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2010: MyDisplay - Accessibility Preferences Aren't for Sissies
 

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Presentation given by Jonathan Hassell (Head of Audience Experience & Usability) at IMS Global Learning Impact Awards, Long Beach CA; Unitech 2010, Oslo; Interagency Dialogue on Cloud Computing and ...

Presentation given by Jonathan Hassell (Head of Audience Experience & Usability) at IMS Global Learning Impact Awards, Long Beach CA; Unitech 2010, Oslo; Interagency Dialogue on Cloud Computing and Auto-Personalization, Washington DC; BCS HCI workshop on
Accessibility, User Profiling & Adaptation, Dundee; and Access to digital content for education workshop, Tromsø in 2010.

Covers: how disabled people might be excluded from digital participation; disabled people's use of the web, compared to what it could be; if there's so much to gain, what's getting in the way; how current inclusion models don't help; how the BBC have learnt from our past attempts to provide information on assistive technologies and accessibility settings of browsers and operating systems; how the BBC have learnt from our attempts to provide site-based accessibility personalisation; how we've researched other people's 'AAA' tools and found 5 guidelines which successful tools need to follow; how we used those guidelines to direct the creation of our new 'MyDisplay' accessibility personalisation system which we have rolled out across bbc.co.uk; what early users think about MyDisplay and how we are testing it more widely; how global collaboration initiatives like GPII can help adoption of such tools and enable more disabled and elderly people to participate in the digital economy

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  • 27% of the total UK adult population (around 13.5 million people) is without access to the internet at home. <br /> This 27% is made up of: <br /> 21% (or 10.5 million people) who do not have the internet at home and do not use it outside the home (the focus of this research) and <br /> 6% (or 3.5 million) who do not have home internet access but who do use the internet outside the home. <br />
  • This is a broad group <br /> The fact they are older and less likely to be working is important in explaining why they are likely to be heavy media consumers <br /> Younger disabled people over-index the most <br /> The word ‘disabled’ can be highly contentious. For some it is a positive label, for others a negative label and for others irrelevant. Important to recognise that whether or not someone thinks of themselves as disabled is only 50% correlated with whether or not they have an impairment that has a substantial adverse long term effect. And it makes very little difference to attitudes to disability <br />
  • Was same for “yes”, “Very/quite” and “C4” <br /> BBC One = Regular or favourite viewers <br />
  • Was same for “yes”, “Very/quite” and “C4” <br /> BBC One = Regular or favourite viewers <br />
  • Was same for “yes”, “Very/quite” and “C4” <br /> BBC One = Regular or favourite viewers <br />
  • http://www.microsoft.com/enable/research/computerusers.aspx <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • if standards aren’t enough… <br /> Problem: People don’t know about OS/browsers settings or ATs? <br /> Answer: Let’s give them all the info in one website… My Web My Way (2006) <br /> +ve result: everyone tells us we have done a great thing… <br /> -ve result: despite many visitors, the idea is flawed… <br /> if you want to customise your web to read text to you… <br /> buy a computer and the Internet <br /> Find the BBC site <br /> Find the accessibility site <br /> Ask them what OS they have… then what browser they have… <br /> And if they are still with you, give them the info they need… in textual form… <br /> hmm... now moving information design to needs, not browsers… <br />
  • if standards aren’t enough… <br /> Problem: blind people found BBC site UX with early screenreaders difficult <br /> Answer: give them text only… Betsie (1998) <br /> +ve result: everyone tells us we have done a great thing… <br /> Problem: text only wasn’t enough for other users… <br /> Answer: do ‘Low Graphics’ for News (2003), accessibility settings for Ouch (2006) <br /> +ve result: we think people liked these (not enough research done…) <br /> Problem: settings didn’t go across the BBC <br /> Answer: create ‘Display Options’ (2007) <br /> +ve result: users liked it a bit… <br /> -ve result: site owners hated it – it slowed down their development <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • Why do we need and ATK? <br /> There is no such thing as truly inclusive design and some groups of users need to customise their experiences e.g. Deaf TV viewers require either BSL interpretation of Subtitles <br /> Background <br /> The ATK Beta project was a fundamental part of the Barlesque prototype made for iPlayer. Barlesque and the ATK Beta were the response to the BBC iPlayer accessibility requirements for a customisable interface that would allow users with poor vision as well as cognitive disorders and learning difficulties better access to the service. <br /> It was subsequently rolled out across a few other sites and pages such as the BBC.co.uk homepage. It has subsequently been removed from Barlesque pending redevelopment as a proper service. <br />
  • A group of 15 LFPs with; <br /> Dyslexia (Phonological, Orthographic or Visual) <br /> Asperger’s Syndrome or high functioning autism <br /> ADHD, <br /> Poor Vision (Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa) <br /> Mild to moderate Learning Difficulties <br /> The ATK 1.5 was ranked as the best by most users, however: <br /> Some of the tools were confusing at first to use, <br /> Too many were choices were displayed simultaneously <br /> The users wanted the tools to closer reference real word assistive aids <br /> There was some missing functionality <br /> BEST QUOTE: If the rest of the web was like this I would use it more often. <br /> From a person with ADHD who love to be able to use the web but it is visually too distracting and noisy. <br />
  • A group of 15 LFPs with; <br /> Dyslexia (Phonological, Orthographic or Visual) <br /> Asperger’s Syndrome or high functioning autism <br /> ADHD, <br /> Poor Vision (Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa) <br /> Mild to moderate Learning Difficulties <br /> The ATK 1.5 was ranked as the best by most users, however: <br /> Some of the tools were confusing at first to use, <br /> Too many were choices were displayed simultaneously <br /> The users wanted the tools to closer reference real word assistive aids <br /> There was some missing functionality <br /> BEST QUOTE: If the rest of the web was like this I would use it more often. <br /> From a person with ADHD who love to be able to use the web but it is visually too distracting and noisy. <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • Where they want is everywhere… where they can doesn’t cross any lines… <br /> That’s quite a challenge <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • You see what I’m saying. <br /> There is no reason why we shouldn’t do the same things in researching the needs of disabled people as we would non-disabled users. <br />
  • Using the cloud as a given… <br />
  • You see what I’m saying. <br /> There is no reason why we shouldn’t do the same things in researching the needs of disabled people as we would non-disabled users. <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • Keep disabled people in mind as you look at these slides… <br />
  • You see what I’m saying. <br /> There is no reason why we shouldn’t do the same things in researching the needs of disabled people as we would non-disabled users. <br />
  • SID:0105 <br />
  • Strategy and research <br /> researching users needs from technology <br /> and how evolving technology directions will present challenges and opportunities to supporting those needs <br /> standards <br /> setting the right international standards <br /> BS8878 =&gt; ISO... <br /> embedding <br /> training <br /> consultancy <br /> support tools <br /> innovation <br /> innovation through inclusion <br /> inclusion solutions <br /> finding the hard/costly barriers for inclusion <br /> finding ways to create solutions for them <br /> licensing those solutions at low cost to the widest number of websites <br />

2010: MyDisplay - Accessibility Preferences Aren't for Sissies Presentation Transcript

  • 1. © BBC 2010 Accessibility preferences aren’t for sissies… the importance of global collaboration in creating cloud-based auto-personalisation approaches Jonathan Hassell Head of Usability & Accessibility BBC Future Media & Technology For: Access to digital content for education workshop, Tromsø Nov 30 2010 First Presented: Unitech-2010, May 19 2010
  • 2. © BBC 2010 1. Why is collaboration important? - the common challenge…
  • 3. © BBC 2010 1a. The view from the UK… who might be excluded from Digital Participation?
  • 4. © BBC 2010 21% of UK adults do not have the net 67% are C2DE vs 45% of UK population at home, or use it elsewhere 10.5m adults aged 15+ Their average age is 61. More than half are 65+
  • 5. © BBC 2010 1b. Disabled people’s use of the web in the UK… … compared to what it could be
  • 6. © BBC 2010 Disabled people in the UK 11 million adults • More likely to be older – 47% over 65 compared to 20% of general population • Less likely to be working – 43% of disabled people of working age are working compared to 74% of general population • Heavy media consumers – Particularly of TV and radio • Only half see themselves as ‘disabled’ – This made little difference to attitudes to the media Sources: Experience and expectations of disabled people (ODI 2008), TGI, Disabled for Life (DWP 2002), Phase 3 research
  • 7. © BBC 2010 Internet use in the UK Sources: UK - EEDP (2008) and ONS (2007); US – FCC (2009) 42%Of disabled people in the UK have used the internet cf. USA figure: 42% 67%Of the general population in the UK have ever used the internet cf. USA figure: 65%
  • 8. © BBC 2010 Missing disabled internet audience… 58% of 11m = 6.4m cf. USA figure: 40m Sources: UK – EEDP (2008) and ONS (2007); US – NPII (2010)
  • 9. © BBC 2010 1c. Do they just not want to use it... What do those who use it say?
  • 10. © BBC 2010 In general they use the web in ways that are very similar to non-disabled people • They look for similar sorts of things on YouTube – And find them in the same sorts of ways – through viral means or the search engine • People use similar social networking sites e.g. Facebook – And are often introduced to them by non disabled peers
  • 11. © BBC 2010 About half say the web makes them feel less isolated 51%Of disabled people who use the internet daily say it helps them feel less isolated Source: EEDP (2008)
  • 12. © BBC 2010 This was most important for our mentally ill participants • Depressed people may use the internet to help manage their lives during depressive episodes Yeah, I think so. I mean, you know when - with bipolar disorder you have - you know - several times of - several weeks or several days which you - you don't feel like sort of being around people, or directly speaking to people. So, you know - we use the internet - it's marvellous, because I can do everything on it - you know - from banking to - you know - watching TV, and cooking, or buying stuff online. Female, Bipolar Disorder, London
  • 13. © BBC 2010 For some users the web is a huge enabler over other technologies… I know YouTube but a lot of deaf are using it out there in the community I mean America the deaf are using it a lot…it links with the internet and it's got pictures and they use web cam and it's all over the world so deaf people are there because they can be signing to each other Male, Hearing impairment, Birmingham
  • 14. © BBC 2010 1d. If there’s so much to gain… … what’s getting in the way?
  • 15. © BBC 2010 Age matters… but even when controlling for age, disabled people are less likely to have ever used the internet 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 16 25 35 45 55 65 75 %ofpopulation Disabled people General population Question (ODI) Have you ever used the internet, including email, websites instant messaging, chatrooms etc.? ONS: ever used the internet Sources: ODI (2008), ONS (2007) Base: 16-34 142, 35-54 417, 55-74 850, 75+ 451
  • 16. © BBC 2010 Primary barriers: limited understanding of the internet means consideration is low 55-64, Non User “There’s nothing on there that you couldn’t get from Teletext.”
  • 17. © BBC 2010 Primary barriers: perceived value vs cost is possibly a greater issue than cost per se Significant minority cite cost / affordability as main barrier to take-up For many:
  • 18. © BBC 2010 Primary barriers: lack of skills & confidence means many do not see net as available to them 75-84, Non User “You’ve got to learn a new keyboard. All those computer controls! On my TV you’ve got buttons all over the place, I can barely cope with that!” “I’d be frightened I’d do something and it’d go boom!” 75-84, Non User
  • 19. © BBC 2010 Initial claimed barriers often mask different or deeper reasons Majority Minority Limited understanding Low perceived benefit vs cost Low confidence / skills Acquisition & installation process Basic affordability Impact on life Literacy & social exclusion Safety & security concerns Primary barriers Secondary barriers
  • 20. © BBC 2010 Installation process for disabled people… • Not just the computer… • and the internet connection… • and any plug-ins or downloads needed for some sites… • but also specialised Assistive Technologies to make it work for them
  • 21. © BBC 2010 Use of Assistive Technologies is low… 6-8%Of web users use an Assistive Technology (screenreader, adapted mouse or similar) to access the Internet Source: EEDP (2008)
  • 22. © BBC 2010 When the benefits should be useful to most users… Source: Microsoft/Forrester Research study 2003, USA 57%Of computer users (aged 18-64) are likely or very likely to benefit from the use of Assistive Technology
  • 23. © BBC 2010 ‘It saves on headache tablets…’ So, for some, the experience of using the web just isn’t good enough…
  • 24. © BBC 2010 1e. How current inclusion models don’t help…
  • 25. © BBC 2010 Examining our current accessibility model Up to now, “inclusion” on the net has mostly been implemented via: • “design for all” • tweaking code so disabled people can use Assistive Technologies or OS/browser settings to make things work for them • do ‘alternative HTML versions’ if doing multimedia…
  • 26. © BBC 2010 We love inclusive design…
  • 27. © BBC 2010 However, rarely does a “one-size-fits-all” site work for all • different user groups can have conflicting needs • BBC iPlayer disability focus group (2009) • Vision impaired / dyslexic • “I like the black – it’s cool” • “I hate it – I find it really tiring” • Low literacy • “can it just talk or something?” • Aging / learning difficulties • “all on one page… lovely!” • “it was just too overwhelming – can’t I have a simpler version?” • so “design for all” becomes “design for the many” • and personalisation is relied upon…
  • 28. © BBC 2010 But current web personalisation expects too much… 1. an Assistive Technology or OS/browser setting/tool to exist to make the site accessible • often they don’t (e.g. text to sign language, text to ‘Easy Read’) 2. and expects web users to: a. be aware that an Assistive Technology or OS/browser setting/tool exists for their need • (even with sites like BBC My Web My Way to point the way) most are not a. are able to afford that technology • most are C2DE so have difficulty affording expensive techs a. are able to work out how to install it • most are not technical and scared of downloads a. are able to work out how to use it • most are unconfident a. are able to use it to access online content • thus… most never get this far, even if the site is WCAG AAA • … and to do this for every device they use
  • 29. © BBC 2010 And alternative versions often miss the point… • would HTML alternatives really make these more accessible? • silent video • video games • wandering around 3D worlds • technology is rarely the issue, modality and complexity are • what people really need is: • the ‘version for me’ • the ‘simple version’ • and they need to be able to: • access it as easily as the original version
  • 30. © BBC 2010 What websites need… • is to know more about the user’s needs… • by motivating them to provide this information… • through enabling them to see the benefits this will bring… • (NB. see inclusion of such personalised approaches in latest accessibility standards, such as BS 8878 Web accessibility – code of practice)
  • 31. © BBC 2010 2. Why is collaboration important? - the challenge is even harder if we don’t share… - here’s what the BBC can share…
  • 32. © BBC 2010 2a. BBC accessibility history (learning from our past)
  • 33. © BBC 2010 BBC – a brief history of accessibility information – Problem: People don’t know about OS/browsers settings or ATs – Answer: BBC My Web My Way (2006 onwards) c. 2006 c. 2010
  • 34. © BBC 2010 BBC – a brief history of accessibility personalisation – Problem: People have UX problems with OS/browser settings… – Answer: personalisation tools… c. 1998 c. 2003 c. 2006 c. 2007 ‘Betsie’ ‘News low graphics’ ‘Accessibility Settings ‘Display Options’ Text only Text only + pics Text size + colour Text size, colour, simple Blind + simple Blind + simple VI + cognitive VI + cognitive Server-side CPS-based Site-spec CSS switcher Client-side tech
  • 35. © BBC 2010 • Learning – BBC jam SEN commissions – Audiogames for helping Blind children learn maths – Signing avatars for helping Deaf children’s literacy • Media – BBC iPlayer • Access Services: Audio Description, Signing & Subtitling • Simplicity: BigScreen BBC – a brief history of more interesting & useful alternatives…
  • 36. © BBC 2010 2b. Rigorous user research – what works and what doesn’t…?
  • 37. © BBC 2010 Aren’t web accessibility preferences for Sissies…? Read Jared Smith’s useful article and discussion at: http://webaim.org/blog/web-accessibility-preferences-are-for- sissies/
  • 38. © BBC 2010 Well maybe… in the past… let’s find the problems… • BBC comparative testing on BBC and other sites’ tools • 14 BBC and non-BBC customisation tools (mostly site-based) tested • with a group of 15 people with: • Dyslexia, • Aspergers, • ADHD, • Poor Vision • Mild to moderate Learning Difficulties • research was conducted externally and participants were not told until the end it was commissioned by the BBC
  • 39. © BBC 2010 Research results… • most users had never used personalisation before • there was little consistency in calls to action… • and thus few were able to identify what to do • none knew what “AAA” was • same finding as from Frode Eike Sandnes paper from Unitech 2010 • many initially didn’t see the point… some initial reluctance to try something new… • however all said the sites they viewed were better once they had customised them • So we came up with some guidelines for personalisation “If all the web were like this, I’d use it…” User with ADHD
  • 40. © BBC 2010 Guideline 1: make the tool simple to identify, and motivate people to use it, or else they won’t get the benefit…
  • 41. © BBC 2010 Guideline 2: make the tool as simple as possible… get users to their required preferences in the fewest clicks…
  • 42. © BBC 2010 Guideline 3: allow users to feel completely in control
  • 43. © BBC 2010 Guideline 4: allow users to use their preferences everywhere…
  • 44. © BBC 2010 Where users want to use their preferences cf. when they can… Website Browser (incl. toolbars) OS (incl. most ATs) ‘My Desktop/Laptop/Netbook’ ‘My other computer’ ‘My cell phone (apps & web)’ ‘My tablet’ ‘My IPTV/ games console’Device
  • 45. © BBC 2010 Guideline 5: make sure putting the tool on your site doesn’t give those who don’t need it a worse experience
  • 46. © BBC 2010 2c. Oh great… yet more guidelines…? No. A trial cloud-base solution from the BBC - MyDisplay
  • 47. © BBC 2010 BBC MyDisplay at a glance • a way of letting people know why they should want… • to use an engaging way of setting and storing their accessibility preferences… • and getting sites to respond to them • … which works consistently across BBC Online… • … and ideally cross-platform to mobile + IPTV • … and ideally across the rest of the web – … providing common tools for sites to respond to those preferences – … and a common model for existing tools to use to find a user’s preferences • opening up BBC content, and the rest of the web, to underserved audiences
  • 48. © BBC 2010 Two clicks to preview a change…
  • 49. © BBC 2010 Three more clicks to tweak and save your theme…
  • 50. © BBC 2010 And the rest of BBC Online uses your preferences…
  • 51. © BBC 2010 On whatever OSes and browsers you want to use…
  • 52. © BBC 2010 On all the (IP-connected) computers you use… theme stored on the web, in a BBC iD
  • 53. © BBC 2010 Without requiring any downloads…
  • 54. © BBC 2010 2d. Checking acceptance by target audiences before ploughing on…
  • 55. © BBC 2010 “I’ve been waiting for this for years…” User feedback in labs and focus groups…
  • 56. © BBC 2010 In practice: 6 month trial with core target audiences… • November 2010 to May 2011 in the UK • Key metric: retention ratio (people who continue to use MyDisplay cf. all people who try MyDisplay) Sources: DFEE 2mlow-vision but not blind 1.9mdyslexic 1.8madults with low-literacy levels (<age 8) 80kcognitively impaired (ADHD, Aspergers)
  • 57. © BBC 2010 2e. Didn’t the users say they wanted this everywhere? - if the audiences like it, a vision for sharing…
  • 58. © BBC 2010 Across multiple web platforms (eventually) Apps Browser
  • 59. © BBC 2010 In whatever technologies websites use… (potentially)
  • 60. © BBC 2010 On websites from more than one organization (actual sites indicative) • working with initial non- BBC adoption partners… • have 5 signed-up for feasibility pilot • have interest from many, many more…
  • 61. © BBC 2010 A UI and adaptation framework which can evolve to cover preferences for many different groups… Optimisation for users wanting voicing Optimisation for screenreader users Optimisation for switch users Optimisation for older users
  • 62. © BBC 2010 Working with international standards and initiatives… • to ensure MyDisplay complies with, and helps influence, international standards for the specification of Accessibility Preferences • e.g. ISO/IEC 24751, Access For All 3.0… • to ensure MyDisplay influences and works with other global accessibility initiatives • e.g. NPII, GPII etc. (www.npii.org)
  • 63. © BBC 2010 Collaboration is everything… • the need is real… piecemeal solutions don’t work… we need to work together… • nationally • internationally – EU, globally… • potential for collaboration across Europe… • e.g. FP7-ICT-2011.5.5 – smart and personalised inclusion (proposals due Jan-11) • collaboration on: • research into user needs and preferences • what people would like to change about the web … • what preferences are local and what are global • research into solutions that will work • interoperably • in broad real-world usage • research into communication and acceptability of solutions to our common audience • what will actually make a difference?
  • 64. • the full guide on how to transform your organisation to achieve the consistent creation of web sites and apps that are usable and accessible to all your customers, at the most efficient cost • with practical case-studies from leading accessibility experts worldwide, including: • Jennison Asuncion (Canada), • Debra Ruh & Jeff Kline (USA), • Andrew Arch (Australia) • David Banes (Qatar) • Axel Leblois (UN) For information on the book’s publication, free access to video case-studies, and a chance of winning the book… send us your details via the form on the next slide Read more on inclusive design & accessibility personalisation in my forthcoming book – available summer 2014
  • 65. Get in touch… e: jonathan@hassellinclusion.com t: @jonhassell w: www.hassellinclusion.com
  • 66. Training & support for BS8878 Standards Innovation www.hassellinclusion.com Strategy & research