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Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1
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Jamie jenkins cms498_finalpresentation1

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  • 1. Education Chapter 8 Communicating Gender Diversity
  • 2. Education as a Social Institution: Historical Facts • • • • • During the 1800’s male children from the British ruling class were prepared to be leaders in both the armed forces and business This practice was the basis for all formal schools in several colonized countries, including the United States Public Education in the United States was intended solely for White, upper-class males Starting in the early 1900’s education was expanded to included White, upper-class females, but women were discouraged from studying masculine subjects like math and science Psychologists of this time period believed that coeducation would rob girls “of their sense of feminine character and harm boys by ‘feminizing them when they need to be working off their brute animal element” (DeFrancisco & Palczewski, pg. 176)
  • 3. Education as a Social Institution: Modern Facts • Gender bias is less noticeable in today’s classroom, but remains. • History books still omit female, as well as racial/ethnic minorities, contributions to social movements, wartime efforts and politics • Children’s storybooks still maintain gendered social roles • Girls are encouraged to take home economics, rather than math or science • These practices help maintain gendered stereotypes, inequalities and privileges
  • 4. Gender Bias in Educational Choices • • • • Statistics gathered in 2003 show there are huge gaps between male and female participation of certain college majors Overwhelmingly, the statistics showed that subjects like computer and information science and engineering were male dominated subjects (see table 1) This data supports the claim that female students either feel unprepared or uninterested in pursuing these subjects. Possibly in part to their secondary school curriculum Citing the same data about college majors in 2010 men still dominate computer and information science and engineering. In fact, the gap has widened (see table 2)
  • 5. Higher Education in the United States Table 1: Popular College Majors 2003 80% 77% 72% 71% 80% 60% 40% 28% 29% 23% 20% 20% 0% Computer and Information Sciences Education Engineering Male Foreign Language Female Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics, 2003
  • 6. Higher Education in the United States Table 2: Popular College Majors 2010 81% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 83% 80% 70% 30% 18% Computer/Information Sciences 17% 20% Education Engineering Male Foreign Languages Female Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics, 2010
  • 7. Attempts to Challenge the Binary View of Gender/Sex • It is important to understand that, as an educated person, knowledge and the process of gaining it is a process that relies on individual perception. • A person must be aware of the source of information before constructing absolute truth based on this knowledge. • A majority of the information that is given the “status of knowledge in the United States is the product of White, Western, capitalist, masculine viewpoints (pg. 179)
  • 8. The Creation of Women’s Studies • During the 1960’s U.S. colleges and universities began integrating women’s studies programs • The purpose of this program was “to enable women to become authorities on their own lives; to construct their own knowledge about women according to their own criteria…to empower themselves through knowledge…: (pg. 179)
  • 9. Women’s Studies Continued • As stated in chapter 8, feminist epistemology involves the rejection of rigid boundaries between research disciplines • An effort is made to recognize that the “insider views may not be the same as outside researcher views…insider does not mean biased…outsider does not mean bias free” (pg. 179)
  • 10. William Perry vs. Belenky et.al. • In an effort to study the way women and men construct knowledge, research was done by William Perry • Perry interviewed male students as they progressed through academic programs at Harvard University • Perry’s conclusion of the development of male thinking skills can be illustrated in the following flow chart Simplistic view of knowledge  recognition of multiple perspectives  choosing between said perspectives commitment to a perspective development of a strong sense of personal identity
  • 11. William Perry vs. Belenky et.al. • • • • • Mary Field Belenky, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger & Jill Mattuck Tarule parallel Perry’s study with comparable interview methods of 135 female students over 5 years. This study found that there are similarities between the process both men and women use when seeking knowledge, but found that there is a difference in motivation The Belenky et. al. study found that men are primarily motivated by doubt, while women are motivated by confirmation of knowledge. There is an obvious flaw in the study of this type of data because it automatically separates men and women suggesting an inherent difference between the two, as well as makes a wide sweeping generalization of all women and all men. The difference between the Belenky et. al. study findings of the development of the women’s thinking process and Perry’s study of male thinking can be seen below Silence received/passive ways of knowing subjective ways of knowing procedural knowing/knowledge seeking through objective/subject processes constructed knowledge & the realization that knowledge requires personal commitment (pg. 180)
  • 12. The Construction & Constraint of Gender in Education • • • Without necessarily meaning to, teachers often divide children by sex i.e. boys and girls in separate lines for lunch or playground activities Often activities are planned around the notion that children prefer same-sex friends Children begin to see the other gender as different and opposing Teacher and Administrator Interactions VS.
  • 13. The Construction & Constraint of Gender in Education • Sports • • • • The segregation of boys and girls participating in sports begins at a very early age Traditionally sports is a masculine domain where boys are taught to exhibit masculinity With the passage of Title IX in 1972, girls and women were given equal opportunity to participate in any educational program or activity receiving federal funds This allowed girls to find confidence in their character, their competence and their bodies The social pressure to remain masculine or feminine continues to persist
  • 14. • The Construction & • Constraint of Gender in Education • Educational Materials and Curricula • Title IX also helped to reduce the overwhelming gender bias that was found in textbooks, reading materials and other educational tools found in schools The depiction of girls/women in storybooks often shows them in a nurturing role, while boys/men remain in rigid provider roles Curriculum is also gendered with the obvious home economics seen as a feminine course and auto shop as a more masculine one There has been movement and change making gender bias less blatant
  • 15. • The Construction & Constraints of Gender in Education Higher Education • • • • Previously it was shown that students often decide their college majors based on gender identification, here it is shown that professors are traditionally a male Women find it difficult to not only get hired, but promoted or evaluated positively at this higher level of teaching More often they have to prove their competence with accomplishments, while men are often judged on their promise The contradiction continues with the expectation that male professors will act masculine, but female professor will not act feminine This constructs a negative connotation with being perceived feminine Pg. 185
  • 16. • The Construction & Constraint of Gender in Education • • Gender/Sex Gaps • There have been claims in recent history that education is failing both girls and boys For instance, the American Assoc. of University Women (AAWU) claims that girls receive less attention from teachers than boys do While Christina Hoff Sommers, author of The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism is Harming Our Young Men, claims boys problems stem from the mere fact that they are boys who require “far more discipline, structure, and authority in their lives than do girls” (pg. 186) Regardless of sex it has been shown that the less funding a school receives, the worse the education is that is offered. Particularly so for African American boys.
  • 17. The Construction & Constraint of Gender in Education • • Single Sex Education • • • As a way to address the issue of either gender being “left behind” because of educational constraints, the idea of gender separation in schools has been introduced This is based on the assumption that males and females learn differently because each gender uses their brains in distinctive ways The first problem with this thinking is the assumption that sex and gender are equal Where this practice has been implemented, the improvement could be based, not only on gender separation, but on the improvement of teaching methods Same sex schools reinforce sexism missing the opportunity to provide improved communication skills, trust and respect of the other gender
  • 18. The Construction & Constraint of Gender in Education Peer Pressure • • • • • Research has found that by the third grade many students are found to move towards same-sex groups of friends There has also been data to suggest that they divide further between race and class Students found that any attempt to cross the invisible borders between groups resulted in ridicule from the other students Peer pressure can be so intense that the demand to fit in constructs the students gender identity more than their parents or themselves The chapter states “attitudes toward school and students’ identities tied to sexuality and gender/sex become conflated” (pg. 190)
  • 19. • The Construction & Constraints of Gender in Education • The prevalence of bullying in schools in this day and age has required many schools to adopt a “zero-tolerance” policy The trouble that the schools are running into is finding a solid definition of bullying Chapter 8 defines it as “physical, psychological, and/or verbal intimidation or attack that is meant to cause distress and/or harm to an intended victim” (pg. 190) • Bullying • 20%-30% of students in today’s classrooms have experienced bullying in some form • • This type of behavior is most often done by children that come from families with “high conflict, authoritarian parenting styles and economic stress” (pg. 190) If this type of behavior is ignored, it can lead to more dangerous and destructive behavior in the future, like domestic violence
  • 20. The Construction & Constraints of Gender in Education Sexual Harassment • • • • • • Uncorrected bullying “creates a cultural context in which sexual harassment is common” (pg. 190) The results of a survey completed by the AAWU found that 4 out of 5 students found themselves to be the target of unwanted sexual behavior Girls were found to experience it more than boys and African American boys more than White boys Girls were found to also participate in bullying and sexual harassment, but perform it on a much less physical level. The authors state that it should not be surprising that girls participate in name-calling, “just as boys and men are pressured to prove their masculinity and heterosexuality, girls are pressured to view each other as competition for male attention, leading to insider cliques and bullying” (pg. 192). While there is little to no research on the sexual harassment of gays, lesbians bisexuals, and transgender students, there is little doubt they face a high risk of sexual harassment from their peers
  • 21. The Construction & Constraints of Gender in Education • • Sexual Violence on College Campuses • • • In the year 2000 the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) published a study titled Victimization of College Women. This study found that of the 4,446 women involved 2.8% of them had experienced rape, either attempted of completed. 13.1% were stalked, 1 in 5 received obscene phone calls and 2.4% were observed naked without consent Fewer than 5% reported victimization to the authorities High alcohol consumption on college campuses contributes to the prevalence of sexual violence The college culture of aggressive masculinity, dominance and the idea that a sexual act is a “game” or “conquest” adds to the risk of sexual violence
  • 22. Emancipatory Education • • • The important take-away from Chapter 8 is the need to eliminate any gender/sex bias in our educational system Also the understanding that gender/sex divisions are ultimately more harmful to children and restrict them rather than liberate them Solutions to this include understanding that the generally polarizing approaches to education result in ignoring a middle ground for students, as well as, the introduction of a “gender-sensitive model” • • • • The gender-sensitive model must “address the entire learning environment. Educators must pay attention to what is on the shelves and the walls of the schools, making sure they send inclusive, non-stereotypical messages.” (pg. 194) There must also be a conscious decision to not divide children based on single-sex, race or class. Better options would be dividing children by birthdates, favorite colors, favorite foods or interests. Connected teaching-the process of finding relevant examples for students lives-also shows promise in education because it allows the power of learning to be shared between the students and the teacher There needs to be a focused effort on the education of girls, not only in the United States, but around the world. Investing in a girl allows investment in that child’s family and community.
  • 23. Conclusion “Education is composed of communicative practices—lectures, books, activities—that teach students to perform gender. Detailed analysis of educational practice demonstrates that gendered/sexed elements of education, including who is educating whom, about what, in what way, and for what purpose. Educators and those being educated have an opportunity and responsibility to think about how the classroom can be a microcosm for multiple social inequalities and for social change.” (pg. 197)

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