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Appendicular Upper Limbs


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Presentation of the Shoulder Girdle and Upper Limbs of the Appendicular Skeleton

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Appendicular Upper Limbs

  1. 1. AppendicularSkeleton<br />The Upper Limbs<br />
  2. 2. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle<br />Shoulder Girdle (aka Pectoral Girdle) contains two bones: clavicle and scapula<br />Clavicle makes up the collarbone<br />Attaches to manubrium medially (sternal end) at the sternoclavicular joint<br />Attaches to scapula laterally (acromial end) at acromioclavicular joint<br />Serves to push arm back from thoracic cage and helps prevent shoulder dislocation<br />
  3. 3. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle<br />Anterior View<br />Superior View<br />
  4. 4. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle<br />The Scapulae are the shoulder blades<br />Attached to clavicles, but held loosely in place by muscles<br />Triangular shape with three sides (Superior border, Medial border, and Lateral border) and three angles (Superior angle, Lateral angle, and Inferior angle)<br />Suprascapular notch on superior border allows nerves to pass over scapula<br />Spine is ridge on top half of posterior side of scapula<br />Lateral end of spine is Acromion process<br />Coracoid process is inferior and anterior to acromion<br />Acromion and coracoid processes make the superior border of the Glenoid cavity (the socket for the arm)<br />
  5. 5. TheUpperLimbs – ShoulderGirdle<br />Posterior View<br />Anterior View<br />
  6. 6. TheUpperLimbs – Arm<br />The arm consists of one long bone—the Humerus<br />The rounded Head of the humerus fits in the glenoid cavity of the scapula<br />Lateral to the head are the Greater and Lesser tubercles, which serve as sites of muscle attachment<br />Partway down the bone is the Deltoid tuberosity for the deltoid (shoulder) muscle to attach<br />The Radial groove, which goes by the deltoid tuberosity, marks the path of the radial nerve<br />The distal end includes the Trochlea and Capitulum that articulate with the bones of the forearm<br />The Coronoid and Olecranon fossae are depressions that allow the forearm bone Ulna to move when bending and extending the elbow<br />
  7. 7. TheUpperLimbs – Arm<br />Anterior View – Right Arm<br />Posterior View – Right Arm<br />
  8. 8. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm<br />The Forearm includes two bones--the Radius and the Ulna<br />The Forearm bones articulate at both ends by radioulnar joints<br />The bones are connected by interosseous membrane<br />The radius is the lateral bone in the anatomical position (same side as thumb)<br />The flattened head forms a joint with the capitulum of the humerus<br />Below the head, on the anterior side is the Radial tuberosity where the bicep muscle attaches<br />
  9. 9. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm<br />The ulna is the medial bone in the anatomical position<br />On the proximal end are the Olecranon and Coronoid processes which articulate with the fossae of the humerus<br />In between the processes is the Trochlear notch that glides along the trochlea of the humerus<br />
  10. 10. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm<br />Anterior View – Right Arm<br />Posterior View – Right Arm<br />
  11. 11. TheUpperLimbs – Forearm<br />Posterior View – Right Arm<br />Anterior View – Right Arm<br />
  12. 12. TheUpperLimbs – Hand<br />The hand consists of the Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges<br />The carpals make up the wrist<br />The wrist, or carpus, is made of 8 short bones that are lined up in 2 irregular rows<br />The carpal bones are bound tightly by ligaments that allow minimal movement<br />The 5 metacarpal bones make up the palm<br />The phalanges are the finger bones<br />14 bones total<br />Bones are labeled Proximal, Middle, and Distal for each finger (thumb only has proximal and distal as there are only two bones)<br />
  13. 13. TheUpperLimbs – Hand<br />