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BASQUE, SPANISH AND EUROPEAN HOUSING POLICIES
 

BASQUE, SPANISH AND EUROPEAN HOUSING POLICIES

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RESPONDER.

RESPONDER.

LINKING SCP AND GROWTH DEBATES  

MULTINATIONAL KNOWLEDGE BROKERAGE EVENT IN THE AREA OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSING.

28-30 MARCH 2012, BARCELONA (ES)

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    BASQUE, SPANISH AND EUROPEAN HOUSING POLICIES BASQUE, SPANISH AND EUROPEAN HOUSING POLICIES Presentation Transcript

    • RESPONDER. LINKING SCP AND GROWTH DEBATESMULTINATIONAL KNOWLEDGE BROKERAGE EVENT IN THE AREA OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSING. 28-30 MARCH 2012, BARCELONA (ES)“BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” Javier Burón Cuadrado Cuatrecasas Gonçalves Pereira Public Law Department Ex-Vice Counselor for Housing of the Basque Government Researcher at Ekiten Thinking UPV – EHU
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS”MY APPROACH TO THESES TOPICS: • I’M NOT A POLITICIAN (ANY MORE). I’M NOT A (PROFESSIONAL) ACADEMIC. I’M NOT A BUSINESS MAN (BUT I WORK WITH/FOR THEM). • MULTIDISCIPLINAR FOCUS: LAW, ECONOMICS, POLITICS, BUSINESS, SOCIOLOGY, ETC. • I DON’T HAVE ANY TECHNICAL (ARCHITECTURE, ENGINEERING, BIOLOGY, ETC) BACKGROUND.• SUMMARY : 1. SPANISH HOUSING POLICIES IN THE LAST DECADES 2. BASQUE HOUSING POLICIES IN THE LAST DECADES 3. CURRENT EVENTS IN SPANISH HOUSING POLICIES 4. A PROPOSAL FOR FUTURE YEARS. 2
    • 1.- SPANISH HOUSING POLICIES IN THE LAST DECADES 3
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” FROM THE 60’ TO CURRENT TIMES, IN SPAIN, HOUSING PUBLIC POLICIES ARE MAINLYDEVOTED TO PROPERTY ACCESS BY THE USE OF TAX DEDUCTIONS AND FINANCIALPUBLIC AIDS, WITH ONLY MARGINAL PUBLIC BUDGETS FOR ACTIVE HOUSING POLICIES.(“TIPOS DE INTERÉS SUBSIDIADOS POR EL ESTADO”, “DEDUCCIONES FISCALES A LACOMPRA” AND “VPO EN PROPIEDAD DESCALIFICABLE”, ). THE OBJETIVE TO ACHIVE IS ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT, RATHER THANTO EASE SOCIO-ECONOMICALY THE ACCESS TO ADEQUATE HOUSING FOR MIDDLE ANDLOW INCOME FAMILIES. SOCIO-SPATIAL BALANCE AND URBAN FOOTPRINT ARE ALMOSTNOT TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT. IN RECENT YEARS THREE DEBATES HAVE BEING (AT LEAST NOMINALY) INCLUDED INTHE PUBLIC AGENDA: • THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CONSTITUCIONAL RIGHT TO ADEQUATE HOUSING. • THE NEED TO CONVERT WITH EUROPEAN HOUSING PUBLIC POLICIES (PUBLIC INTERVENTION, RENTAL STOCK, SOCIAL HOUSING, REHABILITATION, ETC). • THE ENVIROMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO REAL ESTATE ACTIVITY. DESPITE THESE FACTS, MOST AGENTS IN SPAIN CONSIDER THAT ONLY THE MARKET(LATELY, REMARKABLY THE FINANTIAL MARKET) HAS THE TASK TO PROVIDE HOUSING TOTHE PEOPLE. PUBLIC INTERVENTION IS CONSIDERED NECESSARY IN THE “BAD TIMES AND PLACES”(SOCIALIZATION OF PRIVATE LOSSES) AND INCONVENIENT IN THE “GOOD TIMES ANDPLACES” (PRIVATIZATION OF BENEFITS). 4
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” THESE SET OF VALUES AND POLICIES SUSTAINED DURING SEVERAL DECADES, FIRST INRELATIVE AUTARKY (DICTATORSHIP) AND AFTER WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION ANDGLOBALIZATION PROCESS HAVE LEAD US TO THE FOLLOWING SITUATION:1) HYPERPRODUCTION (2.5/20/45 NEW UNITS PER 1000 INHABITANS vs. 2-6 IN MAIN EU MEMBER STATES). • 47 MILLIONS OF INHABITANTS; 25.5 MILLONS OF HOUSING UNITS; AROUND 550 UNITS/1000 INHABITANTS (THE HIGHEST AMONG BIG EU MMSS). • MORE THAN 20% OF VACANT UNITS (2/3/6 MILLIONS, PLUS 15% OF SECOND HOMES).2) SEVERE LAND CONSUMPTION: 0.4 MILLIONS OF HECTARES OF ARTIFICIALIZED LAND (1987- 2010); IN THE PREVIOUS 12.000 YEARS 0.8. • LAND ACQUIRED FOR 2.8 MILLION HOUSING UNITS WAITING TO BE PROCESSED. HALF OF IT, ALMOST IMPOSIBLE TO DEVELOP IN THE COMING YEARS. • “URBANIZED DESERTS “, INFRASTRUCTURES WITH NO USE AND SOCIO-SPATIAL SEGMENTATION.3) SOCIO-ECONOMIC INACCESSIBILITY TO HOUSING: • 1997-2007: HOUSING PRICES RISE MORE THAN 200% ON AVERAGE. LAND MORE THAN 500%. • 2007-2012: HOUSING PRICES DECLINE 20% ON AVERAGE. LAND 80% • 7-9 ANNUAL SALARIES NECESSARY TO BUY A HOUSE, EVEN NOW IN CRISIS TIMES; MAIN EU MMSS 3-4. 5.
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” HYPERPRODUCTION JULIO RODRIGUEZ LOPEZ CYT 161-162 - 2009 6
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    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” SOCIO-ECONOMIC INACCESSIBILITY TO HOUSING JULIO RODRIGUEZ LOPEZ CYT 161-162 - 2009 12
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    • MILOON KOTHARI (UN) MARGRETE AUKEN (EP) RAQUEL ROLNIK (UN) 15
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    • STATE OVER PROTECTION OF THE REAL ESTATE AND FINANCIALCOMPLEX, REVOLVING DOOR AND THE CAPTURE OF THE REGULATOR 18
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    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” URBANIZED DESERTS “CITY” OF VALDELUZ (GUADALAJARA – CASTILLA LA MANCHA) 22
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” URBANIZED DESERTS “CITY” OF SESEÑA (TOLEDO – CASTILLA LA MANCHA) 23
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” URBANIZED DESERTS “MARINA” (LAREDO - CANTABRIA) 24
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” URBANIZED DESERTS “AIRPORT” (CASTELLON - VALENCIA) 25
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” URBANIZED DESERTS THE CITY OF CULTURE (SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA – GALICIA) 26
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” URBANIZED DESERTS “HIGHWAY” (RADIALES MADRID) 27
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” THESE SET OF VALUES AND POLICIES SUSTAIN DURING SEVERAL DECADES, FIRST IN RELATIVE AUTARKYAND AFTER WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND GOLBALIZATION PROCCESS HAVE LEAD US TO THEFOLLOWING SITUATION:4) RISE OF UNEMPLOYMENT: FROM 10% IN THE LAST DECADE TO MORE THAN 20% IN CRISIS, PARTIALLY DUE TO REAL ESTATE DINAMICS.5) OWNERSHIP IMPOSED CULTURE: • MORE THAN 80% OF OWNERS; NO MORE THAN 10% OF TENANTS; ONLY 125.000 SOCIAL RENTAL UNITS (LESS THAN 0.5%). • IN THE 60’s MORE THAN HALF OF THE POPULATION LIVED ON RENTAL. • “TO RENT IS A WASTE OF MONEY” (“ALQUILAR ES TIRAR EL DINERO”) + MARKET AND STATE PROMOTION OF OWNERSHIP.6) FAMILY HYPERLEVERAGE AND RESIDENTIAL EMERGENCY: • MILLIONS OF OVERMORTGAGED FAMILIES. • MILLIONS OF UNDER WATER MORTGAGES. • 300.000 FORCE EVICTIONS (MORTGAGES), PLUS EVITED TENANTS. HEADING TO 6 MILLIONS OF UNAPLOYED PEOPLE AND 0.5 MILLIION EVITED FAMILIES.7) SYSTEMIC ECONOMIC RISK DUE TO FINANCIAL IRRESPONSABILITY: 150.000 MILLIONS (1.5 BILLION - short scale - 109 ) IN REAL ESTATE “DOMESTIC” TOXIC ASSETS (15% SPANISH DGP).8) STILL DEPENDANT ON REAL ESTATE SOCIO-ECONOMIC “COLLECTIVE DRUG”: 60% OF BANK CREDIT FOR PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES GOES TO REAL ESTATE; TODAY REFINANCING, RATHER THAN FINANCING NEW URBAN DEVELOPMENTS OR OTHER PRODUCTIVE 28 ACTIVITIES.
    • 2.- BASQUE HOUSING POLICIES IN THE LAST DECADES 29
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” IN THE LAST TWO DECADES THE BASQUE COUNTRY HAS DEVELOPED ITS OWN PUBLICHOUSING POLICY MODEL BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PRINCIPLES:1) STRONG PUBLIC INTERVENTION2) AIMED TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACCESIBILITY TO HOUSING3) UNDENIABLE PRODUCTIVIST DRIVE. IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR = BUILDING NEW HOUSING UNITS, MOST OF THEM DEDICATED TO PUBLIC RENTAL (ORUBIDE, VISESA AND ALOKABIDE). • BUT, DIFFERENT MARKET BEHAVIOR IN RELATION TO THE REST OF SPAIN: 7 NEW HOUSING UNITS PER 1000 HABITANTS AND YEAR (20-40). • LEGAL LAND RESERVES FOR PUBLIC HOUSING = DEFENSE WALL AGAINST HOUSE PRODUCTIVISIM, LAND CONSUMPTION, SPECULATION AND MARKET CYCLES.4) THE FIRST REGION TO SET A PUBLIC PROGRAMME FOR VACANT HOUSING STOCK: BIZIGUNE (MOVILIZE VACANT STOCK TO SOCIAL RENTAL).5) URBAN RENEWAL: MODERATE EFFORTS, VERY MUCH CONCENTRATED IN SEVERAL PROBLEMATIC SPOTS (BILBAO LA VIEJA, SESTAOBERRI, PASAJES, ETC).6) NEW PUBLIC TENURE FORMS: RIGHT OF SURFACE AND RENTAL, BESIDES OWNERSHIP. LACKI OF CO-HOUSING AND COOPERATIVE METHODOLOGIES.7) FIGHT AGAINST PUBLIC HOUSING FRAUD: PUBLIC CONTROL OF A DEMANDED AND LIMITED 30 SOCIAL HOUSING STOCK.
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” NEW HOUSING UNITS PER YEAR (2000-2011) 0-100% … 50%-50% 31
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” NEW PUBLIC HOUSING UNITS PER YEAR (2000-2011) 0 - 65.000 (25.000) 32
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” NEW PUBLIC RENTAL HOUSING UNITS PER YEAR (1982-2011) 0 - 20.000 (40.0000) 33
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” MOVILIZED VACANT HOUSING UNITS (2003-2010) 0 - 5.000 34
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” THESE GUIDE LINES AND MEANS WERE DIRECTED TO SEVERAL FUNDAMENTAL PUBLIC OBJETIVES:1. HOUSING AS A RIGHT AND NOT ONLY AS AN INVESTMENT.2. KEY ROLE OF PUBLIC RENTAL STOCK (FROM ALMOST ZERO TO 20.000 / 40.000 RENTAL UNITS IN LESS THAN A DECADE).3. MULTIFUNTIONAL PUBLIC HOUSING STOCK. FIRST STEEPS TO A HOUSING PUBLIC SERVICE • 65.000 FAMILIES WITH 30-50% AVERAGES HOUSING EXPENDITURE • BUILDING OF A PUBLIC HOUSING STOCK • ANTICYCLE INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC HOUSING STOCK IN PRIVATE MARKET HOSUING PRICES.4. INSUFICIENT EFFORT IN SUSTAINABILITY • PRODUTIVIST DRIVE, RATHER THAN “RE” APPROACH (REHABILITATION, REGENERATION, RENEWAL, ETC). • BIZIGUNE • INDIVIDUAL REHABILITATION PUBLIC AIDS. • HIRIBER (BASQUE GOVERNMENT AIDS TO URBAN REGENERATION PLANS). • ERAIKUNE AND INDUSTRALIZATION OF THE BUILDING AND REHABILITATION PROCESS. 35
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” THE SEVERE CRISIS IS CHANGING BASQUE HOUSING POLICIES VERY MUCH IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME:1. THE SEARCH FOR BUYERS, REGARDLESS SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS, EVEN WITHIN THE PUBLIC SECTOR.2. INTERRUPTION OF PRODUCTIVE ACTIONS, DUE TO PUBLIC BUDGETARY CUTS.3. DENIAL OF THE VACANT HOUSING PROBLEM IN THE BASQUE COUNTRY.4. SELLING PUBLIC HOUSING ASSETS: LAND, HOUSING UNITS, BUILDINGS, PUBLIC COMPANIES, ETC.5. FROM BIZIGUNE (SOCIAL RENTAL OF PRIVATE VACANT HOUSING UNITS) TO PROGRAMA DE INTERMEDIACION INMOBILIARIA (PUBLIC INSURANCE FOR RENTAL OF PRIVATE HOUSING UNITS AT MARKET PRICES).6. UDALEKIN (BASQUE GOVERNMENT AIDS TO TOWNS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VACANT PRIVATE LAND PLOTS … IN ORTHER TO RESUME PRODUCTION OF NEW HOUSING PRIVATE PROJETS).7. LEGISLATIVE OBJETIVE: TO REDUCE THE COSTS OF PRIVATE LAND DEVELOPERS AND TO DECREASE THE LEGAL RESERVES OF LAND FOR PUBLIC HOUSING (75%-40%) + PERMANENT LEGAL PUBLIC REGIME.8. POLITICAL LOGIC: THE PUBLIC INTERVENTION IS THE PROBLEM AND THE MARKET THE SOLUTION. 36
    • 3.- CURRENT EVENTS IN SPANISH HOUSING POLICIES 37
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS”PROFOUND URBANISTIC AUTISM THE DECLARE OBJETIVE OF THE NEW SPANISH CABINET IS, ONCE “FINANCIAL REFORM” IS COMPLETED (SOCIALIZATION OF THE REAL ESTATE LOSSES OF THE PRIVATE BANKS), TO RESUME HOUSING PRODUCTION (MONOPRODUCTION OF NEW HOUSING UNITS FOR PRIVATE OWNERSHIP) AS A CORE SECTOR OF OUR ECONOMY AND A HEALTHY SOURCE OF EMPLOYMENT. • RECENT APELATIONS OF SENIOR OFFICIALS TO THE RETURN TO THE “SPANISH MIRACLE” TIMES. • THE NEED TO FLEXIBILIZE OUR “HARD” COSTS LEGISLATION IN ORDER TO PROMOTE “DEVELOPMENT” • THE CONVINIENCE TO AVOID SUSTAINABLE DEVELOMENT EFFORTS, SINCE THIS IS A “FALSE” CONCEPT. • THE ABUSE OF TAX DEDUCTIONS FOR OWNERSHIP AND THE ALMOST NONEXISTENCE FISCAL AIDS FOR RENTAL OR RENEWAL. • THE “SOCIEDAD PUBLICA DE ALQUILER” AND THE “RENTA BASICA DE EMANCIPACION” HAVE BEEN CANCELLED, BECAUSE PUBLIC RENTAL STOCKS OR AIDS TO MODERATE PRIVATE RENTS ARE “RUINOUS” BUSINESS AND PUBLIC POLICIES. 38
    • “BASQUE PUBLIC HOUSING POLICIES, A DIFFERENTIAL MODEL WITHIN SPAIN, STILL FAR AWAY FROM CENTRAL AND NORTHERN EUROPE TRADITIONS” 39
    • 4.- A PROPOSAL FOR THE FUTURE YEARS 40
    • 3.- PERSPECTIVAS DE FUTURO: SI TODO PERMANECE IGUAL, VOLVERA A PASAR LO MISMO … PERO ES POSIBLE NO CAER DE NUEVO EN LA MISMA PIEDRA SPANISH URBANISM NEED NEW STATEHOLDERS WILLING TO MAKE POSSIBLE: MORATORIUM - CEASEFIRE: SUSPEND NEW HOUSINGDEVELOPMENTS, UNTIL VACANT STOCK IS ALLOCATED AND RENEWAL NEEDS ARE FULFILLED. WITH ONLY A FEW LOCALLY JUSTIFIED EXCEPTIONS. VACANT HOUSING MOVILIZATION PPP ON VACANT STOCK: MARKET - MODERATE –SOCIAL RENTAL PROGRAMMES MANAGED BY BANKS, ADMINISTRATION, PROFESIONAL MANAGERS AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES. RENTAL RENEWAL 41
    • 3.- PERSPECTIVAS DE FUTURO: SI TODO PERMANECE IGUAL, VOLVERA A PASAR LO MISMO … PERO ES POSIBLE NO CAER DE NUEVO EN LA MISMA PIEDRASPANISH URBANISM NEED NEW STATEHOLDERS WILLING TO MAKE POSSIBLE: MEANWHILE … ADAPTATIVE URBANISM CO RE • URBAN HARDWARE (PHYSICAL ARTIFACTS) vs. (KNOWLEDGE AND RELATIONS) SOCIAL SOFTWARE. • RENTAL + REHABILITACION + REGENERATION + RENEWAL + RETHINK + REUSE + ETC. • NON FINANCIAL OR ADMINSTRATIVE URBANISM: THE NEED OF A NEW INVOLVEMENT OF CITIZENS, COMMUNITIES, NGOs, 42 ADMINISTRATION AND BUSINESS PEOPLE.
    • 3.- PERSPECTIVAS DE FUTURO: SI TODO PERMANECE IGUAL, VOLVERA A PASAR LO MISMO … PERO ES POSIBLE NO CAER DE NUEVO EN LA MISMA PIEDRAALL OF THIS IS OBVIOUS (SELF-EVIDENT FOR A LONG TERM AND GENERAL INTEREST PERSPECTIVE)BUT, I’M AFFRAID, THAT IT WON’T BE DONE (DUE TO CULTURAL, MARKET, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CURRENT BALANCE) 43
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