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Organization Of Circulatory System
HEART
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins
Structure of the Heart
• The heart is divided into four chambers and is
often called to be two pumps.
– The right atrium and right ventricle form the right
pump, while the left atrium and left ventricle
combine to make the left pump.
• Blood movement within the heart is from
atria to the ventricles, and from ventricles
blood is pumped into the arteries. To prevent
backward movement of blood, the heart
contains four one-way valves.
Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits
• The right side of the heart pumps blood that is
partially depleted of its oxygen content and
contains an elevated carbon dioxide content as
result of gas exchange in the various tissues of the
body. This blood is delivered from the right heart
into the lungs through the pulmonary circuit. At
the lungs, oxygen is loaded into the blood and
carbon dioxide is released. This oxygenated blood
then travels to the left side of the heart and is
pumped to the various tissues of the body via
systemic circuit.
• Purpose of the Cardiovascular System
– Transport of Oxygen to tissues and removal of
wastes.
– Transport of nutrients to tissues.
– Regulation of body temperature.
Heart: Myocardium and Cardiac Cycle
Myocardium
– Or heart muscle is responsible for contracting
and forcing blood out of the heart.
– It receives blood supply via the right and left
coronary arteries.
Characteristics
– Heart muscles are all interconnected via
intercalated discs-permit transmission of electrical
impulses from one cell to another.
– Thought to be rather homogeneous muscle
containing one primary fiber type that is similar in
many ways to slow-twitch fibers found in skeletal
muscle.
– Highly aerobic in nature, contain an extensive
capillary supply, and have large numbers of
mitochondria.
– Heart muscle is striated (contains actin and
myosin protein filaments).
– It can alter its force of contraction as a function of
the degree of overlap between actin myosin
filaments.
Cardiac Cycle
– Refers to the repeating pattern of contraction and
relaxation of the heart.
• Contraction phase is called systole
• Relaxation period is called diastole
– Atrial systole and diastole
• Atrial contraction occurs during ventricular diastole and
atrial relaxation occurs during ventricular systole.
– A healthy 21-year old female might have an average
resting heart of 75 beats per minute
• The total cardiac cycle lasts 0.8 sec., with 0.5 sec. spent in
diastole and remaining 0.3 sec. dedicated to systole .
• If the heart rate increases from 75 bpm to 180 bpm (heavy
exercise), there is a reduction in the time spent in both
systole and diastole.
• 3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right),
tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve
(top right). The closure of the heart valves causes the
heart sounds.
Systole Diastole Rest
HR=75 beats/min.
0.3 seconds 0.5 seconds
Systole Diastole Heavy exercise
HR=180 beats/min.
0.2 seconds 0.13 seconds
Note: A rising heart rate results in a
greater time reduction in diastole,
while systole is less affected.
Arterial Blood Pressure
– Blood pressure is the force exerted by blood
against the arterial walls and is determined by
how much blood is pumped and the resistance to
blood flow.
– It can be estimated by the use of
sphygmomanometer.
• The normal blood pressure of an adult male is 120/80,
while that of adult females tends to be lower (110/70).
• The larger number in the expression of blood pressure
is the systolic pressure and the lower number is the
diastolic pressure both expressed in millimeter of
mercury(mm Hg).
– Pulse pressure
• The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
– Mean arterial pressure
• The average pressure during a cardiac cycle.
• It is important because it determines the rate of blood flow
through the systemic circuit.
• Mean arterial pressure can be estimated in the following way:
Mean arterial pressure= DBP=.33 (pulse pressure)
Example, suppose an individual has a blood pressure of 120/80
mm Hg. The men arterial pressure would be:
MAP = 80 mm Hg+.33(120-80)
= 80 mm Hg + 13
= 93 mm Hg
Electrical Activity of the Heart
• Sinoartrial Node (SA node)
– Serves as the pacemaker for the heart.
• Atrioventricular Node (AV node)
– Located in the floor of the right atrium, connects
the atria with the ventricles by a pair of
conductive pathways
• Electrocardiogram (ECG)
– A recording of the electrical changes that occur in
the myocardium during the cardiac cycle.
Cardiac Output
• Cardiac output (Q) is the product of the heart
rate (HR) and the stroke volume (SV)(amount
of blood pumped per heart beat.
Q = HR x SV
• It can be increased due to a rise in either heart
rate or stroke volume. During exercise in the
upright position( e.g. running or cycling ). The
increase in cardiac output is due to both an
increase in heart rate and stroke volume.
Regulation of Heart Rate
During exercise the quantity of blood
pumped by the heart must change in accordance
with the elevated skeletal muscle oxygen demand.
• The two most prominent factors that influence
heart rate are:
– Parasympathetic nervous system
– Sympathetic nervous system
• The parasympathetic fibers that supply the heart
arise from neurons in the cardiovascular control
center in the medulla oblongata and make up a
portion of the vagus nerve.
• Parasympathetic
– Acts as a braking system to slow down heart rate.
– Studies have shown that the initial increase in
heart rate during exercise, up to approximately
100 beats per minute, is due to withdrawal of
parasympathetic tone.
• Sympathetic fibers reach the heart by means
of the cardiac accelerator nerves, which
innervate both the SA node and the ventricle.
• Example
An increase in resting blood pressure above
normal stimulates pressure receptors in the carotid
arteries and the arch of aorta, which in turn send
impulses to cardiovascular control center.
In response, the cardiovascular control center
increases parasympathetic activity to the heart to
slow the heart rate and reduce cardiac output.
This reduction in cardiac output causes blood
pressure to decline back to normal.
• Another regulatory reflex involves pressure
receptors located in the right atrium.
– An increase in right atrial pressure signals the
cardiovascular control center that an increase in
venous return has occurred.
– The increase I the cardiac output lowers right atrial
pressure back to normal and venous blood presure is
reduced
• A change in body temperature can influence
heart rate.
– An increase in body temperature above normal results
in an increase in heart rate, while lowering of the
body temperature below normal causes a reduction in
heart rate.
Regulation of Stroke Volume
–Stroke volume , at rest or during
exercise, is regulated by three
variables:
• (1) The end-diastolic volume (EDV), which
is the volume of blood in the ventricles at
the end of diastole
• (2) The average aortic blood pressure
• (3) The strength of ventricular
contraction
• The end-diastolic volume (EDV),
– A rise in cardiac contractility results in an
increase in the amount pumped per beat. The
principal variable that influences EDV is the rat
of venous return to the heart. An increase in
venous return results in a rise in EDV and
therefore an increase in stroke volume.
Increased venous return and the resulting
increase in EDV plays a key role in the exercise
in stroke volume observed during upright
exercise.
• Factors that regulate venous return
during exercise
–Three principal mechanism s for increasing
venous return during exercise.
• (1) constriction of the veins (venoconstriction)
• (2) pumping action of contracting skeletal
muscle (muscle pump)
• (3) pumping action of the respiratory system
(respiratory pump)
• The average aortic blood pressure
– (mean arterial pressure called afterload)
– Stoke volume is inversely proportional to the
afterload; that is, in an increase in aortic pressure
produces a decrease in stroke volume. However, it
is noteworthy that afterload is minimize during
exercise due to arteriole dilation. This arteriole
dilation in the working muscles reduces afterload
and makes it easier for the heart to pump a large
volume of blood.
• The final factor that influences stroke volume
is the effect of circulation
epinephrine/norepinephrine and direct
sympathetic stimulation of the heart by
cardiac accelerator nerves.

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Circulatory Adaptations to Exercise

  • 1.
  • 2. Organization Of Circulatory System HEART Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins
  • 3. Structure of the Heart • The heart is divided into four chambers and is often called to be two pumps. – The right atrium and right ventricle form the right pump, while the left atrium and left ventricle combine to make the left pump. • Blood movement within the heart is from atria to the ventricles, and from ventricles blood is pumped into the arteries. To prevent backward movement of blood, the heart contains four one-way valves.
  • 4.
  • 5. Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits • The right side of the heart pumps blood that is partially depleted of its oxygen content and contains an elevated carbon dioxide content as result of gas exchange in the various tissues of the body. This blood is delivered from the right heart into the lungs through the pulmonary circuit. At the lungs, oxygen is loaded into the blood and carbon dioxide is released. This oxygenated blood then travels to the left side of the heart and is pumped to the various tissues of the body via systemic circuit.
  • 6. • Purpose of the Cardiovascular System – Transport of Oxygen to tissues and removal of wastes. – Transport of nutrients to tissues. – Regulation of body temperature.
  • 7. Heart: Myocardium and Cardiac Cycle Myocardium – Or heart muscle is responsible for contracting and forcing blood out of the heart. – It receives blood supply via the right and left coronary arteries. Characteristics – Heart muscles are all interconnected via intercalated discs-permit transmission of electrical impulses from one cell to another.
  • 8. – Thought to be rather homogeneous muscle containing one primary fiber type that is similar in many ways to slow-twitch fibers found in skeletal muscle. – Highly aerobic in nature, contain an extensive capillary supply, and have large numbers of mitochondria. – Heart muscle is striated (contains actin and myosin protein filaments). – It can alter its force of contraction as a function of the degree of overlap between actin myosin filaments.
  • 9. Cardiac Cycle – Refers to the repeating pattern of contraction and relaxation of the heart. • Contraction phase is called systole • Relaxation period is called diastole – Atrial systole and diastole • Atrial contraction occurs during ventricular diastole and atrial relaxation occurs during ventricular systole. – A healthy 21-year old female might have an average resting heart of 75 beats per minute • The total cardiac cycle lasts 0.8 sec., with 0.5 sec. spent in diastole and remaining 0.3 sec. dedicated to systole . • If the heart rate increases from 75 bpm to 180 bpm (heavy exercise), there is a reduction in the time spent in both systole and diastole.
  • 10. • 3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right), tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve (top right). The closure of the heart valves causes the heart sounds.
  • 11. Systole Diastole Rest HR=75 beats/min. 0.3 seconds 0.5 seconds Systole Diastole Heavy exercise HR=180 beats/min. 0.2 seconds 0.13 seconds Note: A rising heart rate results in a greater time reduction in diastole, while systole is less affected.
  • 12. Arterial Blood Pressure – Blood pressure is the force exerted by blood against the arterial walls and is determined by how much blood is pumped and the resistance to blood flow. – It can be estimated by the use of sphygmomanometer. • The normal blood pressure of an adult male is 120/80, while that of adult females tends to be lower (110/70). • The larger number in the expression of blood pressure is the systolic pressure and the lower number is the diastolic pressure both expressed in millimeter of mercury(mm Hg).
  • 13. – Pulse pressure • The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure – Mean arterial pressure • The average pressure during a cardiac cycle. • It is important because it determines the rate of blood flow through the systemic circuit. • Mean arterial pressure can be estimated in the following way: Mean arterial pressure= DBP=.33 (pulse pressure) Example, suppose an individual has a blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg. The men arterial pressure would be: MAP = 80 mm Hg+.33(120-80) = 80 mm Hg + 13 = 93 mm Hg
  • 14. Electrical Activity of the Heart • Sinoartrial Node (SA node) – Serves as the pacemaker for the heart. • Atrioventricular Node (AV node) – Located in the floor of the right atrium, connects the atria with the ventricles by a pair of conductive pathways • Electrocardiogram (ECG) – A recording of the electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during the cardiac cycle.
  • 15. Cardiac Output • Cardiac output (Q) is the product of the heart rate (HR) and the stroke volume (SV)(amount of blood pumped per heart beat. Q = HR x SV • It can be increased due to a rise in either heart rate or stroke volume. During exercise in the upright position( e.g. running or cycling ). The increase in cardiac output is due to both an increase in heart rate and stroke volume.
  • 16. Regulation of Heart Rate During exercise the quantity of blood pumped by the heart must change in accordance with the elevated skeletal muscle oxygen demand. • The two most prominent factors that influence heart rate are: – Parasympathetic nervous system – Sympathetic nervous system • The parasympathetic fibers that supply the heart arise from neurons in the cardiovascular control center in the medulla oblongata and make up a portion of the vagus nerve.
  • 17. • Parasympathetic – Acts as a braking system to slow down heart rate. – Studies have shown that the initial increase in heart rate during exercise, up to approximately 100 beats per minute, is due to withdrawal of parasympathetic tone. • Sympathetic fibers reach the heart by means of the cardiac accelerator nerves, which innervate both the SA node and the ventricle.
  • 18. • Example An increase in resting blood pressure above normal stimulates pressure receptors in the carotid arteries and the arch of aorta, which in turn send impulses to cardiovascular control center. In response, the cardiovascular control center increases parasympathetic activity to the heart to slow the heart rate and reduce cardiac output. This reduction in cardiac output causes blood pressure to decline back to normal.
  • 19. • Another regulatory reflex involves pressure receptors located in the right atrium. – An increase in right atrial pressure signals the cardiovascular control center that an increase in venous return has occurred. – The increase I the cardiac output lowers right atrial pressure back to normal and venous blood presure is reduced • A change in body temperature can influence heart rate. – An increase in body temperature above normal results in an increase in heart rate, while lowering of the body temperature below normal causes a reduction in heart rate.
  • 20. Regulation of Stroke Volume –Stroke volume , at rest or during exercise, is regulated by three variables: • (1) The end-diastolic volume (EDV), which is the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole • (2) The average aortic blood pressure • (3) The strength of ventricular contraction
  • 21. • The end-diastolic volume (EDV), – A rise in cardiac contractility results in an increase in the amount pumped per beat. The principal variable that influences EDV is the rat of venous return to the heart. An increase in venous return results in a rise in EDV and therefore an increase in stroke volume. Increased venous return and the resulting increase in EDV plays a key role in the exercise in stroke volume observed during upright exercise.
  • 22. • Factors that regulate venous return during exercise –Three principal mechanism s for increasing venous return during exercise. • (1) constriction of the veins (venoconstriction) • (2) pumping action of contracting skeletal muscle (muscle pump) • (3) pumping action of the respiratory system (respiratory pump)
  • 23. • The average aortic blood pressure – (mean arterial pressure called afterload) – Stoke volume is inversely proportional to the afterload; that is, in an increase in aortic pressure produces a decrease in stroke volume. However, it is noteworthy that afterload is minimize during exercise due to arteriole dilation. This arteriole dilation in the working muscles reduces afterload and makes it easier for the heart to pump a large volume of blood.
  • 24. • The final factor that influences stroke volume is the effect of circulation epinephrine/norepinephrine and direct sympathetic stimulation of the heart by cardiac accelerator nerves.