immune system allergy ect

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  • 1. OtherTopics –RelatedtoImmuneSystem
  • 2. Other Topics – Relatedto Immune System• Antigens- “marker proteins”• Blood Transfusions and OrganTransplants• It is the job of the immune system todistinguish between the body’s ownmolecules and foreign molecules
  • 3. If the key fits the lock = bad!!!Blood Transfusions and the ImmuneSystem• Blood cells have marker proteins or“antigens”
  • 4. Organ Transplants and theImmune System• Foreign organs also have markerproteins.• If recognized as “foreign” = REJECTION.• Doctors must “match” a new organsmarker proteins to the patients.• Drugs can help suppress the immuneresponse (immunosuppresants).
  • 5. What if the immunesystem fails?• Sometimes the immune system loses theability to distinguish itself from non-self.• Results in autoimmune disease• Body attacks own tissues• Ex) lupus, multiple sclerosis, arthritis
  • 6. LUPUS• Person’s immune system attacks variousorgans or cells of the body (skin, joints,kidneys, heart, and lungs) causingdamage• Lupus is a multi-system disease becauseit can affect many different tissues andorgans in the body.
  • 7. LUPUSSymptoms:• Fatigue• Low-grade fever, rarely exceeding 102°F• Muscle pain and joint pain or swelling• Skin rash (face, back, arms) and hair loss• Kidney problems and weight loss
  • 8. MultipleSclerosis• Immune systemattacks myleinaround nerve cells• Symptoms: loss ability to walk and move,loss bladder control, paralysis and death
  • 9. What if the immunesystem fails?• Sometimes the immune system collapses• Ex) HIV• Virus invades macrophages and helper Tcells• Without these WBC immune responsewill not work• Body becomes overwhelmed withpathogens (HIV  AIDS)
  • 10. AIDS (Acquired ImmuneDeficiency Syndrome)• Retrovirus (has RNA instead of DNA).• Lysogenic (stays dormant for a longperiod of time).• Easily evades immune system.1. Mutates quickly.2. Covers itself with marker proteins fromhost cell (difficult to detect).
  • 11. Transmission of HIV• Four main ways1. Sexual intercourse.2. Intravenous drug use (sharing needles)3. Blood to blood contact4. Mother to child during pregnancy orbreast feeding.
  • 12. What if the immunesystem fails?• Sometimes the immunesystem overreactsthinking something is apathogen when it is NOT• Allergy- immune systemresponse to a non-pathogenic antigen• Ex) pollen, food, insectbite, dust, etc.
  • 13. Steps – AllergicReaction• 1) Pollen inhaled• 2) cells of nasalpassage called mastcells release chemical-histamine• 3) nearby capillariesswell- increases fluid*Allergies are treatedwith medication thatcontainsantihistamines(chemical that blockshistamine)
  • 14. Asthma• Leading cause of serious illness amongchildren.• Causes narrowing of air passages (peoplecan’t breathe).• Can be triggered by stress, environmentalfactors, allergies, or genetic factors.• Medication (usually a steroid) needs to betaken to make breathing easier.
  • 15. Immune System andCancer• Major function of immune system is topatrol for cancer cells• Called Immunological Surveillance• Killer-T cells can identify, attack, anddestroy cancer cells