History of the british empire

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  • 1. HISTORY OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE Postcolonial Literatures Prof. José Santiago Fdez. Vázquez
  • 2. 400 YEARS OF EMPIRE BUILDING (1497-1997)
  • 3. REASONS FOR EMPIRE BUILDING  Economic reasons  National prestige  Release from national conditions  Ideology
  • 4. THE FORMATION OF BRITAIN  Acts of Union with Wales: 1536 and 1543
  • 5. THE FORMATION OF BRITAIN  Acts of Union with Wales: 1536 and 1543  James VI as sovereign  Act of Union, 1707
  • 6. FIRST PHASE OF EMPIRE
  • 7. FIRST PHASE OF EMPIRE  Ireland as a colony:  Imposition of English as dominant language  Repression of indigenous population and development of a colonial foreign aristocracy  Ireland’s controversial “colonial status”
  • 8. THE ATLANTIC EMPIRE  Jamestown, Virginia (1607) ⇒ Native Americans
  • 9. THE ATLANTIC EMPIRE  Jamestown, Virginia (1607) ⇒ Native Americans  The West Indies ⇒ Seven Years War (1756-1763)  Plantations and slavery
  • 10. THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
  • 11. THE ATLANTIC EMPIRE (2) • American Independence (1776) • Slave trading outlawed (1807) • Slavery forbidden (1833)
  • 12. THE PACIFIC EMPIRE  James Cook’s voyages (1768- 1779)  Australian policy:  Terra nullius  Penal colony  New Zealand’s conquest (1840)  Dominion status  Treaty of Versailles (1919)  Statute of Westminster (1931)
  • 13. THE SECOND EMPIRE  1600: East Indian Company
  • 14. THE SECOND EMPIRE  1600: East Indian Company  Mughal Empire:  Established in 1526  Declining in 18th century
  • 15. THE SECOND EMPIRE  1600: East Indian Company  Mughal Empire:  Established in 1526  Declining in 18th century  Trading presence evolves into colonialism:  Armed struggle (1746-1761)  Doctrine of lapse + misgovernment
  • 16. THE SECOND EMPIRE (2)  East Indian Act (1773) + End of trade monopoly (1813): East Indian company controlled by government  India as an attractive destination for colonial officials  Transformation of India: language, economy, religion, social structure  1857-1858 Sepoy Mutiny
  • 17. THE SECOND EMPIRE (2)  East Indian Act (1773) + End of trade monopoly (1813): East Indian company controlled by government  India as an attractive destination for colonial officials  Transformation of India: language, economy, religion, social structure  1857-1858 Sepoy Mutiny  19th century control of Hong Kong + colonial influence on continental China
  • 18. THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA: 1880s & 1890s
  • 19. THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA  British colonies in Africa:  Egypt  Central African Federation (Rhodesia)  Nigeria  East Africa  South Africa (after Boer War of 1899-1902)  System of government:  Direct rule  Indirect rule
  • 20. THE MIDDLE EAST  After World War I  League of Nations mandate:  Mesopotamia (Iraq)  Palestine
  • 21. END OF EMPIRE  Emergence of a new superpower: USA  Irish Home Rule Bill (1912) ⇒ Fragmentation of Ireland (1922)  Anticolonial feeling in India: India and Pakistan (1947) + Ceylon (1948)  1960s: Most West Indian and African colonies Become independent  Mau Mau rising (1950s) ⇒ Kenya (1963)  Symbolic end of empire: Hong Kong (1948)
  • 22. LEGACY OF EMPIRE  New colonial borders in Africa and the Middle East  British Nationality Act (1948)  Diverse Britain