Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Cardiac output

33,436 views

Published on

  • Works For Teens! Hey, I'm only 18 and I thought I was going to have small boobs forever. After using your book for about 2 weeks, I started seeing results! I then used it for another month and I managed to get my breasts up to a C cup (with padding). I'm so pleased and I'm getting a lot more attention from boys now! Thanks you ▶▶▶ https://dwz1.cc/iZqgQnlK
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • P.S. Can you really burn pounds of stubborn fat away with a simple "morning hack"? See how, here... and make sure you check out the before & after transformations too. These photos are AMAZING. ☀☀☀ https://url.cn/5yLnA6L
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The TRUTH... ♥♥♥ https://t.cn/A6Z4M4sy
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Too busy to workout? NO PROBLEM! ONE MINUTE WEIGHT LOSS, CLICK HERE ●●● http://ishbv.com/1minweight/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Eat This POTENT Vegetable To Melt Diabetic Fat. IMPORTANT: Be careful, only eat it twice a day or you will lose diabetic belly fat too fast... ■■■ http://ishbv.com/bloodsug/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Cardiac output

  1. 1. Cardiac Output When the heart contracts
  2. 2. Cardiac Vocabulary <ul><li>Contractility :  Contractility is the intrinsic ability of cardiac muscle to develop force for a given muscle length. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cardiac Vocabulary <ul><li>Preload :  Preload is the muscle length prior to contractility, and it is dependent of ventricular filling (or end diastolic volume …EDV)  </li></ul><ul><li>This value is related to right atrial pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The most important determining factor for preload is venous return . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cardiac Vocabulary <ul><li>Afterload :  Afterload is the tension (or the arterial pressure ) against which the ventricle must contract.  </li></ul><ul><li>If arterial pressure increases, afterload also increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterload for the left ventricle is determined by aortic pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Afterload for the right ventricle is determined by pulmonary artery pressure. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cardiac Output <ul><li>Cardiac Output is the volume of blood pumped each minute, and is expressed by the following equation: </li></ul><ul><li>CO = SV x HR </li></ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul><ul><li>CO  is cardiac output expressed in L/min (normal ~5 L/min) </li></ul><ul><li>SV  is stroke volume per beat </li></ul><ul><li>HR  is the number of beats per minute </li></ul>
  6. 7. Heart Rate (HR) <ul><li>Heart rate is directly proportional to cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>Adult HR is normally 80-100 beats per minute (bpm.)  </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate is modified by autonomic, immune, and local factors.  For example : </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in parasympathetic activity via M 2 cholinergic receptors in the heart will decrease the heart rate. </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in sympathetic activity via B 1 and B 2 adrenergic receptors throughout the heart will increase the heart rate. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Stroke Volume (SV) SV = EDV - ESV <ul><li>Is determined by three factors: preload , afterload , and contractility .  </li></ul><ul><li>Preload gives the volume of blood that the ventricle has available to pump </li></ul><ul><li>Contractility is the force that the muscle can create at the given length </li></ul><ul><li>Afterload is the arterial pressure against which the muscle will contract. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>These factors establish the volume of blood pumped with each heart beat.  </li></ul>
  8. 9. Preload
  9. 10. afterload
  10. 11. Cardiac Volumes <ul><li>SV = end diastolic volume (EDV) - end systolic volume (ESV) </li></ul><ul><li>EDV = amount of blood collected in a ventricle during diastole </li></ul><ul><li>ESV = amount of blood remaining in a ventricle after contraction </li></ul>
  11. 13. Cardiac Reserve <ul><li>Cardiac reserve is the difference between resting and maximal CO </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Output: Example </li></ul><ul><li>CO (ml/min) = HR (75 beats/min) x SV (70 ml/beat) </li></ul><ul><li>CO = 5250 ml/min (5.25 L/min) </li></ul>
  12. 14. Frank – Starling Principle <ul><li>This principle illustrates the relationship between cardiac output and left ventricular end diastolic volume (or the relationship between stroke volume and right atrial pressure.) </li></ul>
  13. 16. Frank – Starling Principle <ul><li>The Frank Starling principle is based on the length-tension relationship within the ventricle. </li></ul><ul><li>If ventricular end diastolic volume ( preload ) is increased, it follows that the ventricular fiber length is also increased, resulting in an increased ‘tension’ of the muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac output is directly related to venous return, the most important determining factor is preload.  </li></ul><ul><li>The contraction and therefore stroke volume in response to changes in venous return is called the Frank-Starling mechanism (or Starling's Law of the heart). </li></ul>
  14. 19. How (TPR)Total Peripheral Resistance effects CO
  15. 21. Regulation of Heart Rate: Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stimulation is activated by stress, anxiety, excitement, or exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) stimulation is mediated by acetylcholine and opposes the SNS </li></ul><ul><li>slowing heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Baroreceptors          a. carotid sinus reflex - maintains BP in brain </li></ul><ul><li>b. Bainbridge reflex – maintains BP in heart </li></ul><ul><li>c. Aortic sinus reflex – maintains BP in aorta </li></ul>
  16. 23. Bainbridge Reflex <ul><li>Bainbridge (atrial) reflex – a sympathetic reflex initiated by increased blood in the atria </li></ul><ul><li>Causes stimulation of the SA node </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates baroreceptors in the atria, causing increased SNS stimulation </li></ul>
  17. 24. Cardiac Neurotransmitters & Receptors
  18. 25. Chemical Regulation of the Heart <ul><li>The hormones epinephrine and thyroxine (T 4 ) increase heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure       1. Renin       2. ADH </li></ul><ul><li>3. Aldosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Intra- & extracellular ion concentrations must be maintained for normal heart function </li></ul>
  19. 26. Homeostatic Imbalances <ul><li>Hypocalcemia – reduced ionic calcium depresses the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercalcemia – dramatically increases heart irritability and leads to spastic contractions </li></ul><ul><li>Hypernatremia – blocks heart contraction by inhibiting ionic calcium transport </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperkalemia – leads to heart block and cardiac arrest </li></ul>
  20. 29. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) <ul><li>caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary atherosclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Increased blood pressure in aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Successive myocardial infarcts </li></ul><ul><li>Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) </li></ul>
  21. 30. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
  22. 31. Heart Auscultation Normal Heart Beat Mid Systolic Click Diastolic Murmur Aortic Stenosis

×