOONG BAHK, SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Published in IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2007.
    • [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
    • 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine
    • 17. Wimax : Next generation for Wired and wire line services.
    • [1] Defining 4G Technology from theUser’s Perspective b y Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg University and Marcos D. Katz, Samsung Electronics From IEEE Network • January/February 2006
    • [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
    • 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine.
    • 18. Wimax – Beam formation advantage.
    • [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class.
    • [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
    • 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine
  • References
    • 19. Wimax features: MIMO, Beam formation.
    • [1] Migration to 4 G: Mobile IP based Solutions by K.R.Santhi*, G. Senthil Kumaran, Kigali Institute of Science, Technology & Management, Rwanda,
    • Proceedings of the Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and
    • International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (AICT/ICIW 2006) The IEEE Computer Society magazine, 2006
    • 20. Expected Features from Wimax.
    • [1] Defining 4G Technology from the User’s Perspective by Simone Frattasi, Hanane Fathi, Frank H.P Fitzek, and Ramjee Prasad, Aalborg 18. Wimax – Beam formation advantage.
    • [1]Discussion in Dr. Kevin Ryan, Stevens Institute of Technology, TM 615 lecture class.
    • [2] 4G as a Next Generation Wireless Network by Afaq H. Khan, Mohammed A. Qadeer, Juned A. Ansari, Sariya Waheed, Department of Computer Engineering, Zakir Husain College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
    • 2009 International Conference on Future Computer and Communication published in The IEEE Computer Society magazine