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The Future: Flexible, Local & Resilient Energy GenerationRobert P. Thornton President & CEO ResilienCity: the new urban pa...
Agenda 
•Introduction to IDEA and District Energy 
•Energy Paradigm Shift -Case Example 
•Emerging Drivers -Local Energy 
...
•Formed in 1909 –105 years in 2014 
•501(c)6 industry association 
•Approx. 2000+ members in 26 nations 
•56% are end-user...
District Energy/Microgrid– Community Scale Energy Solution 
•Underground network of pipes “combines”heating and cooling re...
Infrastructure for Local Clean Energy Economy 
•Connects thermal energy sources with users 
•Urban infrastructure –hidden ...
District Energy Industry Growth (Million sq ft customer bldg space connected/committed) Aggregate SF reported since 1990 –...
“For the average coal plant, only 32% of the energy is converted to electricity; the rest is lost as heat.” 
-Page VI, Exe...
Efficiency of US Power Generation 
Power Engineering Magazine, November 2009
BraytonPoint Power Station, Somerset, MA –1,537 MWPre-2011: Once-through cooling –Taunton River:MountHope Bay
BraytonPoint Cooling Towers –$570 Million in 2011 
Total environmental compliance $1.1 billion since 2005.
Somerset power plant put up for sale Boston Globe, Sept 7, 2012 
Dominion Loss on Write-Downs; Core Improves… WSJ, Jan 31,...
BraytonPoint Power Station Closing: Massachusetts Coal-Fired Plant Shutting Down In 2017 –Providence Journal, Oct 8, 2013
Combined Heat & Power
AVEDORE 1 | 290+%
Illustration, copyright AEI / Affiliated Engineers, Inc.
Paradigm Shift 
•lower cost natural gas impacting coal plants 
In U.S., during the first half of 2012: 
•165 new electric ...
Illustration, copyright AEI / Affiliated Engineers, Inc. 
Future Proofing A More Resilient City
GLOBAL POPULATION INCREASE7B TODAY 
UP TO 10B 2050
URBANIZATION 
70%-80% OF POPULATION 
2050
EXTREME WEATHER 
SOURCE: WORLDWATCH INSTITUTE (MUNICH RE)
820 mi diameter 
Double the landfall size ofIsaac + Irene combined 
Affected 21 states (as far west as Michigan) 
106 fata...
8,100,000 homes lost power 
57,000 utility workers from 30 states & Canada assisted Con Edison in restoring power 
Total e...
INCREASING RESILIENCE WITH 
LOCAL DISTRICT ENERGY/CHP 
SYSTEMS
South Oaks Hospital 
(Long Island, NY) –1.3 MW CHP 
Hartford Hospital/Hartford Steam (CT) –14.9 MW CHP 
Bergen County Util...
THE COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY 
5.2 MW DE/CHP
“Combined heat and power allowed our central plant to operate in island mode without compromising our power supply.” Lori ...
FAIRFIELD UNIVERSITYCONNETICUT 
4.6 MW DE/CHP
98% of the Town of Fairfield lost power, university only lost power for a brief period at storm’s peakUniversity buildings...
CO-OP CITYTHE BRONXNEW YORK CITY 
45 MW DE/CHP
“City within a city” 60,000 residents, 330 acres, 14,000+ apartments, 35 high rise buildingsOne of the largest housing coo...
PRINCETONUNIVERSITY 15 MW District Energy CHPSTORM-TESTED+PROVEN ANNUALLY
CHP/district energy plant supplies all heat, hot water, air conditioning, and half of the electricity to campus of 12,000 ...
October 2011Hurricane Irene October 2012Hurricane SandyLights. Stayed. On.
Production Capacity & Peak Demands Princeton University •ElectricityRatingPeak Demand–(1) Gas Turbine Generator15 MW27 MW•...
Economic Dispatch System 
Economic Dispatch System PJM Electric Price NYMEX gas, diesel, biodiesel prices Current Campus L...
How Much More Efficient isCombined Heat & Power? 
0% 
5% 
10% 
15% 
20% 
25% 
30% 
35% 
40% 
45% 
50% 
55% 
60% 
65% 
70% ...
Princeton CHP/District Cooling Reduces Peak Demand on Local Grid 
Princeton Demand 
Grid demand
Princeton University PV Farm –Aug, 2012 16,500 PV panels generate up to327 Watts each at 54.7 Volts DC
Princeton University 5.4 MW Solar Farm
Princeton University MicrogridBenefit to Local Grid 
During August peak: 100+deg F; 80% RH 
•2005 campus peak demand on gr...
MICROGRIDS: 
LOCAL, RESILIENT AND CLEAN ENERGY 
INFRASTRUCTURE
District Energy/CHP/MicrogridEmerging Drivers 
•Growing demand for greater grid reliability and resiliency 
•Choice to dep...
What is a District Energy/Microgrid? 
•Local “distributed” generation integrating CHP; thermal energy; electricity generat...
MicrogridResources Also Provide 
•Diversity of generating locations 
–Reduced risk associated with transmission and distri...
Simple Microgrid Concept 
Central Utility Power Station 
KWH 
Utility Meter 
Synchronizing Isolation Breaker 
Local Genera...
Microgrid Options 
Central Utility 
Power Station 
KWH 
Utility 
Meter 
GT, Diesel, 
Micro-turbine 
reciprocating gas engi...
MicrogridsAdd Grid Reliability 
Central Utility 
Power Station 
KWH 
Utility Meter 
Synchronizing Isolation Breaker 
Local...
Why Build A Microgrid? 
•Benefits for the Owner 
–Enhanced Reliability and Resiliency 
–Cost Reduction 
–Environmental 
•B...
Why Build A Microgrid? 
•Benefits to the Local Economy 
–Enhanced Reliability/Resiliency –Reduce business interruption ris...
Multi-Building Microgrids 
•Microgridsnot recognized as a unique class of grid resources 
•They are under-utilized and und...
MICROGRIDS: ENHANCED EFFICIENCY
DE/CHP MicrogridBest Practices 
•Fully integrated load monitoring, forecasting 
•Parallel operation with real time price s...
Emerging Policy Trends 
•States and Cities acting on microgriddeployment 
–New York State -$40 M microgridprogram 
–Connec...
United Nations Environment Program District Energy in Cities Initiative 
•Launched 9/22 United Nations Climate Summit, UN ...
'Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it's the 
only thing that ...
You’re invited… 
Please visit www.decanada.ca
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation
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GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation

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Afternoon Session of the 2014 Green Building Festival - ResilienCity: the new urban paradigm

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GBF2014 - Rob Thornton - Flexible, Local, Resilient Energy Generation

  1. 1. The Future: Flexible, Local & Resilient Energy GenerationRobert P. Thornton President & CEO ResilienCity: the new urban paradigm Sustainable Buildings Canada-Green Building Festival Toronto, ON October 2, 2014
  2. 2. Agenda •Introduction to IDEA and District Energy •Energy Paradigm Shift -Case Example •Emerging Drivers -Local Energy •Resilient Energy Systems -Case Examples •District Energy/Microgrids– –Policy Trends –Challenges & Opportunities •Q&A
  3. 3. •Formed in 1909 –105 years in 2014 •501(c)6 industry association •Approx. 2000+ members in 26 nations •56% are end-user systems; majority in North America; growth in Middle East •Downtown utilities; public/private colleges & universities; healthcare; industry, etc.
  4. 4. District Energy/Microgrid– Community Scale Energy Solution •Underground network of pipes “combines”heating and cooling requirements of multiple buildings •Creates a “market” for valuable thermal energy •Aggregated thermal loads creates scaleto apply fuels, technologies not feasible on single-building basis •Fuel flexibility improves energy security, local economy
  5. 5. Infrastructure for Local Clean Energy Economy •Connects thermal energy sources with users •Urban infrastructure –hidden community asset •Robust and reliable utility services •Energy dollars re-circulate in local economy
  6. 6. District Energy Industry Growth (Million sq ft customer bldg space connected/committed) Aggregate SF reported since 1990 –572,853,166 SF(Annual average 23.8 Million SF/Yr –North America) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13
  7. 7. “For the average coal plant, only 32% of the energy is converted to electricity; the rest is lost as heat.” -Page VI, Executive Summary
  8. 8. Efficiency of US Power Generation Power Engineering Magazine, November 2009
  9. 9. BraytonPoint Power Station, Somerset, MA –1,537 MWPre-2011: Once-through cooling –Taunton River:MountHope Bay
  10. 10. BraytonPoint Cooling Towers –$570 Million in 2011 Total environmental compliance $1.1 billion since 2005.
  11. 11. Somerset power plant put up for sale Boston Globe, Sept 7, 2012 Dominion Loss on Write-Downs; Core Improves… WSJ, Jan 31, 2013 Energy company Dominion Resources posts 4Q loss – The Virginian Pilot, Jan 31, 2013
  12. 12. BraytonPoint Power Station Closing: Massachusetts Coal-Fired Plant Shutting Down In 2017 –Providence Journal, Oct 8, 2013
  13. 13. Combined Heat & Power
  14. 14. AVEDORE 1 | 290+%
  15. 15. Illustration, copyright AEI / Affiliated Engineers, Inc.
  16. 16. Paradigm Shift •lower cost natural gas impacting coal plants In U.S., during the first half of 2012: •165 new electric power generators installed •Totaling 8,100 megawatts (MW) new capacity •Of 165, 105 of those units under 25 MW and •Mostly renewable -solar, wind or landfill gas •Other factors -environmental compliance costs; poor load factor; low wholesale power costs and cheap natural gas
  17. 17. Illustration, copyright AEI / Affiliated Engineers, Inc. Future Proofing A More Resilient City
  18. 18. GLOBAL POPULATION INCREASE7B TODAY UP TO 10B 2050
  19. 19. URBANIZATION 70%-80% OF POPULATION 2050
  20. 20. EXTREME WEATHER SOURCE: WORLDWATCH INSTITUTE (MUNICH RE)
  21. 21. 820 mi diameter Double the landfall size ofIsaac + Irene combined Affected 21 states (as far west as Michigan) 106 fatalities SUPERSTORM SANDY: BY THE NUMBERS
  22. 22. 8,100,000 homes lost power 57,000 utility workers from 30 states & Canada assisted Con Edison in restoring power Total estimated cost to date $71 billion+ (dnilost business)
  23. 23. INCREASING RESILIENCE WITH LOCAL DISTRICT ENERGY/CHP SYSTEMS
  24. 24. South Oaks Hospital (Long Island, NY) –1.3 MW CHP Hartford Hospital/Hartford Steam (CT) –14.9 MW CHP Bergen County Utilities Wastewater (Little Ferry, NJ) -2.8 MW CHP Nassau Energy Corp. District Energy (Long Island, NY) –57 MW CHP
  25. 25. THE COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY 5.2 MW DE/CHP
  26. 26. “Combined heat and power allowed our central plant to operate in island mode without compromising our power supply.” Lori Winyard, Director, Energy and Central Facilities at TCNJ
  27. 27. FAIRFIELD UNIVERSITYCONNETICUT 4.6 MW DE/CHP
  28. 28. 98% of the Town of Fairfield lost power, university only lost power for a brief period at storm’s peakUniversity buildings served as “area of refuge” for off-campus students
  29. 29. CO-OP CITYTHE BRONXNEW YORK CITY 45 MW DE/CHP
  30. 30. “City within a city” 60,000 residents, 330 acres, 14,000+ apartments, 35 high rise buildingsOne of the largest housing cooperatives in the world; 10th largest “city” in New York State40 MW Cogenplant maintained heat and power throughout Sandy –back fed Con Edison grid
  31. 31. PRINCETONUNIVERSITY 15 MW District Energy CHPSTORM-TESTED+PROVEN ANNUALLY
  32. 32. CHP/district energy plant supplies all heat, hot water, air conditioning, and half of the electricity to campus of 12,000 students/faculty"We designed it so the electrical system for the campus could become its own island in an emergency. It cost more to do that. But I'm sure glad we did.“ Ted Borer, Energy Manager, Princeton
  33. 33. October 2011Hurricane Irene October 2012Hurricane SandyLights. Stayed. On.
  34. 34. Production Capacity & Peak Demands Princeton University •ElectricityRatingPeak Demand–(1) Gas Turbine Generator15 MW27 MW•Steam Generation–(1) Heat Recovery Boiler 180,000 #/hr–(2) Auxiliary Boilers300,000#/hr240,000 #/hr•Chilled Water Plant–(3) Steam-Driven Chillers10,100 Tons–(3) Electric Chillers5,700 Tons11,800 Tons–(8) CHW Distribution Pumps 23,000 GPM21,000 GPM•Thermal Storage–(2) Electric Chillers 5,000 Tons–(1) Thermal Storage Tank40,000 Ton-hours•*peak discharge10,000 tons (peak) –(4) CHW Distribution Pumps10,000 GPM•Solar PV Farm 5.4 MWe16,500 panels11 hectares
  35. 35. Economic Dispatch System Economic Dispatch System PJM Electric Price NYMEX gas, diesel, biodiesel prices Current Campus Loads Weather Prediction Production Equipment Efficiency & Availability “Business Rules” Historical Data Generate/Buy/Mix Preferred Chiller & Boiler Selections Preferred Fuel Selections ICAP & Transmission Warnings Operating Display Historical Trends Live feedback to Icetec Operator Action Biodiesel REC value & CO2 value GT Inlet Cooling Mode
  36. 36. How Much More Efficient isCombined Heat & Power? 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Generator Simple Efficiency Generator Power Output, MW Gas Turbine Simple-Cycle Efficiency Oct 1, 2013 -Feb 14, 2014 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 Cogen Efficiency HRSG Steam Flow, M#/Hour Cogeneration System Total Efficiency Oct 1, 2013 -Feb 14, 2014
  37. 37. Princeton CHP/District Cooling Reduces Peak Demand on Local Grid Princeton Demand Grid demand
  38. 38. Princeton University PV Farm –Aug, 2012 16,500 PV panels generate up to327 Watts each at 54.7 Volts DC
  39. 39. Princeton University 5.4 MW Solar Farm
  40. 40. Princeton University MicrogridBenefit to Local Grid During August peak: 100+deg F; 80% RH •2005 campus peak demand on grid 27 MW•Implemented advance control scheme •2006 campus peak demand on grid 2 MW •Microgrid“freed up” 25 MWto local grid –reduces peak load on local wires –avoids brownouts –enhances reliability –supports local economy
  41. 41. MICROGRIDS: LOCAL, RESILIENT AND CLEAN ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE
  42. 42. District Energy/CHP/MicrogridEmerging Drivers •Growing demand for greater grid reliability and resiliency •Choice to deploy clean energy sources to help compete for high quality employers, factories, tenants •Desire to expand local tax base & replace remote coal generation •Flexibility to tap local energy supplies to improve trade balance & drive economic multiplier •Cutting GHG emissions and addressing climate adaptation •Local infrastructure advantages in extreme weather events
  43. 43. What is a District Energy/Microgrid? •Local “distributed” generation integrating CHP; thermal energy; electricity generation; thermal storage and renewables •Located near load centers; customer density; often some mission-critical needs •Robust, economic assets; 24/7/365 •CHP interconnected with regional & local grid •Able to “island” in the event of grid failure
  44. 44. MicrogridResources Also Provide •Diversity of generating locations –Reduced risk associated with transmission and distribution failures •Diversity of fuel sources •Capacity, planned for local, critical loads •Thermal energy for district heating, cooling •Redundancy in case of grid failures –Small, localized failures instead of regional failures •Voltage stability •Frequency stability •Wave form stability
  45. 45. Simple Microgrid Concept Central Utility Power Station KWH Utility Meter Synchronizing Isolation Breaker Local Generator Local Power Demands KWH Utility Meter Isolation Breaker Local Power Demands
  46. 46. Microgrid Options Central Utility Power Station KWH Utility Meter GT, Diesel, Micro-turbine reciprocating gas engine, solar PV, wind, micro-hydro… Battery or flywheel Economic Dispatch Synchronizing Isolation Breaker
  47. 47. MicrogridsAdd Grid Reliability Central Utility Power Station KWH Utility Meter Synchronizing Isolation Breaker Local Generator KWH Utility Meter Isolation Breaker KWH Utility Meter Local Generator KWH Utility Meter Synchronizing Isolation Breaker Local Generator Synchronizing Isolation Breaker
  48. 48. Why Build A Microgrid? •Benefits for the Owner –Enhanced Reliability and Resiliency –Cost Reduction –Environmental •Benefits for the ISO –Reduction in LMP Cost –Increase Capacity Supply –Reduction in Transmission Needs –Reduction in Marginal Losses –Rapid Frequency Regulation –Spinning Reserve
  49. 49. Why Build A Microgrid? •Benefits to the Local Economy –Enhanced Reliability/Resiliency –Reduce business interruption risk –Areas of Refuge for Citizens/First Responder Support –Power for Local Critical Infrastructure •Hospitals, Gas Stations, Police & Fire, Waste Water Treatment Plants •Benefits to Local Electric Distribution Utility –Reduced Peak Load •Problems for Local Electric Distribution Utility –Loss of Revenue –Interconnection Issues
  50. 50. Multi-Building Microgrids •Microgridsnot recognized as a unique class of grid resources •They are under-utilized and under-compensated for –Providing energy and auxiliary services –Contributing to reliability and availability –Ability to quickly balance intermittent renewables •They face state regulatory hurdles including: –Limits on servicing multiple customers –Limits on serving multiple properties of the same customer –Limits on partnering with third party developers •The current utility business model provides disincentives to customer efficiency and flexibility •Currently, MUSH market represents “best in class”
  51. 51. MICROGRIDS: ENHANCED EFFICIENCY
  52. 52. DE/CHP MicrogridBest Practices •Fully integrated load monitoring, forecasting •Parallel operation with real time price signals and optimization strategies (make/buy) •Ancillary services to grid –capacity; VAR support •Integrate thermal energy for optimal efficiency •Chilled water thermal storage enhances grid relief; operating flexibility; cost avoidance •Fuel purchasing and flexibility strategies •Customer optimization; efficiency support
  53. 53. Emerging Policy Trends •States and Cities acting on microgriddeployment –New York State -$40 M microgridprogram –Connecticut -1stphase $20 M; 2ndphase $20 M –New Jersey -$30 M microgriddeployment –Massachusetts -$32 M financing •City of Boston developing MicrogridRegulatory Strategy •US DOE Technical Application Centers (TAPs) supporting deployment nationally •National advocacy groups forming to improve market access for microgrids(MRC)
  54. 54. United Nations Environment Program District Energy in Cities Initiative •Launched 9/22 United Nations Climate Summit, UN General Assembly, New York •UN Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) Global Energy Efficiency Initiatives -District Energy Accelerator •Deploy district heating/cooling in cities to increase energy efficiency, cut emissions •Mentor, share, pair –best practices
  55. 55. 'Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has.' Margaret Mead Rob Thornton rob.idea@districtenergy.org
  56. 56. You’re invited… Please visit www.decanada.ca

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