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Wicked Ambiguity

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A keynote talk about aliens, nuclear waste, who we are, why we fail—and what unites us. …

A keynote talk about aliens, nuclear waste, who we are, why we fail—and what unites us.

How do you solve the world’s hardest problems? And what do you do when they’re unsolvable?

As content strategists, we solve problems for real people with defined needs who live and work in the here and now. We take a holistic approach, dive into research, break down silos within our organizations, and create real value for people every single day.

But how does our work change when we’re planning content for projects that last for not one year, or even 10 years, but for 10,000 years or more? Enter the “Wicked Problem,” or situations with so much complexity, uncertainty, and interdependencies that—by definition—they can’t be solved.

Using real-world examples from NASA’s Voyager program, the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, and other long-term communications efforts, we’ll talk about the challenges of creating information that’s useful and usable for people whom we’ll never know in our lifetimes.

The answers to these problems give us a new perspective on our work, on the ambiguity we face every day, and on what it means to build messages that endure with meaning that lasts.

Originally presented as the opening keynote for the 2014 Society for Technical Communication Summit in Phoenix, Arizona. Redeveloped as the opening keynote for the 2015 Confab Central conference and presented on May 21, 2015 in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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  • 1. Ambiguity wicked NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  • 2. Ambiguity wicked NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   Dedicated to Leonard Nimoy
  • 3. Colman NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   Jonathon @jcolman
  • 4. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   Bit.ly/raycats Slides + Transcript
  • 5. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  • 6. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  • 7. Sebas<an  Mary  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338  
  • 8. Big problem What’s the with content strategy?
  • 9. They think we’re just WRITERS
  • 10. Oh, But I’m really a ._______!
  • 11. Oh, But I’m really a Designer ._______!
  • 12. Oh, But I’m really a Developer ._______!
  • 13. Oh, But I’m really a Researcher ._______!
  • 14. Oh, But I’m really a Information Architect ._______!
  • 15. Oh, But I’m really a Marketer ._______!
  • 16. Writer Oh, But I’m really a ._______!
  • 17. Our differences Don’t matter
  • 18. We’re united against Ambiguity
  • 19. Problems Wicked
  • 20. Problems Wicked
  • 21. Horst Rittel & Melvin Webber René  Spitz  (renespitz)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/  
  • 22. John  Snow/C.F.  Cheffins  (Rewardiv  at  en.wikipedia)  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-­‐cholera-­‐map-­‐1.jpg  
  • 23. John  Snow/C.F.  Cheffins  (Rewardiv  at  en.wikipedia)  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Snow-­‐cholera-­‐map-­‐1.jpg  
  • 24. Naw, That’s a tame problem René  Spitz  (renespitz)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/  
  • 25. US  Federal  Agency  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Preven<on  (CDC),  from  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/14723720857  (crea<ve  commons  license:  hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/  )  
  • 26. OMG WHADDA wicked pissaH René  Spitz  (renespitz)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/renespitz/3383405574/  
  • 27. Steffi  Reichert,  from  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/steffireichert/4107432940  (crea<ve  commons  license:  hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/  )  
  • 28. By  Ventus  (Own  work)  [CC  BY-­‐SA  3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  • 29. By  West  Midlands  Police  from  West  Midlands,  United  Kingdom  [CC  BY-­‐SA  2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  • 30. US  Federal  Agency  Drug  Enforcement  Agency  (DEA)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Drugpackscorpion.png  
  • 31. John  Warwick  Brooke  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bri<sh_ar<llery_in_ac<on,_World_War_I.JPEG  
  • 32. By  Elizabeth  ArroN  /  VOA  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VOA-­‐Crimea-­‐Simferopol-­‐airport.jpg  
  • 33. Tim  J.  Keegan  (suburbanbloke)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/49333819@N00/381634787  
  • 34. Adam  Fowler  (adamfowler)  [CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/adamfowler/4841559945  
  • 35. CONTENT STRATEGY wicked problems in
  • 36. Communicating with Alien life
  • 37. ScoNer20  via  NASA  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Terrestrial_Planets_Size_Comp_True_Color.png  
  • 38. By  NASA  (Cropped  from  Image:Africa  satellite  plane.jpg.)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg  
  • 39. By  NASA  (Cropped  from  Image:Africa  satellite  plane.jpg.)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg   HELLO
  • 40. By  NASA  (Cropped  from  Image:Africa  satellite  plane.jpg.)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg   2 + 2 = 4
  • 41. By  NASA  (Cropped  from  Image:Africa  satellite  plane.jpg.)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sahara_satellite_hires.jpg   EAT AT JOE’S
  • 42. signalmirror  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/signalmirror/8329443696/  
  • 43. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars_atmosphere.jpg  
  • 44. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  from  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars_atmosphere.jpg   EAT AT JOE’S
  • 45. Via  Wikipedia  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on   𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿 The Drake Equation
  • 46. Via  Wikipedia  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on   𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿 The Drake Equation Lower bound: 8 x 10-20
  • 47. Via  Wikipedia  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equa<on   Lower bound: 8 x 10-20 Upper bound: 36.4 M 𝑁=​ 𝑅↓∗ ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑝 ∙​ 𝑛↓𝑒 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑙 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑖 ∙​ 𝑓↓𝑐 ∙ 𝐿 The Drake Equation
  • 48. Oona  Räisänen;  designed  by  Carl  Sagan  &  Frank  Drake;  artwork  by  Linda  Salzman  Sagan  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pioneer_plaque.svg  
  • 49. Alex  Alonso  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/aleiex/2123333438   Carl Sagan
  • 50. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  • 51. By  Arne  Nordmann  [GFDL  (hNp://www.gnu.org/copyleo/fdl.html),  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/3.0/)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arecibo_message.svg  
  • 52. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Sounds_of_Earth_-­‐_GPN-­‐2000-­‐001976.jpg  
  • 53. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Sounds_of_Earth_Record_Cover_-­‐_GPN-­‐2000-­‐001978.jpg  
  • 54. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  NASA  -­‐  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg  via  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/  
  • 55. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  NASA  -­‐  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg  via  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/  
  • 56. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  NASA  -­‐  hNp://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2011/04/28/annsbrainwaves.jpg  via  hNp://science.nasa.gov/science-­‐news/science-­‐at-­‐nasa/2011/28apr_voyager2/  
  • 57. CONTENT STRATEGY wicked problems in
  • 58. Communicating about Nuclear Waste
  • 59. JJanos  Korom  Dr.  from  Wien,  Austria  (Bécs  219    Uploaded  by  darkweasel94)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg  
  • 60. JJanos  Korom  Dr.  from  Wien,  Austria  (Bécs  219    Uploaded  by  darkweasel94)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg  
  • 61. JJanos  Korom  Dr.  from  Wien,  Austria  (Bécs  219    Uploaded  by  darkweasel94)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:B%C3%A9cs_219_(8135332496).jpg  
  • 62. User:Fasqission  [Public  domain]  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yucca_Mountain_crest_south.jpg  
  • 63. By  U.S.  Department  of  Energy  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yucca_Mountain_emplacement_drios.jpg  
  • 64. Half-life: 24,100 years 239   PU Via  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239  .  Photo  by  Los  Alamos  Na<onal  Laboratory  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plutonium_ring.jpg  
  • 65. Half-life: 24,100 years Via  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium-­‐235    and  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239   239   PU 235   U
  • 66. Half-life: 24,100 years Half-life: 703,800,000 years Via  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium-­‐235    and  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239   239   PU 235   U
  • 67. Half-life: 24,100 years Half-life: 703,800,000 years Via  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium-­‐235    and  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-­‐239   239   PU 235   U FUUUUUUUUCK  
  • 68. By  Ed  Siasoco  (Flickr:  Trinity  007)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trinity_007.jpg  
  • 69. Goal Stop people from accessing nuclear waste
  • 70. Strategy Create a message that lasts for 10,000+ years
  • 71. Objective 1 Must communicate “this is a message”
  • 72. Objective 2 Must communicate “this area is dangerous”
  • 73. Objective 3 Must communicate WHY
  • 74. Publishers  of  the  1890  Holman  Bible  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Holman_Priest_High_Priest_Levite.jpg  
  • 75. NASA  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GPS_Satellite_NASA_art-­‐iif.jpg  
  • 76. By  Jon  Sullivan  (PdPhoto)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leaf_1_web.jpg  
  • 77. Russell  Bernice  (russellbernice)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/russellbernice/2558386173/  
  • 78. Alle  (pinkiwinki<nki)  [CC-­‐BY—SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/55638925@N00/377299306/  
  • 79. Ⓒ  Jonathon  Colman    
  • 80. Nicolas  Raymond  (82955120@N05)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/82955120@N05/13094530583  
  • 81. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  • 82. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  • 83. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  • 84. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  • 85. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  • 86. Sandia  Na<onal  Laboratories,  “Expert  Judgment  on  Markers  to  Deter  Inadvertent  Human  Intrusion  into  the  Waste  Isola<on  Pilot  Plant”  (1993)  -­‐  hNp://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-­‐control.cgi/1992/921382.pdf  
  • 87. ambiguity the Nature of
  • 88. ambiguity the Nature of
  • 89. NASA/JPL,  Voyager  1  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png  
  • 90. NASA/JPL,  Voyager  1  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png   YOU ARE HERE  
  • 91. NASA/JPL,  Voyager  1  (hNp://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=601)  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  -­‐  hNp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pale_Blue_Dot.png   EAT AT JOE’S
  • 92. Our problems aren’t meaningful because they last forever
  • 93. Our problems are meaningful because They don’t
  • 94. They don’t
  • 95. Wey don’t
  • 96. Writer Designer Content Strategist Information Architect Researcher Developer Marketer
  • 97. AMBIGUITY
  • 98. Wikipedia:  “Uncertainty  Principle”  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle   ∆ 𝑥∙∆​ 𝑝↓𝑥 ≥​ℏ/2 
  • 99. Wikipedia:  “Uncertainty  Principle”  -­‐  hNp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle   ∆ 𝑥∙∆​ 𝑝↓𝑥 ≥​ℏ/2  we live in an uncertain universe
  • 100. Adam  Fowler  (adamfowler)  [CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/adamfowler/4841559945  
  • 101. Wicked problems are
  • 102. catalysts Wicked problems are
  • 103. Creativity Wicked problems ignite our
  • 104. Forward Wicked problems pull us
  • 105. Innovate Wicked problems help us
  • 106. Sebas<an  Mary  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338  
  • 107. Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  • 108. Wicked Problems We can’t solve But we can Acknowledge them
  • 109. Tim  J.  Keegan  (suburbanbloke)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNp://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/49333819@N00/381634787   Acknowledge them
  • 110. But we can Take risks Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  • 111. Take risks Mike  Bash  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/jbash/4223183281  
  • 112. But we can Stop being perfect Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  • 113. Stop being perfect ©  Jonathon  Colman  
  • 114. But we can Reward learning Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  • 115. Reward learning Laura  Ferreira  [CC-­‐BY-­‐NC-­‐ND-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐nc-­‐nd/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/prayerfriends/4343362783  
  • 116. But we can Try Wicked Problems We can’t solve
  • 117. But we can Try
  • 118. Coda
  • 119. Our differences Don’t Matter
  • 120. Our problems Do
  • 121. We stand United
  • 122. And  so  when  we’re  faced  with  ambiguity,   we’re  not  afraid.  We  don’t  run  away  from  it.     Run away We Don’t From ambiguity
  • 123. Sebas<an  Mary  (giovannijl-­‐s_photohut)  [CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐2.0  (hNps://crea<vecommons.org/licenses/by-­‐sa/2.0/)],  via  Flickr  -­‐  hNps://www.flickr.com/photos/giovannijl-­‐s_photohut/421051338   We Run toward it
  • 124. Ambiguity NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   wicked
  • 125. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons   Bit.ly/raycats Slides + Transcript
  • 126. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  • 127. NASA/JPL  [Public  domain],  via  Wikimedia  Commons  
  • 128. NASA,  ESA,  Hubble  Space  Telescope  [Public  domain],  via  NASA  Astronomy  Picture  of  the  Day,  hNp://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap101009.html   EAT AT JOE’S

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