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Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
Appendicular Upper Limbs
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Appendicular Upper Limbs

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Presentation of the Shoulder Girdle and Upper Limbs of the Appendicular Skeleton

Presentation of the Shoulder Girdle and Upper Limbs of the Appendicular Skeleton

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  • 1. AppendicularSkeleton
    The Upper Limbs
  • 2. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle
    Shoulder Girdle (aka Pectoral Girdle) contains two bones: clavicle and scapula
    Clavicle makes up the collarbone
    Attaches to manubrium medially (sternal end) at the sternoclavicular joint
    Attaches to scapula laterally (acromial end) at acromioclavicular joint
    Serves to push arm back from thoracic cage and helps prevent shoulder dislocation
  • 3. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle
    Anterior View
    Superior View
  • 4. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle
    The Scapulae are the shoulder blades
    Attached to clavicles, but held loosely in place by muscles
    Triangular shape with three sides (Superior border, Medial border, and Lateral border) and three angles (Superior angle, Lateral angle, and Inferior angle)
    Suprascapular notch on superior border allows nerves to pass over scapula
    Spine is ridge on top half of posterior side of scapula
    Lateral end of spine is Acromion process
    Coracoid process is inferior and anterior to acromion
    Acromion and coracoid processes make the superior border of the Glenoid cavity (the socket for the arm)
  • 5. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle
    Posterior View
    Anterior View
  • 6. TheUpperLimbs – Arm
    The arm consists of one long bone—the Humerus
    The rounded Head of the humerus fits in the glenoid cavity of the scapula
    Lateral to the head are the Greater and Lesser tubercles, which serve as sites of muscle attachment
    Partway down the bone is the Deltoid tuberosity for the deltoid (shoulder) muscle to attach
    The Radial groove, which goes by the deltoid tuberosity, marks the path of the radial nerve
    The distal end includes the Trochlea and Capitulum that articulate with the bones of the forearm
    The Coronoid and Olecranon fossae are depressions that allow the forearm bone Ulna to move when bending and extending the elbow
  • 7. TheUpperLimbs – Arm
    Anterior View – Right Arm
    Posterior View – Right Arm
  • 8. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm
    The Forearm includes two bones--the Radius and the Ulna
    The Forearm bones articulate at both ends by radioulnar joints
    The bones are connected by interosseous membrane
    The radius is the lateral bone in the anatomical position (same side as thumb)
    The flattened head forms a joint with the capitulum of the humerus
    Below the head, on the anterior side is the Radial tuberosity where the bicep muscle attaches
  • 9. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm
    The ulna is the medial bone in the anatomical position
    On the proximal end are the Olecranon and Coronoid processes which articulate with the fossae of the humerus
    In between the processes is the Trochlear notch that glides along the trochlea of the humerus
  • 10. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm
    Anterior View – Right Arm
    Posterior View – Right Arm
  • 11. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm
    Posterior View – Right Arm
    Anterior View – Right Arm
  • 12. TheUpperLimbs – Hand
    The hand consists of the Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges
    The carpals make up the wrist
    The wrist, or carpus, is made of 8 short bones that are lined up in 2 irregular rows
    The carpal bones are bound tightly by ligaments that allow minimal movement
    The 5 metacarpal bones make up the palm
    The phalanges are the finger bones
    14 bones total
    Bones are labeled Proximal, Middle, and Distal for each finger (thumb only has proximal and distal as there are only two bones)
  • 13. TheUpperLimbs – Hand

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