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Carrot City: The impact of food on the design of cities and buildings - Mark Gorgolewski


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Carrot City: The impact of food on the design of cities and buildings - Mark Gorgolewski

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Carrot City: The impact of food on the design of cities and buildings - Mark Gorgolewski

  1. 1. 04/04/2012 1 Carrot City: The impact of food on the design of cities and buildings Mark Gorgolewski “The symbiotic relationship between a productive landscape and the human settlement system is as old as civilization. During the past 200 years, that millennium- old positive relationship deteriorated into a further and further separation of town and landscape.” (Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Viljoen 2005) Hungry City - Carolyn Steel Garden Cities – Ebeneezer Howard Broadacre City – Frank Lloyd Wright
  2. 2. 04/04/2012 2 Ville Radieuse – Le Corbusier Proposal Includes: -Large scale agriculture land in protected zones -Large kitchen gardens in detached suburban houses - Allotments of 10 acre for apartment dwellers Global population ‘’By the year 2025, 83 per cent of the expected global population will be living in developing countries.... Agriculture has to meet this challenge.... Major adjustments are needed in agriculture, environmental and macro-economic policy, at both national and inter-p y, national levels, in developed as well as developing countries, to create conditions for sustainable agriculture and rural development.’’ United Nations Conference, 1992 Energy return on investment • “The 20th-century industrialization of agriculture has increased the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by the food system by an order of magnitude; chemical fertilizers (made from natural gas), pesticides (made from petroleum), farm machinery, modern foodp ), y, processing and packaging and transportation have together transformed a system that in 1940 produced 2.3 calories of food energy for every calorie of fossil fuel energy it used into one that now takes 10 calories of fossil-fuel energy to produce a single calorie of modern supermarket food” Michael Pollan Topsoil loss • America has lost 75 percent of its most productive topsoil in the last two centuries Diet for a New America - John Robbins • Geologist David Montgomery states that approximatelyGeologist David Montgomery states that approximately one percent of our topsoil is lost every year to erosion, most of which, he notes, is caused by agriculture Relevance to urban sustainability • The World Wildlife Fund estimates that the food chain contributes about 30% of the total UK greenhouse gas emissions – In the UK it has been suggested that carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced by about 22% if food were produced organically, consumed locally, and only when in season • A total of 50 million Americans are food-insecure (US Dept of Ag.) • Global obesity is a world health epidemicy p • Peak oil – our food is now grown with fossil fuels • Transport - availability of cheap energy supplies in the future – Food Miles” - food in southern Ontario travels on average 4,500 km to arrive on your plate • Social equity - urban dwellers have little control of their food supply • World population of 9 billion by 2050 will require modifications to what we eat • Climate change will affect the productivity of some agricultural areas Is it feasible for a city to produce a significant amount of its food? What will be the impact of the design of cities ? What will be the impact of the design of cities, urban spaces and buildings?
  3. 3. 04/04/2012 3 China • Chinese cities as a whole claim to produce 85 percent of their vegetable consumed by their inhabitants. • Shanghai and Beijing have even sometimes apparently achieved self sufficiency in vegetablesachieved self-sufficiency in vegetables. Urban Agriculture: Small, Medium, Large. Architectural Design, G Doron, 2005 In 1943 Canadian urban spaces produced 115 million pounds of vegetables In 1995 it was estimated that there were 26,600 urban agriculture sites in Havana including: - Private gardens (huertos privados) - State-owned research gardens (organicponicos) Havana Cuba - Community gardens (huertos populares). 80% of state-owned land to was dedicated to community gardens They have had a visible impact on the food security of the city and in improving the Cuban diet Some are producing 27 kilograms of vegetables per square metre Urban farmers can be in the top 10% of earners in Havana In Havana, the urban farms and gardens produce 90% of the city food demands About 200,000 Cubans worked in urban agriculture sectors in 2003 Potential Benefits • Reduced “Food Miles” • Reduced carbon emissions • Fresh food – improved nutrition • Health benefits – Average tomato now has 30% less vitamin A compared with 1960’s • Community benefits – stronger community ties around UACommunity benefits stronger community ties around UA projects. • Food security, availability, and affordability • Education – puts urban dwellers closer to food systems • Use of waste space – Detroit • Economic development - employment Carrot City: Design for Urban Agriculture Re-imagining the city Building Community and Knowledge Re designing the Home le Re-designing the Home Producing on the Roof Creating components for growing Scal Michigan State University found that the creation of urban farms and gardens within the Detroit’s boundaries could supply local residents with more than 75 percent of their Re-imagining the city vegetables needs and more than 40 percent of their fruits needs
  4. 4. 04/04/2012 4 Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes Bohn and Viljoen Architects, UK Nevin Cohen, New School, 2011 Capital Growth, London UK • Capital Growth has been encouraging Londoners to turn derelict land into vegetable gardens. • These will offer local, seasonal, healthy, affordable and organic food. • They absorb some CO2 emissions from London’sy 2 transportation systems. • They will make the city a greener, more pleasant place to live. • They also aim to bring local communities together around a common goal. Helianthus by Topher Delaney Images courtesy of Topher Delaney
  5. 5. 04/04/2012 5 Farm City/Ravine City by Chris Hardwicke Urban Agriculture Hub by Andy Guiry SPIN farming (Small Plot Intensive) is a method developed to exploit small sub acre plots throughout a city. Experienced farmers lease parts of urban Re-conceiving the community lease parts of urban gardens for intensive food production that is sold locally.
  6. 6. 04/04/2012 6 Edible Campus at McGill University, Montreal Ryehomegrown, Ryerson University, Toronto Community Greenhouse, Inuvik Edible Schoolyard NY, WORK Architecture Company Image courtesy of Work AC City Farm, Leadenhall, London, Mitchell Taylor Workshop Images courtesy of Mitchell Taylor Workshop
  7. 7. 04/04/2012 7 Public Farm 1 at PS1 by Work Architecture Company Re-defining the home and workplace Maison Productive House, Montreal, Produktif Studio Agrohousing, Wuchan, China - Knafo Klimor Architects
  8. 8. 04/04/2012 8 Edible Estates, Fritz Haeg Images courtesy of fritz Haeg, Salinas, Kansas Lakewood, Los Angeles It is estimated that there is about 100 km2 of flat roof space in London UK with the potential to grow food across the capital Growing on the roof Brooklyn Grange, New York
  9. 9. 04/04/2012 9 Uncommon Ground, Chicago Photos courtesy of Michael Cameron Lufa Farms, Montreal Fairmont Hotels, Toronto and Vancouver Courtesy of Fairmont Hotel Gary Comer Community Centre, Chicago Image courtesy of Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects
  10. 10. 04/04/2012 10 Re-designing the components Vertically Integrated Greenhouse Courtesy of New York Sun Works & BrightFarm Systems or  Beehives for Detroit Images courtesy of Erika Mayr and Stephane Orsolini Vacant Lot, London by What-If Projects Ltd Biotop Green Roof images courtesy of Marc Valiquette, and Yves Perrier of Biotop Tower Gardens 
  11. 11. 04/04/2012 11 Eglu  Window Farms  Balcony Garden, Yeang and Guerra, 2008 Amphorae Images courtesy of Mark Bearak, Dora Kelle and Adam Mercier Resilience “Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbances and reorganise while undergoing change, so as still to retain essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks” Walker et al (2004) Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems
  12. 12. 04/04/2012 12 Carrot City: Creating places for Urban Agriculture Mark Gorgolewski, June Komisar & Joe Nasr Monacelli Press, 2011 “There is a quiet revolution stirring in our food system. It is not happening so much on the distant farms that still provide us with the majority of our food; it is happening in cities, neighbourhoods, and towns. It has evolved out of the basic need that every person has to know their food, and to have some sense of control over its safety and security. It is a revolution that is providing poor people with an important safety net where they can grow some nourishment and income for themselves and their families. And it is providing an oasis for th h i it h b l ththe human spirit where urban people can gather, preserve something of their culture through native seeds and foods, and teach their children about food and the earth. The revolution is taking place in small gardens, under railroad tracks and power lines, on rooftops, at farmers’ markets, and in the most unlikely of places. It is a movement that has the potential to address a multitude of issues: economic, environmental, personal health, and cultural.” (Ableman, 2005)