CONTENTS      Review4-1   Past participle4-2   Forms of the present perfect4-3   Meanings of the present perfect4-4   Simp...
4-1 PAST PARTICIPLEShe has forgotten his name.                              2
4-1 PAST PARTICIPLE              SIMPLE      SIMPLE     PAST              FORM        PAST       PARTICIPLEREGULAR        ...
4-1 LET’S PRACTICESIMPLE          SIMPLE   PASTFORM            PAST     PARTICIPLEstop           stopped   stoppedgo      ...
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTHe has finished all his work.                                    5
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(a) I have worked very hard this year.(b) The students have worked hard.(c) Alex has worke...
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(d) I’ve/You’ve/We’ve/They’ve gone home.(e) She’s/He’s gone home.(f) It’s been hot all wee...
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(g) I have not gone home yet.(h) Fatima has not gone home.NEGATIVE: have/has + not + past ...
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(g) I haven’t gone home yet.(h) Fatima hasn’t gone home.NEGATIVE: have/has + not + past pa...
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT                 (i) Have you read                       the report?                      ...
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(j) Has Marcy gone home?(k) How long have you worked there?  QUESTION :  have/has + subjec...
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(l)    No, I haven’t. I      have only read a        Have you read all        few pages.  ...
4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(m)      Has Kyung              Yes, she has. She      finished her           did it after...
4-2 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECT             you                           touch                            ever         ...
4-2 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECT              touch                             never                      I’ve never tou...
4-2 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECT                             Justin                              see_________________ a s...
4-2 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECTYes, he ___. He saw one near Cape Town,        hasSouth Africa.                          ...
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTTyler has taken his           Zoe hasn’t walkedfirst steps.                  by herself...
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTPRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1: SOMETHING HAPPENEDBEFORE NOW AT AN UNSPECIFIED TIME         ...
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1(a) Tyler has already taken his first steps.(b) Zoe hasn’t walked by herself ...
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1(a) Tyler has already taken his first steps.(b) Zoe hasn’t walked by herself ...
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1(d) Mary has painted portraits many times.(e) Her students have painted portr...
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1(d) Mary has painted portraits many times.(e) Her students have painted portr...
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTPRESENT PERFECT MEANING #2: A SITUATION BEGAN IN THE PAST AND CONTINUES TO THE PRESENT....
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT MEANING #2(f) We’ve been working since 8 o’clock.(g) I have played the violin for six ...
4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #2:(f) We’ve been working since 8 o’clock.                      now         8:0...
4-3 LET’S PRACTICEKyung has already taken the test.MEANING #1: Something happened beforenow at an unspecified time.       ...
4-3 LET’S PRACTICE  I’ve been studying since 8 AM.MEANING #1: Something happenedbefore now at an unspecified time         ...
4-3 LET’S PRACTICERosa has been to Italy three times.MEANING #1: Something happenedbefore now at an unspecified time      ...
4-4 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTI had an angel fish         I have had many otherwhen I was a child.         fish since...
4-4 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(a) They completed the game at 4:00.                                     spe...
4-4 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(c) I was in Nigeria when I was five years old.                             ...
4-4 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(e) Jack camped in France for 9 days. for          activity began & ended in...
4-4 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED OR          UNSPECIFIED TIME   ?       We have been in Tokyo       many times.                ...
4-4 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED OR          UNSPECIFIED TIME   ?    Barry has never been to Tokyo.                         PRE...
4-4 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED OR          UNSPECIFIED TIME   ?         Gina went to Tokyo         last month.       SPECIFIE...
4-5 USING SINCE AND FORI have been here since 6:00 AM.                                  37
4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR                               since noon.                               since Wednesday.          ...
4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR(b) CORRECT: I have studied English since 2007.   CORRECT: I have used a computer since 2007.      ...
4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR(b) CORRECT: I have studied English since 2007.   CORRECT: I have used a computer since 2007.      ...
4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR(b) CORRECT: I have studied English since 2007.   CORRECT: I have used a computer since 2007.      ...
4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR    MAIN CLAUSE                  SINCE-CLAUSE    (present perfect)            (simple past)(f) I ha...
4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR                                for fifty minutes.                                for five hours.  ...
4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR(i) I have worked here for twelve years.   I got a job here twelve years ago, and I still have it. ...
4-5 LET’S PRACTICE                       3 hours                     she was six           Mary has been playing the piano...
4-5 LET’S PRACTICE                he started school                    15 years             Alejandro has studied English ...
4-5 LET’S PRACTICE                           for                          sinceI have driven a taxi _____ 2006.           ...
PHOTO CREDITS Images used under license from:• Shutterstock, Inc.                                   48                    ...
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Basic 11 - Present Perfect

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Basic 11 - Present Perfect

  1. 1. CONTENTS Review4-1 Past participle4-2 Forms of the present perfect4-3 Meanings of the present perfect4-4 Simple past vs. present perfect4-5 Using since and for4-6 Present perfect progressive4-7 Present perfect progressive vs. present perfect4-8 Using already, yet, still, and anymore4-9 Past perfect 1
  2. 2. 4-1 PAST PARTICIPLEShe has forgotten his name. 2
  3. 3. 4-1 PAST PARTICIPLE SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST FORM PAST PARTICIPLEREGULAR finish finished finishedVERBS stop stopped stopped wait waited waited see saw seenIRREGULAR make made madeVERBS put put put past perfect tense present perfect tense 3
  4. 4. 4-1 LET’S PRACTICESIMPLE SIMPLE PASTFORM PAST PARTICIPLEstop stopped stoppedgo went gonetake took takenwrite wrote written 4
  5. 5. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTHe has finished all his work. 5
  6. 6. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(a) I have worked very hard this year.(b) The students have worked hard.(c) Alex has worked very hard. STATEMENT: have/has + past participle 6
  7. 7. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(d) I’ve/You’ve/We’ve/They’ve gone home.(e) She’s/He’s gone home.(f) It’s been hot all week. CONTRACTION : pronoun + have = ’ve pronoun + has =k’s 7
  8. 8. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(g) I have not gone home yet.(h) Fatima has not gone home.NEGATIVE: have/has + not + past participle 8
  9. 9. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(g) I haven’t gone home yet.(h) Fatima hasn’t gone home.NEGATIVE: have/has + not + past participleNEGATIVE CONTRACTION: have + not = haven’t has + not = hasn’t 9
  10. 10. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT (i) Have you read the report? 10
  11. 11. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(j) Has Marcy gone home?(k) How long have you worked there? QUESTION : have/has + subject + past participle 11
  12. 12. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(l) No, I haven’t. I have only read a Have you read all few pages. of this article? SHORT ANSWER: have/haven’t 12
  13. 13. 4-2 FORMS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT(m) Has Kyung Yes, she has. She finished her did it after school. homework? SHORT ANSWER: has/hasn’t 13
  14. 14. 4-2 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECT you touch ever Have you ever touched ___________________ a snake? 14
  15. 15. 4-2 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECT touch never I’ve never touched No, ________________ a snake. 15
  16. 16. 4-2 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECT Justin see_________________ a shark?Has Justin ever seen ever 16
  17. 17. 4-2 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECTYes, he ___. He saw one near Cape Town, hasSouth Africa. 17
  18. 18. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTTyler has taken his Zoe hasn’t walkedfirst steps. by herself yet. 18
  19. 19. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTPRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1: SOMETHING HAPPENEDBEFORE NOW AT AN UNSPECIFIED TIME 19
  20. 20. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1(a) Tyler has already taken his first steps.(b) Zoe hasn’t walked by herself yet.(c) Have you ever seen Zoe crawl? occurred before now or sometime in the past 20
  21. 21. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1(a) Tyler has already taken his first steps.(b) Zoe hasn’t walked by herself yet.(c) Have you ever seen Zoe crawl? before now now X X time? 21
  22. 22. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1(d) Mary has painted portraits many times.(e) Her students have painted portraits twice. activity repeated before now, unspecified past times 22
  23. 23. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #1(d) Mary has painted portraits many times.(e) Her students have painted portraits twice. before now now X XX X 23
  24. 24. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTPRESENT PERFECT MEANING #2: A SITUATION BEGAN IN THE PAST AND CONTINUES TO THE PRESENT. 24
  25. 25. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT MEANING #2(f) We’ve been working since 8 o’clock.(g) I have played the violin for six years. I learned to play six years ago, and I still play it. since present perfect + for past present 25
  26. 26. 4-3 MEANINGS OF THE PRESENT PERFECTMEANING #2:(f) We’ve been working since 8 o’clock. now 8:00 x x x 26
  27. 27. 4-3 LET’S PRACTICEKyung has already taken the test.MEANING #1: Something happened beforenow at an unspecified time. OR ?MEANING #2: A situation began in thepast and continues to the present. 27
  28. 28. 4-3 LET’S PRACTICE I’ve been studying since 8 AM.MEANING #1: Something happenedbefore now at an unspecified time OR ?MEANING #2: A situation began in thepast and continues to the present 28
  29. 29. 4-3 LET’S PRACTICERosa has been to Italy three times.MEANING #1: Something happenedbefore now at an unspecified time OR ?MEANING #2: A situation began in thepast and continues to the present 29
  30. 30. 4-4 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTI had an angel fish I have had many otherwhen I was a child. fish since then. 30
  31. 31. 4-4 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(a) They completed the game at 4:00. specific timePRESENT PERFECT(b) They have already completed the game. unspecified time 31
  32. 32. 4-4 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(c) I was in Nigeria when I was five years old. specific timePRESENT PERFECT(d) I have been in Nigeria three times. unspecified time 32
  33. 33. 4-4 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(e) Jack camped in France for 9 days. for activity began & ended in pastPRESENT PERFECT since last Monday.(f) Eli has been camping for 9 days.for / since activity began & continues 33
  34. 34. 4-4 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED OR UNSPECIFIED TIME ? We have been in Tokyo many times. PRESENT UNSPECIFIED PERFECT 34
  35. 35. 4-4 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED OR UNSPECIFIED TIME ? Barry has never been to Tokyo. PRESENT UNSPECIFIED PERFECT 35
  36. 36. 4-4 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED OR UNSPECIFIED TIME ? Gina went to Tokyo last month. SPECIFIED SIMPLE PAST 36
  37. 37. 4-5 USING SINCE AND FORI have been here since 6:00 AM. 37
  38. 38. 4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR since noon. since Wednesday. since April.(a) I have worked here since 2006. since May 9, 2007. since yesterday. since last week. Since Specific point in time 38
  39. 39. 4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR(b) CORRECT: I have studied English since 2007. CORRECT: I have used a computer since 2007. present perfect + since(c) INCORRECT: I am studying English since 2007. present progressive NOT used 39
  40. 40. 4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR(b) CORRECT: I have studied English since 2007. CORRECT: I have used a computer since 2007. present perfect + since(d) INCORRECT: I study English since 2007. simple present NOT used 40
  41. 41. 4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR(b) CORRECT: I have studied English since 2007. CORRECT: I have used a computer since 2007. present perfect + since(e) INCORRECT: I studied English since 2007. INCORRECT: I was study English since 2007. simple past NOT used 41
  42. 42. 4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR MAIN CLAUSE SINCE-CLAUSE (present perfect) (simple past)(f) I have known her since I was fifteen.(g) Jim has played many sports since he tried soccer. Since time clause 42
  43. 43. 4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR for fifty minutes. for five hours. for ten days.(h) I have worked here for about six weeks. for almost two months. for many years. for a long time. For length of time 43
  44. 44. 4-5 USING SINCE AND FOR(i) I have worked here for twelve years. I got a job here twelve years ago, and I still have it. present perfect + for + length of time past present(j) I played sports for fifteen years. I am too busy now. simple past past present 44
  45. 45. 4-5 LET’S PRACTICE 3 hours she was six Mary has been playing the piano she was six since ___________. Mary has been playing the piano three hours for ___________. 45
  46. 46. 4-5 LET’S PRACTICE he started school 15 years Alejandro has studied English he started school since ________________. Alejandro has studied English fifteen years for __________________. 46
  47. 47. 4-5 LET’S PRACTICE for sinceI have driven a taxi _____ 2006. sinceMy uncle has driven a taxi ____ thirty years. for 47
  48. 48. PHOTO CREDITS Images used under license from:• Shutterstock, Inc. 48 48
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