ien t for
                      gred
               K ey In ity
            the nectiv
        de, Con
  ltimoous
Mu quit
...
Abstract
Users today are demanding ubiquitous connectivity, an ultimatum the industry still struggles to
achieve. The good...
Contents
Executive Summary                                                01
Ubiquitous Connectivity: The Evolution from E...
Executive Summary
Over the last decade, reliance on computers and the Internet has evolved greatly to the extent that user...
Ubiquitous Connectivity: The Evolution from E-mania to
M-mania
The combination of computers and Internet led to emergence ...
Figure 2: Sprint’s USB modem supporting WiMAX and          Figure 3: Yota’s latest phone which supports Mobile WiMAX, WiFi...
The Challenge: Providing Seamless User Experience
What’s the Common Need?

The developments highlighted in the earlier sec...
Ever-present Connectivity


In this generation of Mobile 2.0, an ever-present, ubiquitous connectivity is a key ingredient...
One such Operator is France Telecom (FT). In 2005, FT implemented the NExT strategy which aims to offer subscribers
a new ...
Fitting the Puzzle Together with Connection Managers
From the earlier discussions, it is evident that network convergence ...
Mobile IP, an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol, is designed to allow mobile
device ...
Multi Network Support


The underlying concept beneath ubiquitous connectivity is having access to alternative networks. A...
Greenpacket, Partnering Operators for a Ubiquitous World
At Greenpacket, we offer a connectivity management platform that ...
References
1. The Importance of Being Ubiquitous: Wireless Mesh Deployment in Saskatchewan by Michael O’Neil, IT In Canada...
About Green Packet
     Greenpacket is the international arm of the Green Packet Berhad group of companies which is listed...
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Multimode, The Key Ingredient For Ubiquitous Connectivity

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Users today are demanding ubiquitous connectivity, an ultimatum the industry still struggles to achieve. The good news is that there are positive developments in this direction through the evolution towards multimode as far as networks and devices are concerned. However, what is lacking is the absence of a mechanism that unifies multiple networks and devices for a seamless
experience. This paper discusses the mechanism required to think on behalf of networks and devices so that users enjoy a truly ubiquitous connectivity.

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Multimode, The Key Ingredient For Ubiquitous Connectivity

  1. 1. ien t for gred K ey In ity the nectiv de, Con ltimoous Mu quit Ubi www.greenpacket.com WHITEPAPER
  2. 2. Abstract Users today are demanding ubiquitous connectivity, an ultimatum the industry still struggles to achieve. The good news is that there are positive developments in this direction through the evolution towards multimode as far as networks and devices are concerned. However, what is lacking is the absence of a mechanism that unifies multiple networks and devices for a seamless experience. This paper discusses the mechanism required to think on behalf of networks and devices so that users enjoy a truly ubiquitous connectivity. WHITEPAPER
  3. 3. Contents Executive Summary 01 Ubiquitous Connectivity: The Evolution from E-mania to M-mania 02 The Challenge: Providing Seamless User Experience 04 Fitting the Puzzle Together with Connection Managers 07 Greenpacket, Partnering Operators for a Ubiquitous World 10 References 11 WHITEPAPER
  4. 4. Executive Summary Over the last decade, reliance on computers and the Internet has evolved greatly to the extent that users want access to a network connection anytime and anywhere – in other words, they want ubiquitous connectivity. This is contributed by the emergence of smartphones, netbooks and UMPCs as well as the popularity of social networking. In fact, a recent study by Ericsson unveiled an historic milestone for the mobile industry where mobile data traffic surpassed voice traffic for the first time in December 2009. To meet the demands of ubiquitous connectivity, the telecommunications industry has experienced tremendous evolution in the area of devices, networks and applications. The focus has been in providing multiple networks and devices that support more than one network so that users have a variety of ways to stay connected. Hence, if one network fails or is limited in coverage, an alternative network is available to provide connectivity. While the industry looks at converging networks and producing devices that support multiple networks for a ubiquitous connectivity environment, users want a seamless experience. They have no appreciation of the background network, instead they simply want to stay connected 24/7, regardless the location and minus the hassle as well complexity. Unfortunately, networks and devices do not have the intelligence to provide a seamless experience to users. This whitepaper looks at the mechanism required to provide intelligence on behalf of the networks and devices. The whole process should be transparent to end users for a more meaningful ubiquitous experience. 01 WHITEPAPER
  5. 5. Ubiquitous Connectivity: The Evolution from E-mania to M-mania The combination of computers and Internet led to emergence of E-mania approximately 15 years ago. Needless to say, since then, we evolved from the traditional way of life to a digital one. Letters took on an electronic-form; bills turned virtual and paid through e-payment portals and the list goes on. However, over the last decade, the emergence of light-weight and intelligent devices such as smartphones, netbooks and UMPCs have played an imperative role in radicalizing the way people communicate today. Global Information Inc. finds that the lines between the mobile phone and computer industry have become more and more blurred with users demanding portability and mobility as well as ubiquitous access to data and applications. Welcome to the era of M-mania. To support the demand for an ‘always-on’ and robust connectivity backbone, the telecommunication industry has undergone waves of continuous transformation involving the D-N-A of connectivity – devices, network and applications. Figure 1: Developments in the D-N-A of Connectivity Devices End-user devices which range from modems, handhelds and laptops /netbooks are beginning to support two competing technologies within the same device, for example 3G and WiMAX. Late 2008, Sprint launched an USB Modem which caters for both WiMAX and CDMA. Sprint said that this modem connect to a WiMAX network and if the user moves out of the WiMAX region, the modem would automatically switch to a CDMA network. This trend in connectivity clearly makes way for the realization of ubiquitous connectivity. Users want the Internet in the palm of their hands – to stay connected and communicate anytime and anywhere, even on the go. Dual network devices help users achieve this, where if the user moves out of Network A’s coverage region, he can remain connected to the Internet through Network B. 02 Figure 2 and 3 show some of the multi-network devices in the market today. WHITEPAPER
  6. 6. Figure 2: Sprint’s USB modem supporting WiMAX and Figure 3: Yota’s latest phone which supports Mobile WiMAX, WiFi, CDMA GSM, GPRS and Edge Networks – Going Multi Operators around the world are turning multi-network through partnership and/or ownership strategies to establish themselves as a multi-network Operator. Their objective is to diversify their network offering with the aim of providing better connectivity. Some of the Operators adopting this strategy include incumbents like Comstar-UTS (Russia), Globe Telecom (Phillipines), Zain Bahrain (Bahrain), Mobilink (Pakistan) and PCCW Limited (Hong Kong). Here’s a brief overview on Comstar-UTS who began offering multiple networks to introduce seamless access for its subscribers. Comstar-UTS, Russia Comstar-UTS started operations by offering fixed-line and broadband services, then expanded services to include WiMAX and 3G (via a merging agreement with MTS). With multiple networks under its nose, Comstar-UTS introduced its Seamless Access Strategy to enable seamless data connectivity across multiple mobility devices and wireless networks. The goal is to provide subscribers with a choice of multiple networks to enable ubiquitous connectivity, through a consolidated billing process. Applications This decade has simply witnessed an explosion in data, with demands for triple-play applications – data, voice and TV. From video streaming to gaming, these data-gobbling applications require stable and low latency networks. On the other hand, some applications such as instant messaging do not require high bandwidth and low latency. From a user’s point of view, they are not concerned about which network they are connected to – all that matters is that they can successfully execute their intended action through the Internet. As such, applications need a form of intelligence that map users to the best network based on their location and amount of bandwidth required for a decent quality of service. This ensure users enjoy a good connectivity experience efficiently. For example, a user who is streaming while stationary would be happy to be serviced by his WiMAX connection, however as he moves and requires mobility, the best network to ride on is 3G. Hence, while accessing an 03 application, he is seamlessly handed over through different networks to enjoy optimum connectivity experience. WHITEPAPER
  7. 7. The Challenge: Providing Seamless User Experience What’s the Common Need? The developments highlighted in the earlier section encompassing device, network and applications are certainly to be applauded. However, the real value depends on providing a single seamless user experience. To achieve this, the following has to take place: • Network Convergence • Multi-network Devices Network Convergence Single network Operators will not be able to provide an end-to-end connectivity blanket for an entire country. Similarly, no single technology can claim full superiority due to inevitable factors such as cost, penetration issues and geographical limitations. As a solution, multiple networks need to be integrated for a unified, single-network experience for users. There are several benefits of unifying networks: 1. Reduces investment cost 2. Ever-present connectivity (eliminates blind spots) 3. Enables fixed and mobile access 4. Combats network congestion Reduces Investment Cost Theoretically, realizing ubiquitous connectivity means the Operator has to ensure 100% coverage throughtout the country or region under its charter. While this might seem like the utopia of connectivity, the investment involved for building the infrastructure is humongous. As such, Operators establish coverage sharing partnerships so that their subscribers are transparently made to roam across different networks as they move from one area to another. While the subscriber is oblivious of the handover (as there is no connectivity interuption), an Operator is able to extend a wider coverage without spending the actual investment required for such coverage. For example in Australia, 3, Telstra and Vodafone have entered into a roaming partnership. In areas not covered by 3’s 3G network, subscribers are automatically made to roam on Telstra’s networks. This agreement allows 3 to offer its services to blanket 96% of the Australian population. In certain areas, subscribers may roam to Vodafone’s network. Another alternative involves inter-network roaming agreements, for example between any 3G/CDMA/WLAN network and in the future, even WiMAX and LTE which is expected to materialize soon. 04 WHITEPAPER
  8. 8. Ever-present Connectivity In this generation of Mobile 2.0, an ever-present, ubiquitous connectivity is a key ingredient. However, its realization is still taking course due to the dilemma between user expectation and Operator’s inability to meet the expectation. Users want to enjoy uninterrupted bandwidth-hungry services but have no appreciation of the background network/ connectivity. They simply want access to content and services anytime, anywhere, even while on the move. On the other hand, Operators are not able to provide high-speed and generous bandwidth everywhere. Bad network sectors due to blind spots with no network coverage are inevitable. The diagram below illustrates a typical network coverage situation in a particular area. A 3G/HSPA Operator will not be able to provide coverage in the entire area. At the same time, WiMAX might co-exist which produces a completely covered area as far as connectivity is concerned. A GPRS/EDGE 3G/HSPA WiMAX B GPRS/EDGE 3G/HSPA Figure 4: A typical area with different network technologies co-existing By converging networks, a user travelling in a car, connected to 3G and streaming from YouTube can move from A to B without losing connection because in the background, his device seamlessly roams from 3G-WiMAX-GPRS/EDGE-3G. Of course this is only possible if there is a prior network roaming agreement between the corresponding Operators. With multiple networks co-existing and compensating each other, blind spots can be eliminated. In other instances, Operators without license to deploy in certain locations can fallback on other networks to ensure their subscribers obtain connectivity everywhere they go. Enables Fixed and Mobile Access The customer is always right. Meeting their demands is often a challenge for many, including Operators. While 5 years ago, users were satisfied in having fixed broadband in their home and offices, the scenario has now changed. With the proliferation of Internet-enabled mobile devices, users now want broadband to follow them everywhere they go. Unfortunately, fixed and mobile broadband are two different worlds and initially, Operators 05 were offering them separately. However, with the change in demand, Operators are now making moves to offer both fixed and mobile access through bundling. WHITEPAPER
  9. 9. One such Operator is France Telecom (FT). In 2005, FT implemented the NExT strategy which aims to offer subscribers a new experience in telecom services. From a research conducted by Orange (FT operates under the well-established commercial brand of Orange), in Europe 35% of households (year 2008) subscribed to four services which includes fixed phone, broadband, pay TV and mobile, an increase from 16% earlier reported in 2006. In 2008, 63% of European households subscribed to both mobile and (fixed) broadband services. These findings prompted FT to offer subscribers an integrated network for a ubiquitous broadband experience. The network components include ADSL, ADSL2+ for fixed broadband and 3G and 3G+ for mobile broadband and mobile multimedia. Combat Network Congestion The influx of data traffic is threatening networks with congestion, especially amongst cellular networks which support voice and data. With Operators turning multi-network, an alternative is available most of the time. As such, data traffic can be offloaded to the alternative network to free up bandwidth on the former network, resulting in more efficient network performance. WiMAX and 3G are being viewed from this perspective and industry experts are supporting the notion of both networks to co-exist in a friendly manner – WiMAX provides the data overlay network solution to existing 2.5G/3G, and takes on data traffic load to ease congestion on the latter networks. 2.5G/3G background network WiMAX hotspots overlay Figure 5: WiMAX and 3G to co-exist as data offloading partner Multi-network Devices While on the network level, Operators are taking initiatives to create ubiquitous connectivity, the telecoms industry needs more multi network devices to support these initiatives. In this decade, we have seen the tip of such devices. Ultimately, the utopia of devices is to be network independent. End user devices produced should function with all networks and roam seamlessly from one to another. This ultimatum requires a huge shift in the industry’s mindset. Intervention from all network governing organizations is required for a common standard that can be adopted by 06 device manufacturers to fabricate network independent end user devices. WHITEPAPER
  10. 10. Fitting the Puzzle Together with Connection Managers From the earlier discussions, it is evident that network convergence and multi network devices play a role in making connectivity uniquitous. However, a mechanism is required to think on behalf of the networks and devices to maneuver the seamless handover between networks. This is the role played by a connection manager – it sits in end user devices and instructs the device when to handover connectivity to another network. The whole process should be transparent to end users for a more meaningful ubiquitous experience. Connection Manager’s Role in Enabling Ubiquitous Connectivity Ubiquitous connectivity refers to having access to the Internet anytime and anywhere. While it is not possible for a single network to provide complete coverage throughout a country or designated coverage area, alternative networks often exist to fill up the connectivity gaps. Users can be transferred to these alternative networks to provide continous connectivity while they are on the go. However, for the connection to seem ubiquitous, a user needs to be transferred to the second network transparently and without interruption – a process known as seamless handover. Seamless Handover Seamless handover is a result of two actions working together – first, an automatic handoff and second, session persistence. Automatic handoff. Connection managers feature preset connection profiles that provide the intelligence to trigger an automatic handoff. For example, some profiles can be based on: i) Preferred network – users can be transferred to another network based on preference and location. ii) Bandwidth availability – users can be transferred based on bandwidth availability, whereby a person on a cellular network (limited bandwidth) can be moved to a WiMAX network when available. iii) Signal strength – if the signal of the current network weakens, user can be tranferred to the next available network with stronger signal strength. Based on preset connection profiles, a connection manager performs the handoff from network A to network B. The handoff is conducted automatically, transparently and seamlessly to ensure the connectivity session continues. Session persistence. During the process of handing over a user from network A to network B, a feature called ‘session persistence’ is required to ensure connectivity is not broken. Session persistence is made possible through several technologies/methodologies. One such technology is Mobile IP. 07 WHITEPAPER
  11. 11. Mobile IP, an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard communications protocol, is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining their permanent (single) IP address. With the provision of a single IP address, users are able to stay connected even while switching networks. As such, Operators are able to offer users access to any broadband network (regardless the time or location), offering a magnitude of bandwidth and speed without interruption. Mobile IP is network and OS independent, hence it is an ideal technology to unify all operating systems and networks to create an impression of single, unified network. The process of seamless handover is illustrated in the diagram below. 3G WiMAX 1 User at the edge of 3G, on the verge of losing connection. 2 Based on preset rules, the connection manager detects the weakening 3G signal and prepares to handoff the user to the next available network – WiMAX. 3 Connection manager holds the connection session (session persistence) during the handoff to WiMAX. 3G WiMAX 4 User is successfully transferred to WiMAX without any interruption in connectivity. Figure 6: How connection managers enable ubiquitous connectivity 08 WHITEPAPER
  12. 12. Multi Network Support The underlying concept beneath ubiquitous connectivity is having access to alternative networks. As a result, the connection manager must be network independent in order to support all common networks available throughout the world. Additionally, universal authentication methods as such EAP SIM, EAP AKA, EAP PEAP, EAP LEAP. WISPr, EAPTTLS, EAP TLS and EAP MD5 should be supported to ensure legitimate users are accessing the network. Multi Device Support Aside from being multi-network, it is important that the connection manager supports multiple devices. An Operator will not be able to control the type and brand of devices used by subscribers. Thus, the connection manager has to be compatible with most major devices for a consistent user experience and easy to maintain by Operators. Revenue Generation Opportunities Connection managers are versatile and can be used as a dashboard to access value-added services (VAS) – an opportunity to increase revenue. Being a utility that users interface with daily (to get connected), Operators can leverage on connection managers to host wide range of multimedia content and applications that complements the lifestyle needs of users and enriches their connectivity experience. Additionally, Operators can aggregate, publish and push value-added services, for example exclusive online games, community blogs, music, productivity tools and much more via a single touch-point. 09 WHITEPAPER
  13. 13. Greenpacket, Partnering Operators for a Ubiquitous World At Greenpacket, we offer a connectivity management platform that helps Operators converge networks and devices to form a ubiquitous world for their users. Our Intouch Connection Management Platform (ICMP) is the industry’s leading intelligent connection management solution, offering Operators an end-to-end solution designed to converge connection management, communication services and entertainment within a single client. It simplifies and enriches the connectivity experience of users while giving Operators the opportunity to increase ARPU. Through its seamless mobility feature, ICMP provides an immediate and cost-effective method to offload data traffic to less congested networks based on preset profiles. As a result, users benefit from an improved connectivity service. On the other hand, Operators stay in control of bandwidth utilization by optimizing the use of current infrastructure and are able to reduce CAPEX expenditure required to upgrade infrastructure. Free Consultation! If you would like a free consultation on converging your networks, contact us at marketing.gp@greenpacket.com (kindly quote the reference code WP0310 when you contact us). 10 WHITEPAPER
  14. 14. References 1. The Importance of Being Ubiquitous: Wireless Mesh Deployment in Saskatchewan by Michael O’Neil, IT In Canada 2. Mobile Data Traffic has Overtaken Voice, Ericsson (published by GSMA Mobile Business Briefing) 3. Mobile Broadband Networks Today and Tomorrow, Magnus Ewerbring, Director WCDMA Radio Access Networks, Ericsson 4. Devicescape Wi-Fi survey: 85 percent want seamless switching between 3G and WiFi by MuniWireless 5. Russia Telecommunications Report Q4 2009 by Business Monitor International 6. Comstar WiMAX project, Alexander Gorbunov, VP Strategy & Development, Comstar-UTS 11 WHITEPAPER
  15. 15. About Green Packet Greenpacket is the international arm of the Green Packet Berhad group of companies which is listed on the Main Board of the Malaysian Bourse. Founded in San Francisco’s Silicon Valley in 2000 and now headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Greenpacket has a presence in 9 countries and is continuously expanding to be near its customers and in readiness for new markets. We are a leading developer of Next Generation Mobile Broadband and Networking Solutions for Telecommunications Operators across the globe. Our mission is to provide seamless and unified platforms for the delivery of user-centric multimedia communications services regardless of the nature and availability of backbone infrastructures. At Greenpacket, we pride ourselves on being constantly at the forefront of technology. Our leading carrier-grade solutions and award-winning consumer devices help Telecommunications Operators open new avenues, meet new demands, and enrich the lifestyles of their subscribers, while forging new relationships. We see a future of limitless freedom in wireless communications and continuously commit to meeting the needs of our customers with leading edge solutions. With product development centers in USA, Shanghai, and Taiwan, we are on the cutting edge of new developments in 4G (particularly WiMAX and LTE), as well as in software advancement. Our leadership position in the Telco industry is further enhanced by our strategic alliances with leading industry players. Additionally, our award-winning WiMAX modems have successfully completed interoperability tests with major WiMAX players and are being used by the world’s largest WiMAX Operators. We are also the leading carrier solutions provider in APAC catering to both 4G and 3G networks and aim to be No. 1 globally by the end of 2010. For more information, visit: www.greenpacket.com. San Francisco · Kuala Lumpur · Singapore · Shanghai · Taipei · Sydney · Manama · Bangkok Associate Member Copyright © 2001-2010 Green Packet Berhad. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language, in any form by any means, without the written permission of Green Packet Berhad. Green Packet Berhad reserves the right to modify or discontinue any product or piece of literature at anytime without prior notice.

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