Chapter 1 Atomic Structure


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Chapter 1 Atomic Structure

  1. 1. Chemical Interactions <ul><li>Chapter 1: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table </li></ul>
  2. 2. Section 1.1 All Atoms are the Smallest Form of Elements.
  3. 3. All matter is made of atoms. <ul><li>All matter is made of atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 100 basic elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is the most abundant element in Earth’s crust. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is 90% of the total mass of the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% of Earth’s crust. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Continued <ul><li>Every element has a unique name. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names come from many different sources. Some from Greek, Latin, people, planets, places, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each element has a unique symbol. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first letter is CAPITALIZED. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second and third are lower case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen – H </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cobalt – Co </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon – C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unnilpentium - Unp </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Each element is made of a different atom. <ul><li>John Dalton proposed the first atomic theory in the 1800’s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each element is made of tiny particles called atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumed that atoms could NOT be divided into anything smaller. HE WAS WRONG! Scientists have discovered over 200 subatomic particles. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Continued <ul><li>Atoms are made of smaller (subatomic) particles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus – At the center of the atom, contains almost all of the atom’s mass. Contains protons and neutrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons – (+) charge, some mass, in the nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons – no charge, have mass, in the nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons – (-) charge, travel on the electron cloud, no mass (very small), neutral atoms have the same number of protons and electrons. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Continued – See page 11
  8. 8. Continued <ul><li>Atomic Number: Number of protons in the atom </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass: The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Atoms form ions. <ul><li>Atoms form ions when they gain or lose electrons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A gain results in a (-) negative ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A loss results in a (+) positive ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are normally gained or lost in pairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of electrons is NOW different than the number of protons. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Continued – See page 14 <ul><li>Na has lost one electron: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is now positively charged (1+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The positive ion is smaller than the neutral atom because it has fewer electrons bouncing around. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The symbol on the ion represents the number of electrons gained (-) or lost (+). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Continued – See page 15 <ul><li>Chlorine has gained one electron: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is now negatively charged (1-). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The negative ion is larger than the neutral atom because it has more electrons bounding around. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Section 1.2 Elements Make up the Periodic Table
  13. 13. Elements can be organized by similarities. <ul><li>Dimitri Mendeleev made the first periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass is used to organize elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements with similar properties are placed in the same rows. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The periodic table organizes the atoms of the elements by properties and atomic number. <ul><li>PT organized by atomic number. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the following about each element. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average atomic mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State at room temperature </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Continued – pg. 22 <ul><li>Group (Family): a column of elements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The elements in a group have similar properties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Period: a row of elements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These elements have chemical properties that tend to change the same way across the table. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Continued – pg. 23 <ul><li>Properties like atomic size, density, and likelihood to form ions vary in regular ways up, down, and across the periodic table. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Section 1.3 The Periodic Table is a Map of the Elements
  18. 19. The periodic table has distinct regions.
  19. 20. Continue – pg. 26 <ul><li>Reactivity is indicated by the atoms position on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups 1 – 17 are especially reactive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 18 is least reactive. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Most elements are metals. <ul><li>Metals are usually shiny, often conduct electricity and heat well, and can be easily shaped and drawn into wire. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury is the EXCEPTION, it is a liquid at room temperature (most metals are solids). </li></ul>
  21. 22. Reactive Metals <ul><li>Alkali Metals: Group 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located at the far left of the periodic table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>React rapidly with oxygen and water vapor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located at the left of the periodic table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less, but still very reactive. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Continued – pg. 27
  23. 24. Transition Metals <ul><li>Groups 3 – 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Generally less reactive than most other metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Include copper, gold, silver, and iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily shaped </li></ul>
  24. 25. Rare Earth Metals <ul><li>Located in the top row of the two rows outside the main body of the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Lanthanides </li></ul><ul><li>Not really that </li></ul><ul><li>rare, just hard </li></ul><ul><li>to isolate in </li></ul><ul><li>pure form. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Nonmetals and metalloids have a wide range of properties. <ul><li>Nonmetals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located at the right side of the table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include elements with a wide range of properties. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Continued – pg. 29 <ul><li>Properties vary from one to the other more than the metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are gases. </li></ul><ul><li>One is a liquid (bromine). </li></ul><ul><li>Have dull surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally poor conductors of electricity and heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Air is made mostly of oxygen and nitrogen. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Halogens <ul><li>Group 17. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt forming (metal + nonmetal). </li></ul><ul><li>Very reactive nonmetals that easily form compounds called salts with many metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to kill harmful microorganisms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doctor’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offices. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Noble Gases <ul><li>Group 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Inert – they almost never react with other elements. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Metalloids <ul><li>Lie between metals and nonmetals in the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Have characteristics of metals and nonmetals. </li></ul><ul><li>An important use is in the making of semiconductors for electronic devices. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Some atoms change their identity. <ul><li>Radioactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nucleus is held together by forces. Sometimes there are too few or too many neutrons in the nucleus, so the forces cannot hold it together properly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is released and the nucleus produces particles or rejects particles to regain its stability. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Continued – pg. 30 <ul><li>If the production of particles changes the number of protons, the atom is transformed into a different element. </li></ul><ul><li>The identity of an element is determined by the number of protons in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Curie was the first to isolate two radioactive elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactivity is measured with a Geiger counter. The clicks indicate particles being produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Many medical uses for radiation. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Radioactive Decay <ul><li>The process of an element being changed into a different element. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs at a steady rate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half-life: time it takes to transform half of the atoms in a sample to a different element. </li></ul></ul>