2005: Accessibility: which site production standards and testing methods will give maximum return on investment


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Presentation given by Jonathan Hassell (Accessibility Editor, Digital Curriculum for BBC New Media) and Giles Colborne (Director, cx partners) at BSI accessibility event in 2005.

Covers: what are 'reasonable steps' to ensure your site is accessible; comparison of 'blind following of standards & conformance badges' approach to accessibility with user-centred design (based on ISO 9421-12 standards for measuring usability and ISO 13407 user-centred design process); comparison of cost-benefits of various usability & accessibility testing methods to assure your site meets your users' needs.

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2005: Accessibility: which site production standards and testing methods will give maximum return on investment

  1. 1. What standards do you need to meet for your site to be accessible? Which methods will give maximum ROI? Dr Jonathan Hassell Giles ColborneAccessibility Editor, Digital Curriculum Director,cxpartners BBC New Media President,UK UPA Presentation to BSI Accessibility conference 12/11/2011 11/12/2011 7/7/05 v0.19 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk
  2. 2. What we‟ll be talking about• Accessibility and “reasonableness”• Common approach (stereotyped) vs. our suggested approach (UCD)• Standards: – Is there an accepted Industry Standard? – Other standards/guidelines and codes of practice – Rolling your own• Testing: – Test it and put a badge on it – automated vs. manual testing – self-check v audit – acceditation – accessible v usable• User-Centred Design – ISO Standards for measuring usability & UCD process – Testing methods – cost vs. benefits• Case studies – Case study – testing wireframes – Case study – tables (guidelines vs. results of testing)12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 22 © BBC 2005
  3. 3. Accessibility and “reasonableness”• DDA: – 1999: aim to prevent discrimination against disabled people for goods and services„ – code of practice (2002) clarification to specifically include websites, within the provision of goods and services – DDA requires “reasonable” steps to ensure websites are accessible to a disabled audience• So what is “reasonable”? – depends on the size of your site, budget for site, size of organisation… – need to be clear who the site is for, and how you are going to support different groups of users to use the site… – some accessibility features are more expensive than others… – ROI: make sure the money you spend actually makes a difference• But for legal guidance… see talk on Accessibility & The Law 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 33 © BBC 2005
  4. 4. Common approach (stereotyped)…• you get your technical people to read some guidelines• they decide what they can do and do it• they test it with an automated accessibility checker• they put a badge on the site to let people know they checked it (so it must be accessible)• you breathe a sigh of relief that you‟re not going to be sued (you hope) 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 44 © BBC 2005
  5. 5. Purpose of accessibility• Always keep in mind…• the purpose of accessibility is to make things easier for all of your (client‟s) audience – start and end with them in mind…• the internet can be a great enabler for disabled people if you use it right 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 55 © BBC 2005
  6. 6. Our suggested approach (UCD)…• you work out who is going to use the site• you get (reps of) your users in to capture their requirements• you form a policy based on which of those requirements your site can reasonably support• you produce the site against standards/guidelines• but you also get those users to test the site – preferably iteratively, as you go• so when it goes live, you‟re sure it‟s accessible to those users you have decided you can support – and, as a side-effect, you breathe a sigh of relief that you‟re not going to be sued 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 66 © BBC 2005
  7. 7. Background: accessibility is a partnershipto make a websiteaccessible, you need all ofthe following to worktogether: Website creators Assistive technology creators (e.g. Freedom Scientific, ReadPlease) Operating system creators (e.g. Microsoft, Apple) Disability assessment agencies (e.g. AbilityNet, RNIB) Browser creators (e.g. Microsoft, Opera) comms via W3C-WAI…12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 77 © BBC 2005
  8. 8. Standards: Is there an accepted industry standard?• legal answer = no• but in practice… – see W3C‟s WAI guidelines: • WCAG – technical guidelines for site developers – v1… v2 • ATAG – guidelines for creation of site maintenance tools (incl. CMSs) • UAAG – guidelines for browser, OS, assistive technology manufacturers 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 88 © BBC 2005
  9. 9. Standards:other standards, guidelines, codes of practice • International…(W3C) • vs National… – PAS 78: Guide to good practice in designing accessible websites • vs Organisational (roll your own)… – e.g. BBC‟s @ http://bbc.co.uk/guidelines/newmedia/accessibility – Cabinet Office‟s Guidelines for UK government websites – IBM‟s @ http://www-306.ibm.com/able/guidelines/ – can be useful but be careful when doing this… 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 99 © BBC 2005
  10. 10. How to change the culture of your production teams / clients – awareness, motivation • Start with your staff… then go to your clients… • Make it personal: • Make it real: – get an external agency to do a survey – send all your staff on an of your site‟s Accessibility Awareness accessibility, including course video-taping of real users using the site – provide background & – See the Accessibility motivation for staff & clients Study of bbc.co.uk for (DDA etc.) inspiration (available – provide experience of from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ assistive technologies commissioning/bbci/w – show the videos of real users ebsites.shtml) having problems using the site 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 10 10 © BBC 2005
  11. 11. How to channel buy-in into producing a better site – standards & guidelines• create/identify accessibility standards & guidelines for your sites – good start: WAI or the BBC Accessibility Standards (from http://www.bbc.co.uk/commissioning/newmedia/websites.shtml) – make sure your standards support your / your clients‟ audiences and production processes – get your staff to create them – be pragmatic - for each standard consider… • is it “reasonable”? • benefit: does it actually help disabled audiences? – does it hinder other audiences? • cost: what aspects of production does it affect?• communicate them well to staff• provide a group/someone who can answer specific accessibility questions as they crop up in practice• whenever possible, encode the standards in your production tools, so that staff cannot get things wrong 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 11 11 © BBC 2005
  12. 12. Testing: check it and put a badge on it• DIY - check your conformance yourself and award yourself a badge…• Use an automated site validation tool and use the badge it awards you…12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 12 12 © BBC 2005
  13. 13. Testing: Automated vs. manual testing…• automated tools can be useful• BUT…• listen to real people, rather than automated tools/checklists“These tools are like spell-checkers; you wouldn’t send out a spell-checked document that wasn’t manually proof- read as well” 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 13 13 © BBC 2005
  14. 14. Testing: Self-check vs. audit• are you really experienced enough to do it?• would you be able to tell the difference between: – a problem which is a limitation of a screenreader, or – a problem which is your site‟s problem…• get in an expert… 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 14 14 © BBC 2005
  15. 15. Testing: what accreditation could you get from the experts?• currently no UK government recognised accreditation (quality mark) scheme for website accessibility• What you can apply for now: – See it Right mark (between WCAG A and AA)• Forthcoming: – EuroAccessibility Consortium (http://www.euroaccessibility.org/) – supportEAM (http://support-eam.org/)12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 15 15 © BBC 2005
  16. 16. Testing: user-testing - accessible vs. usable• test with disabled users – many options: recruit & adminster yourself => ask a lab to do it for you• a site can be “accessible” but impossible to use – which is no use to anyone (incl. your non-disabled users)• use user/accessibility testing to pick up your usability problems too – include disabled users in your wider user-testing panel rather than just do accessibility testing• and make sure you plan in time to act on the results… 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 16 16 © BBC 2005
  17. 17. Even better… UCD12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 17 17 © BBC 2005
  18. 18. ISO 9421-12: Measuring usability Satisfaction Effectiveness EfficiencyIdentify key tasksIdentify key disabled audiencesHow well can your disabled users complete tasks on your web site?
  19. 19. ISO 9421-12: Measuring usability Effectiveness Satisfaction EfficiencyHow often can disabled users complete each task?- Task completion rateHow well can they complete each task?- Degree of completion- Error rates
  20. 20. ISO 9421-12: Measuring usability Satisfaction Effectiveness EfficiencyHow much effort does it take to complete each task?- Number of keystrokes / clicks- Time taken- Pauses
  21. 21. ISO 9421-12: Measuring usability Satisfaction Effectiveness EfficiencyIs user satisfied with the experience- What is an appropriate experience?- Different for education, banking, buying CDs, entertainment- Does the experience fit with your brand values?- Perceived efficiency- Perceived effectiveness
  22. 22. ISO 9421-12: Measuring usability Effectiveness Satisfaction EfficiencyDifferent systems need a different balance of these elementsWeb sites are often self-serviceEffectiveness and satisfaction dominate measures of web site usability
  23. 23. ISO 9421-12: Measuring usability Effectiveness Satisfaction EfficiencyBut for disabled users, efficiency becomes a massive problemImproving accessibility can be about improving efficiency for disabledusers
  24. 24. ISO 9421-12: Measuring usability 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Effectiveness Efficiency SatisfactionMeasures are only meaningful when you compare themSo measure at least twiceFor instance- Proposed site versus competitors- Proposed site versus current site
  25. 25. Usability testing methodsQuality of data User testing Remote testing User reviews / interviews Expert walkthrough Heuristics Testing with assistive technologies Automated testing Cost
  26. 26. ISO 13407: The user centred design processPlan user Produce centred prototype Success! design sactivities Test Specify solutions goals with users Specify context of use
  27. 27. Can you really test wireframes? Exterior Menu for exterior features - link to other zones Drag the mouse to spin the car. Labels zoom forward and back Feature 1 Click on label to explore Feature 2 feature Click on action nav to order brochurePerformance Image of car Interior 360 spin Feature 3 AcmeCar jingleTest drive | Brochure | Downloads Acme None
  28. 28. Can you really test wireframes Main nav Sub nav (features) Call to action Feature 1 Feature 2 Main nav Interior ExteriorPerformance Performance Content Main content Sub nav Interior Feature 1 Logo Feature 2 Feature 3 Feature 3Test drive | Brochure | Downloads AcmeCar Logo Call to action
  29. 29. Case study: user-testing vs. slave to guidelines…• e.g. tables… – WAI level 1 requires HTML labelling of all table cells – but… • user-testing reveals this doesn‟t produce “better tables” for screenreader browsing • this requires knowledge of special table-browsing mode in JAWS – tables are actually more usable for screenreader users if they are “linear” • which is WAI level 2 – example: BBC weather site • before… and after 12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 29 29 © BBC 2005
  30. 30. Other useful additions to your siteprovide accessibilityinformation/help: – include information on: • browser/OS settings • assistive technologies – or link to… • BBC & AbilityNet‟s forthcoming My Web My Way (http://www.bbc.co.uk/accessibility/)ask for accessibilityfeedback: – to further inform your understanding of how people really use your website12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 30 30 © BBC 2005
  31. 31. Thanks for listening Any questions… Contacts: jonathan@hassellinclusion.com giles.colborne@cxpartners.co.uk12/11/2011 jonathan.hassell@bbc.co.uk 07/07/05 jonathan@hassellinclusion.com 31 31 © BBC 2005