Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Final appendicular skeleton(upper limbs).


Published on

Skeletal System.

Published in: Education

Final appendicular skeleton(upper limbs).

  1. 1. Appendicular Skeleton. BY: Shahzad Bashir.
  2. 2. Identify the bones of the pectoral (shoulder) girdle andtheir principal markings.Identify the bones of the upper limb and their principalmarkings.Describe the joints between the upper limb bones. 4/6/2013 2
  3. 3. Composed of 126 bones◦ Limbs (appendages)◦ Pectoral girdle◦ Pelvic girdle
  4. 4. Bones of the upper limbs. S. No REGIONS BONES NAME NUMBER. 1. Shoulder Scapula. 1 Girdle Clavicle. 1 2. Upper Arm Humerus 1 3. Fore Arm Ulna. 1 Radius 1 4. Wrist Carpels 8 5. Hands Meta- Carpels 5 6. Fingers Phalanges 14 4/6/2013 6
  5. 5. Bone of the upper limbs are attached to the skeleton ofthe trunk by the shoulder girdle.It is made up of two bones:◦ Clavicle — Collarbone◦ Scapula — Shoulder blade 4/6/2013 7
  6. 6. One in number.Long bone lying at root of neck.Has an S- shaped Shaft.It has two Extremities◦ Sternal Extremity◦ Acromial Extremity.Sternal Extremity articulates with STERNUM MANUBRIUM.Acromial Extremity articulates with ACROMION PROCESSOF SCUPULA.It is also called COLLAR BONE. 4/6/2013 9
  7. 7. SternoclavicularAcromioclavicular jointjoint Sternum CLAVICLE CLAVICLEGlenohumeraljointSCAPULA SCAPULA Rib RibHumerus Humerus Vertebrae Anterior view of pectoral girdle Posterior view of pectoral girdle 10
  8. 8. STERNO – CLAVICULAR JOINT. (With Sternum)ACROMIO – CLAVICULAR JOINT. (WithAcromion Process of Scapula). 4/6/2013 12
  9. 9. One in number.Flat bone lying over the ribs on the upper back betweenthe levels of the second and seventh ribs.Also know as SHOULDER BLADE.Triangular Shaped has 2 Surfaces, 3 Angles and 3Borders. 4/6/2013 13
  10. 10. Subscapular fossaSupraspinousfossa Infraspinous fossa
  11. 11. SURFACES: Has two Surfaces.ANTERIOR SURFACE: Consists of Sub scapular Fossalying against ribs.POSTERIOR SURFACE: Divided by Spine into SUPRASPINOUS FOSSA above and INFRA SPINOUSFOSSA below.Spine ends in ACROMION PROCESS, which articulateswith Clavicle to form the ACROMIOCLAVICULARJOINT. 4/6/2013 15
  12. 12. ANGLES: Scapula has three angles.Superior Angle.Inferior Angle.Lateral Angle.◦ LATERAL ANGLE contains GLENOID CAVITY into which head of Humerus fits to form the GLENOHUMERAL (shoulder) JOINT. 4/6/2013 16
  13. 13. BORDERS: Scapula has three borders.Medical Border.Lateral Border.Superior Border.◦ SUPERIOR BORDER ends in CORICOID PROCESS to which the tendons and ligaments attach. 4/6/2013 17
  14. 14. ACROMIO – CLAVICULAR Joint. (With Clavicle)HUMERO – SCAPIULAR/ GLENOHUMERAL(shoulder) JOINT ( With Humerus). 4/6/2013 18
  15. 15. Each upper limb includes a Humerus, ulna, Clavicleradius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. Scapula HUMERUS RADIUS ULNA CARPALS METACARPALS PHALANGES 4/6/2013 19
  16. 16. One in number.The humerus, or arm bone, is the longest and largestbone of the upper limb.It articulates proximally with the scapula and distally atthe elbow with two bones, the ulna and the radius.Long bone of upper limbs extending from shoulder toelbow.It has two Extremities and One Shaft. 4/6/2013 20
  17. 17. UPPER EXTREMITY:Head is 1/3rd sphere and articulates with GLENOIDCAVITY OF SCAPPULA to form theGLENOHUMERAL JOINT.Anatomical neck.Greater Tubercle: (Laterally Below neck).Less Tubercle:( Anteriorly)Intertubercular sulcus : ( B/W the 2 Tubercle forTendons of Biceps Muscles). 4/6/2013 22
  18. 18. SHAFT:Long and thin.Rounded (Superiorly)Flattened (Inferiorly)Deltoid Tuberosity: (Laterally V-shaped area for thetendons of Deltoid Muscle)Radial Groove: (Posteriorly for Radial Nerve) 4/6/2013 23
  19. 19. LOWER EXTREMITY: Broad and flat.Has TROCHLEA (Pulley) (Medially) for articulation withULNA.Has CAPITULLAM (Capit = head) (Laterally) forarticulation with RADIUS.Medial and lateral Epicondyles.CORONOID FOSSA: (Anteriorly) receives CoronoidProcess of ulna when arm is flexed.OLECRANON FOSSA: (Posteriorly) receives Olecraonprocess of ulna when arm is Extended. 4/6/2013 24
  20. 20. 4/6/2013 25
  21. 21. HEMERO –SCAPULAR JOINT ( Shoulder Joint)HEMERO – ULNAR JOINTHEMERO – RADIAL JOINT. (Elbow Joint) 4/6/2013 26
  22. 22. One in each arm.Long Medial bone of Fore-arm.Long than Radius.It has Two Extremities and One Shaft.UPPER EXTREMITY:Strong and Thick.Articulates with Humerus to form part of Elbow Joint.CORONOID PROCESS: Projects Anteriorly and fits intoCORONOID FOSSA OF HUMERUS when elbow is bent.OLERANON PROESS: The prominence of ulna anteriorlyfits into the OLECRANON FOSSA OF HUMERUS whenelbow is straight. 4/6/2013 27
  24. 24. TROCHLEAR NOTCH: Is a large curved areabetween Olecranon and Coronoid Process.RADIAL NOTCH: Is an articulating surface for headof radius to form PROXIMAL/ SUPERIOR RADIO-ULNAR JOINT.SHAFT:Thinner at lower end. 4/6/2013 29
  25. 25. LOWER EXTREMITY:Small rounded head articulates with Radius to formINFERIOR/DISTAL RADIO – ULNAR JOINT.STYLOID PROCESS: Projects down wardsposteriorly. It provides attachment for the ulnarcollateral ligament to the wrist.JOINTS OF ULNA:HUMERO – ULNAR (Elbow Joint)SUPERIOR/PROXIMAL – RADIO- ULNAR JOINT.INFERIOR/DISTAL – RTADIO – ULNAR JOINT. 4/6/2013 30
  26. 26. One bone in each fore-arm.Long bone LATERAL BONE OF FORE ARM.Smaller bone of the forearm and is located on the lateral aspect (thumbside) of the forearm.Nat its proximal end and widens at its distal end.It has two Extremity and One Shaft.UPPER EXTREMITY:Button shaped/disc-shaped Head with shallow upper surface forarticulation with Capitulum of HUMERUS.Sides of the head articulates with RADIAL NOTCH OF ULNA.Neck lies below the head.RADIAL TUBEROSITY: Lies medially below neck for insertion ofBICEPS- MUSCLES. 4/6/2013 31
  27. 27. SHAFT.Narrow above and wide below.LOWER EXTREMITY:Square in shape.ULNAR NOTCH: Is an articulating surface on medial sidefor articulation with head of Ulna to formINFERIOR/DISTAL RADIO- ULNAR JOINT.STYLOD PROCESS: Laterally projecting downwards toprovides attachment for muscle.Distal end of the radius articulates with three bones of thewrist — the Lunate, the Scaphoid, and the Triquetrum —toform the RADIOCARPAL (WRIST) JOINT. 4/6/2013 33
  29. 29. The Carpus (wrist) is the proximal region of the hand.Consists of eight (each wrist)small bones called carpals.The Capitate is the largest carpal bone.Carpals joined to one another by ligaments.Short bones arranged in two transverse Rows of fourbones from medial to lateral.UPPER ROW:Scaphoid or Navicular (Boat – Shaped)Lunate: ( Cresent, Moon – Shaped)Triquetrum: (Three Sided)Pisiform: (Pea – Shaped) 4/6/2013 35
  30. 30. MNEMONIC for carpal bones*:Stop Letting Those People Touch TheCadaver’s Hand.
  31. 31. LOWER ROWS:Trapezium: ( Four – Sided)Trapezoid: (Four – Sided)Capitate: (Head – Shaped)Hamate: (Hammer, Hooked – Shaped) JOINTS OF CARPALS.INTERCARPAL JOINTS. (Between Each other).RADIO – CARPALS JOINT. (Wrist Joint)CARPO- METACARPAL JOINT. 4/6/2013 37
  32. 32. The metacarpus (meta- beyond), or palm, is theintermediate region of the hand.Consists of five long bones (each hand) calledmetacarpals.Each has Two Extremity and One Shaft.PROXIMAL EXTREMITY : Articulates with distalrow of Carpals to form CARPOMETACARPALJOINTS.DISTAL EXTREMITY: Articulates with Proximal rowof Phalanges to form METACARPOPHALANGEALJOINTS. 4/6/2013 38
  34. 34. The phalanges (Phalan = a battle line), or bones of thedigits, make up the distal part of the hand.Fourteen in each hand.Long bones forming fingers.Three in each finger.Two in Thumb(pollex). JOINTS OF PHALANGES.METACARPO- PHALANGES JOINT.INTER-PHALANGEAL JOINT. 4/6/2013 40
  35. 35. Acromio-Clavicular Joint.Sterno-Clavicular Joint.Humero -Scapular Joint. (Shoulder Joint)Humero- Ulnar Joint. (Elbow Joint)Humero- Radial Joint.Superior -Radio Ulnar Joint.Inferior- Radio Ulnar Joint.Radio –Carpal Joint. (Wrist Joint)Carpo –Meta-Carpal Joint.Meta Carpo –Phalangeal Joint.Inter- Phalangeal Joint. 4/6/2013 41
  36. 36. Tortora, G. J. & Grabowski, S.R. (2000). Principlesof anatomy and physiology (12th ed.). New York:John Wiley & sons Inc.Eline, N.M, Essential of human anatomy &physiology (9th ed.). New York: John Wiley & sonsInc. 4/6/2013 42