Carrot city: Architecture for Urban Agriculture

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Dr. Mark Gorgolewski of Ryerson presents on innovative ways that architecture is considering agriculture in the urban context.

Dr. Mark Gorgolewski of Ryerson presents on innovative ways that architecture is considering agriculture in the urban context.

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  • 1. 04/04/2012 “The symbiotic relationship between a productive landscape and the human settlement system is as old asCarrot City: civilization. During the past 200 years, that millennium-The impact of food on the old positive relationship deteriorated into a further anddesign of cities and buildings further separation of town and landscape.” (Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Viljoen 2005)Mark Gorgolewski Hungry City - Carolyn Steel Garden Cities – Ebeneezer Howard Broadacre City – Frank Lloyd Wright 1
  • 2. 04/04/2012 Global population ‘’By the year 2025, 83 per cent of the expected global population will be living in developing countries.... Agriculture has to meet this challenge.... Major adjustments are needed in agriculture, environmental and macro-economic policy, at both national and inter- p y, national levels, in developed as well as developing countries, to create conditions for sustainable agriculture and rural development.’’Proposal Includes:-Large scale agriculture land in protected zones United Nations Conference, 1992-Large kitchen gardens in detached suburban houses- Allotments of 10 acre for apartment dwellers Ville Radieuse – Le Corbusier Energy return on investment Topsoil loss • “The 20th-century industrialization of agriculture has • America has lost 75 percent of its most productive increased the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by topsoil in the last two centuries the food system by an order of magnitude; chemical Diet for a New America - John Robbins fertilizers (made from natural gas), pesticides (made from petroleum), farm machinery, modern food p ), y, • Geologist David Montgomery states that approximately processing and packaging and transportation have one percent of our topsoil is lost every year to erosion, together transformed a system that in 1940 produced 2.3 most of which, he notes, is caused by agriculture calories of food energy for every calorie of fossil fuel energy it used into one that now takes 10 calories of http://www.seattlepi.com/national/348200_dirt22.html?source=mypi fossil-fuel energy to produce a single calorie of modern supermarket food” Michael Pollan http://www.michaelpollan.com/article.php?id=97 Relevance to urban sustainability • The World Wildlife Fund estimates that the food chain contributes about 30% of the total UK greenhouse gas emissions – In the UK it has been suggested that carbon dioxide emissions could be Is it feasible for a city to produce a significant reduced by about 22% if food were produced organically, consumed locally, and only when in season amount of its food? • A total of 50 million Americans are food-insecure (US Dept of Ag.) • Global obesity is a world health epidemic y p What will be the impact of the design of cities cities, • Peak oil – our food is now grown with fossil fuels • Transport - availability of cheap energy supplies in the future urban spaces and buildings? – Food Miles” - food in southern Ontario travels on average 4,500 km to arrive on your plate • Social equity - urban dwellers have little control of their food supply • World population of 9 billion by 2050 will require modifications to what we eat • Climate change will affect the productivity of some agricultural areas ? 2
  • 3. 04/04/2012 China• Chinese cities as a whole claim to produce 85 percent of their vegetable consumed by their inhabitants.• Shanghai and Beijing have even sometimes apparently achieved self-sufficiency in vegetables self sufficiency vegetables. In 1943 Canadian urban spaces produced 115 million pounds of vegetables Urban Agriculture: Small, Medium, Large. Architectural Design, G Doron, 2005 Havana Cuba Potential Benefits • Reduced “Food Miles” • Reduced carbon emissions In 1995 it was estimated that there were 26,600 urban agriculture • Fresh food – improved nutrition sites in Havana including: • Health benefits – Average tomato now has 30% less vitamin A - Private gardens (huertos privados) compared with 1960’s - State-owned research gardens (organicponicos) • Community benefits – stronger community ties around UA - Community gardens (huertos populares). projects. 80% of state-owned land to was dedicated to community gardens • Food security, availability, and affordability They have had a visible impact on the food security of the city and in improving the Cuban diet • Education – puts urban dwellers closer to food systems Some are producing 27 kilograms of vegetables per square metre • Use of waste space – Detroit Urban farmers can be in the top 10% of earners in Havana • Economic development - employment In Havana, the urban farms and gardens produce 90% of the city food demands About 200,000 Cubans worked in urban agriculture sectors in 2003 Carrot City: Design for Urban Agriculture Michigan State University Re-imagining the city found that the creation of urban farms and gardens within the Detroit’s Building Community and Knowledge boundaries could supply local residents with more than 75 percent of their le Re-designing Re designing the Home Scal vegetables needs and more than 40 percent of their fruits needs Producing on the Roof Creating components for growing Re-imagining the city www.carrotcity.org 3
  • 4. 04/04/2012 Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes Bohn and Viljoen Architects, UK Nevin Cohen, New School, 2011 Capital Growth, London UK• Capital Growth has been encouraging Londoners to turn derelict land into vegetable gardens.• These will offer local, seasonal, healthy, affordable and organic food.• They absorb some CO2 emissions from London’s y transportation systems.• They will make the city a greener, more pleasant place to live.• They also aim to bring local communities together around a common goal. Helianthus by Topher Delaney Images courtesy of Topher Delaney 4
  • 5. 04/04/2012Farm City/Ravine City by Chris Hardwicke Urban Agriculture Hub by Andy Guiry SPIN farming (Small Plot Intensive) is a method developed to exploit small sub acre plots throughout a city. Experienced farmers lease parts of urban gardens for intensive food production that is sold locally. Re-conceiving the community 5
  • 6. 04/04/2012 Edible Campus at McGill University, Montreal Ryehomegrown, Ryerson University, Toronto Community Greenhouse, Inuvik www.inuvikgreenhouse.comEdible Schoolyard NY, WORK Architecture Company Image courtesy of Work AC City Farm, Leadenhall, London, Mitchell Taylor Workshop Images courtesy of Mitchell Taylor Workshop 6
  • 7. 04/04/2012 Public Farm 1 at PS1 by Work Architecture CompanyRe-defining the home and workplace Maison Productive House, Montreal, Produktif Studio Agrohousing, Wuchan, China - Knafo Klimor Architects 7
  • 8. 04/04/2012Salinas, Kansas Lakewood, Los Angeles Edible Estates, Fritz Haeg Images courtesy of fritz Haeg, www.fritzhaeg.com It is estimated that there is about 100 km2 of flat roof space in London UK with the potential to grow food across the capital Growing on the roof Brooklyn Grange, New York 8
  • 9. 04/04/2012 Uncommon Ground, Chicago Lufa Farms, Montreal Photos courtesy of Michael Cameron https://lufa.com/en www.uncommonground.com Fairmont Hotels, Toronto and Vancouver Courtesy of Fairmont Hotel Gary Comer Community Centre, ChicagoImage courtesy of Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects 9
  • 10. 04/04/2012 Vertically Integrated Greenhouse Re-designing the components Courtesy of New York Sun Works & BrightFarm Systems  http://nysunworks.org/ or www.brightfarmsystems.com/  Beehives for Detroit Images courtesy of Erika Mayr and Stephane Orsolini Vacant Lot, London by What-If Projects Ltd Biotop Green Roofimages courtesy of Marc Valiquette, and Yves Perrier of Biotop Tower Gardens www.biotopcanada.com www.towergardens.com  10
  • 11. 04/04/2012 Eglu Window Farms www.Omlet.us  www.Windowfarms.org  Balcony Garden, Yeang and Guerra, 2008 Resilience “Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbances and reorganise while undergoing change, so as still to retain essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks” Walker et al (2004) Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems AmphoraeImages courtesy of Mark Bearak, Dora Kelle and Adam Mercier 11
  • 12. 04/04/2012 “There is a quiet revolution stirring in our food system. It is notwww.carrotcity.org happening so much on the distant farms that still provide us with the majority of our food; it is happening in cities, neighbourhoods, and towns. It has evolved out of the basic need that every person has to know their food, and to have some sense of control over its safety and security. It is aCarrot City: Creating revolution that is providing poor people with an important safetyplaces for Urban net where they can grow some nourishment and income forAgriculture themselves and their families. And it is providing an oasis forMark Gorgolewski, the human spirit where urban people can gather, preserve th h i it h b l thJune Komisar & something of their culture through native seeds and foods, andJoe Nasr teach their children about food and the earth. The revolution isMonacelli Press, 2011 taking place in small gardens, under railroad tracks and power lines, on rooftops, at farmers’ markets, and in the most unlikely of places. It is a movement that has the potential to address a multitude of issues: economic, environmental, personal health, and cultural.”http://www.urbanagsummit.org/ (Ableman, 2005) 12