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Chapter 1 Atomic Structure

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Transcript

  • 1. Chemical Interactions
    • Chapter 1: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
  • 2. Section 1.1 All Atoms are the Smallest Form of Elements.
  • 3. All matter is made of atoms.
    • All matter is made of atoms.
    • There are about 100 basic elements.
    • Hydrogen is the most abundant element in Earth’s crust.
      • It is 90% of the total mass of the universe
      • 1% of Earth’s crust.
  • 4. Continued
    • Every element has a unique name.
      • Names come from many different sources. Some from Greek, Latin, people, planets, places, etc.
    • Each element has a unique symbol.
      • The first letter is CAPITALIZED.
      • The second and third are lower case.
        • Hydrogen – H
        • Cobalt – Co
        • Carbon – C
        • Unnilpentium - Unp
  • 5. Each element is made of a different atom.
    • John Dalton proposed the first atomic theory in the 1800’s.
      • Each element is made of tiny particles called atoms.
      • Assumed that atoms could NOT be divided into anything smaller. HE WAS WRONG! Scientists have discovered over 200 subatomic particles.
  • 6. Continued
    • Atoms are made of smaller (subatomic) particles.
      • Nucleus – At the center of the atom, contains almost all of the atom’s mass. Contains protons and neutrons.
      • Protons – (+) charge, some mass, in the nucleus
      • Neutrons – no charge, have mass, in the nucleus
      • Electrons – (-) charge, travel on the electron cloud, no mass (very small), neutral atoms have the same number of protons and electrons.
  • 7. Continued – See page 11
  • 8. Continued
    • Atomic Number: Number of protons in the atom
    • Atomic Mass: The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
    • Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
  • 9. Atoms form ions.
    • Atoms form ions when they gain or lose electrons.
      • A gain results in a (-) negative ion
      • A loss results in a (+) positive ion
      • Electrons are normally gained or lost in pairs.
      • The number of electrons is NOW different than the number of protons.
  • 10. Continued – See page 14
    • Na has lost one electron:
      • It is now positively charged (1+)
      • The positive ion is smaller than the neutral atom because it has fewer electrons bouncing around.
      • The symbol on the ion represents the number of electrons gained (-) or lost (+).
  • 11. Continued – See page 15
    • Chlorine has gained one electron:
      • It is now negatively charged (1-).
      • The negative ion is larger than the neutral atom because it has more electrons bounding around.
  • 12. Section 1.2 Elements Make up the Periodic Table
  • 13. Elements can be organized by similarities.
    • Dimitri Mendeleev made the first periodic table.
    • Atomic mass is used to organize elements.
    • Elements with similar properties are placed in the same rows.
  • 14. The periodic table organizes the atoms of the elements by properties and atomic number.
    • PT organized by atomic number.
    • Contains the following about each element.
      • Atomic number
      • Chemical symbol
      • Name
      • Average atomic mass
      • State at room temperature
  • 15.  
  • 16. Continued – pg. 22
    • Group (Family): a column of elements.
      • The elements in a group have similar properties.
    • Period: a row of elements.
      • These elements have chemical properties that tend to change the same way across the table.
  • 17. Continued – pg. 23
    • Properties like atomic size, density, and likelihood to form ions vary in regular ways up, down, and across the periodic table.
  • 18. Section 1.3 The Periodic Table is a Map of the Elements
  • 19. The periodic table has distinct regions.
  • 20. Continue – pg. 26
    • Reactivity is indicated by the atoms position on the periodic table.
      • Groups 1 – 17 are especially reactive.
      • Group 18 is least reactive.
  • 21. Most elements are metals.
    • Metals are usually shiny, often conduct electricity and heat well, and can be easily shaped and drawn into wire.
    • Mercury is the EXCEPTION, it is a liquid at room temperature (most metals are solids).
  • 22. Reactive Metals
    • Alkali Metals: Group 1
      • Located at the far left of the periodic table.
      • Very reactive
      • React rapidly with oxygen and water vapor.
    • Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2
      • Located at the left of the periodic table.
      • Less, but still very reactive.
  • 23. Continued – pg. 27
  • 24. Transition Metals
    • Groups 3 – 12
    • Generally less reactive than most other metals.
    • Include copper, gold, silver, and iron.
    • Easily shaped
  • 25. Rare Earth Metals
    • Located in the top row of the two rows outside the main body of the periodic table.
    • Lanthanides
    • Not really that
    • rare, just hard
    • to isolate in
    • pure form.
  • 26. Nonmetals and metalloids have a wide range of properties.
    • Nonmetals:
      • Located at the right side of the table.
      • Include elements with a wide range of properties.
  • 27. Continued – pg. 29
    • Properties vary from one to the other more than the metals.
    • Many are gases.
    • One is a liquid (bromine).
    • Have dull surfaces.
    • Cannot be shaped.
    • Generally poor conductors of electricity and heat.
    • Air is made mostly of oxygen and nitrogen.
  • 28. Halogens
    • Group 17.
    • Salt forming (metal + nonmetal).
    • Very reactive nonmetals that easily form compounds called salts with many metals.
    • Used to kill harmful microorganisms.
      • Chlorine in
      • pools.
      • Iodine in
      • doctor’s
      • offices.
  • 29. Noble Gases
    • Group 18
    • Inert – they almost never react with other elements.
  • 30. Metalloids
    • Lie between metals and nonmetals in the periodic table.
    • Have characteristics of metals and nonmetals.
    • An important use is in the making of semiconductors for electronic devices.
  • 31. Some atoms change their identity.
    • Radioactivity
      • The nucleus is held together by forces. Sometimes there are too few or too many neutrons in the nucleus, so the forces cannot hold it together properly.
      • Energy is released and the nucleus produces particles or rejects particles to regain its stability.
  • 32. Continued – pg. 30
    • If the production of particles changes the number of protons, the atom is transformed into a different element.
    • The identity of an element is determined by the number of protons in the nucleus.
    • Marie Curie was the first to isolate two radioactive elements.
    • Radioactivity is measured with a Geiger counter. The clicks indicate particles being produced.
    • Many medical uses for radiation.
  • 33. Radioactive Decay
    • The process of an element being changed into a different element.
    • Occurs at a steady rate.
      • Half-life: time it takes to transform half of the atoms in a sample to a different element.