PROGRESSION OFDISCRIMINATION The NAZI party and Adolf Hitler seized power in 1933 and slowly began their program against the Jews of Germany Each new year in Germany led to harsher policies directed towards the Jews.
German Ideology Fuhrer- the idea that there should be a single leader with complete power instead of a democracy Autarky- the idea that Germany should be economically self-sufficient Lebensraum- need for living space for Germans to expand Germany was in danger from Communists and Jews who had to be destroyed
Social Darwinism & Eugenics Social Darwinism and Anti-Semitism Worksheet
What did Hans learn in school about the wolf? Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism Hitler believed in Social Darwinism – the idea that society operated on the principle of "Survival of the Fittest". For Hitler, the European "Master Race" was blonde haired, blue-eyed and white-skinned – the Aryan race
Eugenics Hitler believed the nation had become weak, corrupted by the infusion of degenerate elements into its bloodstream. In his opinion, these had to be removed as quickly as possible. targeted those humans they identified as "life unworthy of life” This is what this person suffering from hereditary defects . Costs the Community of Germans during his lifetime Fellow Citizen, that is your money, too
Existing stereotypes and prejudice against Jews gave Hitler a convenient scapegoat for the economic problems that had been created by WWI and the Depression.
Anti-Semitic Nazi Propaganda poster. It reads: Recognize the true enemy with the yellow star."
Hitler targeted the Jews Two months after being named Chancellor of Germany, Hitler announced a boycott of all Jewish shops, goods, doctors, and lawyers. Nazi Propaganda – 1941 Lithuanian 'Jews are your eternal enemies! Stalin and Jews are the gang of criminals!'
Emigration Many Jews decided to leave Germany to escape the growing persecution in Germany. It was incredibly difficult to obtain exit visas Emigrants were faced with high taxes upon leaving Germany Many emigrants encountered hostility from the countries they chose to move to.
The Nuremberg Laws How Hitler Made Hatred Legal
The Nuremberg Laws: Took away German citizenship from all full Jews and prohibited Jews from flying the German flag Prohibited inter marriage between Jews and Aryans or any other type of relationship Prohibited Jews from employing Germans as domestic servants Limited type of work they were allowed to do The original Nuremberg Laws continued to be amended in the years 1935 to 1939, causing the Nazi regime to gain even more control over the lives of Jews living in Germany.
Jews are not Allowed to: Marry or have Sex with Aryans Hire Aryan Women As maids Have the Rights of citizenship Nuremberg Race Laws
Change of Tactics: Einsatzgruppen Himmler sent four specially trained SS units called “Einsatzgruppen battalions” into German occupied territory and shot at least 1 million Jews. Victims were taken to deserted areas where they were made to dig their own graves and shot. When the SS ran out of bullets they sometimes killed their victims using flame throwers.
The ‘Final Solution’ In January 1942, Himmler decided to change tactics once again and called a special conference at Wannsee. At this conference it was decided that the existing methods were too inefficient and that a new ‘Final Solution’ was necessary.
Wannsee Conference Shooting was too inefficient as the bullets were needed for the war effort Women, children, the old & the sick were to be sent for ‘special treatment.’ The young and fit would go through a process called ‘destruction through work.’ On arrival the Jews would go through a process called ‘selection.’ How was the Final Solution going to be organized? Jews were to be rounded up and put into transit camps called Ghettos The remaining Jews were to be shipped to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. The Jews living in these Ghettos were to be used as a cheap source of labor. Conditions in the Ghettos were designed to be so bad that many die while the rest would be willing to leave these areas in the hope of better conditions
How did the Nazi decide who was Jewish? At the Wannsee conference it was decided that if one of person’s parents was Jewish, then they were Jewish. However, if only one of their grandparents had been Jewish then they could be classified as being German. In 1940, all Jews had to have their passports stamped with the letter ‘J’ and had to wear the yellow Star of David on their jacket or coat.
Oskar : It was not long before I was assigned to supervise the luggage collection of an incoming transport.When this was over, it was just like a fairground, there was lots of rubbish left and amongst this rubbish were ill people, those unable to walk. And the way these people were treated really horrified me. For example, a child who was lying there naked was simply pulled by the legs and chucked into a lorry to be driven away, and when it screamed like a sick chicken, then they bashed it against the edge of the lorry, so it shut up. SS private Oskar Gröning We were convinced by our world view that we had been betrayed by the entire world, and that there was a great conspiracy of the Jews against us. Interviewer: But surely, when it comes to children you must realize that they cannot possibly have done anything to you? Oskar Gröning: The children, they're not the enemy at the moment. The enemy is the blood inside them. The enemy is the growing up to be a Jew that could become dangerous. And because of that the children were included as well. Interviewer: But … aren't you sorry that you made your own life more comfortable while millions actually died? Oskar Gröning: Absolutely not. Everybody is looking out for them selves. So many people died in the war, not only Jews. So many things happened, so many were shot, so many snuffed it. People burnt to death, so many were burnt, if I thought about all of that I wouldn't be able to live one minute longer. … The special situation at Auschwitz led to friendships of which I'm still saying today I like to look back on with joy.
Schindler List Moving from the ghettos53:26 – 1:10:30
SS Tactics: Dehumanisation The SS guards who murdered the Jews were brainwashed with Anti-Semitic propaganda. The Jews were transported in cattle cars in terrible conditions. Naked, dirty and half starved people look like animals, which helped to reinforce the Nazi propaganda. The SS used to train their new guards by encouraging them to set fire to a pit full of live victims – usually children.
What tactics did the Nazis use to get the Jews to leave the Ghettos? Deception New arrivals at the Death camps were given postcards to send to their friends. Starvation The Jews were told that they were going to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto were only fed a 1000 calories a day . Tactics In some Ghettos the Jews had to purchase their own train tickets. A Human being needs 2400 calories a day to maintain their weight Terror They were told to bring the tools of their trade and pots and pans. The SS publicly shot people for smuggling food or for any act of resistance Hungry people are easier to control
Selection Process Twins, dwarfs, and others scientific experiments Mothers, children, the old & sick sent straight to the ‘showers’ which were really the gas chambers. DEATH The able bodied were sent to work camp were they were killed through a process known as ‘destruction through work.’ Attractive females “special” servants of SS officers
Scientific Experiments Nazis experimented on large numbers of concentration camp prisoners. Typically, the experiments resulted in death, disfigurement or permanent disability.
Gypsy children at Auschwitz who were part of medical experiments. Most such experiments were "terminal."
A victim of a Nazi medical experiment is immersed in icy water at the Dachau concentration camp. SS doctor. Germany, 1942.
A prisoner in a compression chamber loses consciousness (and later dies) during an experiment to determine altitudes at which aircraft crews could survive without oxygen. Dachau, Germany, 1942.
A Romani (Gypsy) victim of Nazi medical experiments to make seawater potable. Dachau concentration camp, Germany, 1944.
A Soviet prisoner of war, victim of a tuberculosis medical experiment, late 1944.
disfiguring scars resulted from incisions made by medical personnel that were purposely infected with bacteria, dirt, and slivers of glass.
Mengle used the Ovitz family to lecturing on their inferior genetics. He also created a film for Adolf Hitler’s amusement staring the Ovitz family. The Ovitz family sang German songs when ordered to do so out of terror. Shortly before the request they had witnessed two newcomer dwarfs being killed and boiled so their bones could be exhibited in a Nazi museum.
Notice how the Death camp is set out like a factory complex The Nazis used industrial methods to murder the Jews and process their dead bodies
Rumors of Gas Chambers1:56:57 – 2:00:00 The Gas Chambers The Nazis would force large groups of prisoners into small cement rooms and drop canisters poison in its crystal form through small holes in the roof. These gas chambers were sometimes disguised as showers or bathing houses. The SS would try and pack up to 2000 people into this gas chamber
Processing the bodies Specially selected Jews were used to to remove the gold fillings and hair of people who had been gassed. These Jews were also forced to feed the dead bodies into the crematorium.
Schindler’s List Rumors of Gas Chambers1:56:57 – 2:00:00
Burning of bodies /destroying evidence2:13:50 – 2:16:20 Destroying the evidence
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5odfbFNPoo The photograph below is a still shot from the film. It shows preserved pieces of tattooed skin laid out on a table, and a table lamp with a shade allegedly made from human skin.
Was the Final Solution successful? The Nazis aimed to kill 11 million Jews at the Wannsee Conference in 1941 The Nazis managed to kill at least 6 million Jews. Men like Schindler helped Jews escape the Final Solution. Not all Jews went quietly into the gas chambers. In 1943, the Warsaw Ghetto, like many others revolted against the Nazis when the Jews realized what was really happening.
January 27, 1945 Auschwitz Death Camp Liberated According to the evidence, the commission said the Germans had moved out up to 60,000 inmates - those still fit enough to walk - when they retreated. The few thousand who were left behind were freed by the Russians. They also found seven tons of women's hair, human teeth, from which gold fillings had been extracted and tens of thousands of children's outfits.
Liberation did not save everyone Thousands would die only weeks after being liberation from malnutrition and disease The small percentage of inmates who survived resembled skeletons because of the demands of forced labor and the lack of food, compounded by months and years of maltreatment.