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Genetic code
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Genetic code

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  • 1. Genetic Code
    • The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells.
    • The information in DNA is in the form of triplet codons.
    • It is first transcribed into RNA and then into proteins.
    • Every triplet codon in the DNA specifies one amino acid in the protein.
  • 2. Continuous Translation
    • The gene is transcribed and translated continuously from a fixed starting point to a fixed stop point.
    • Punctuations are not present between the codons.
  • 3. Degeneracy of Genetic Code
    • In the genetic code there are 64 codons. Three of them are stop codons (UAA, UAG & UGA).
    • Remaining 61 codons code for 20 amino acids.
    • Thus there are more than one codon for one amino acid.
    • This is called degeneracy of genetic code.
  • 4. Non Overlapping
    • One base cannot participate in the formation of more than one codon
    • This means that the code is non-overlapping.
  • 5. Non-Ambiguous
    • The genetic code is non-ambiguous.
    • Thus one codon cannot specify more than one amino acid.
  • 6. Genetic Code
    • The genetic code has polarity. It’s always translated in the 5’ to 3’ direction.
  • 7. Genetic Code
    • AUG is the initiation codon. It codes for the first amino acid in all proteins.
    • At the starting point it codes for methionine in eukaryotes and formyl methionine in prokaryotes.