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Heart beat


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  • 1. Heart Beat
  • 2.
    • The sound made by blood hitting the heart valves as it flows through the heart.
    • It produces a 'lub-dub' sound.
  • 3. Heart rate
    • Heart rate is the number of heart beats in unit time.
    • In a normal healthy male, heart beat around 70 times per minute.
  • 4. Tachycardia & Bradycardia
    • High heart rate is referred to as tachycardia.
    • Low heart rate is referred to as bradycardia.
  • 5. Cardiac Cycle
    • The contraction of the heart is called systole.
    • During atrial systole, the atria contract pushing blood into the ventricles.
    • During ventricular systole, the ventricles contract pushing blood into the lungs and rest of the body.
    • Between contractions, the heart relaxes and the atria fill with blood.
    • This relaxation stage is called diastole.
  • 6. Cardiac Cycle
    • One cycle of systole and diastole makes up a single heartbeat, which lasts for about 0.8 seconds in humans.
    • This is known as cardiac cycle.
  • 7. Electrocardiogram
    • Recording of the electrical activity of the heart is known as an electrocardiogram or ECG.
  • 8. Factors Affecting Heart Rate
    • An average adult heart rate is about 70 beats per minute.
    • Physical exercise increases the heart rate as tissues need more oxygen.
    • Stress or excitement can raise heart rate.
    • Rest can lower the heart rate.
    • Many drugs such as caffeine and nicotine also have an effect on heart rate.
  • 9. Control of Heart Rate
    • Heart is having intrinsic rhythmicity .
    • This means that heart can beat at a constant rhythm, on its own for a long period of time.
    • An adult heart removed from the body will continue to contract as long as it is kept in an oxygen rich fluid with suitable nutrients.
  • 10. Control of Heart Rate
    • Heart can produce its own impulses necessary for the functioning of cardiac muscles.
    • These impulses are called cardiac impulses and produced at special tissues found on the walls of right atrium.
    • The cardiovascular centre in the brain can increase or decrease the speed of the heart rate depending on the requirements of the body.
    • Some hormones such as adrenaline can also affect heart rate.