THE URBAN GROWTH OF MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS . THE CASE OF CASTILLA-LA MANCHA.

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THE URBAN GROWTH OF MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS . THE CASE OF CASTILLA-LA MANCHA.

  1. 1. THE URBAN GROWTH OF MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS . THE CASE OF CASTILLA-LA MANCHA. Facultad de Humanidades. Albacete EURGEOT / Varsovia, Mayo 2010 Juan Antonio García González Grupo EURGEOT Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha
  2. 2. THE URBAN GROWTH OF TOWNS. THE CASE OF CASTILLA-LA MANCHA. • 1.- Factors and events of the sprawling city. • 2.- Urban sprawl in the environment of medium-sized towns of Castilla-La Mancha. – Populations changes – Commuting – Growth of urban surface – Increased housing • 3.- Multiscale analysis. – 3.1.- The expansion of continuous urban land and discontinuous urban land at the provincial level. – 3.2.- The changes in urban rings – 3.3.- Changes inside county level
  3. 3. CONCEPTS OF THE PHENOMENON • Ciudad abierta. • Ciudad extensa. • Ciudad difusa. • Ciudad dispersa. • Ciudad desconcentrada. • Ciudad diseminada. • Nuevos espacios residenciales. • Mosaico urbano. • Archipiélago urbano. • Área urbana. • Ciudad mallada. • Ciudad-región. • Periferias urbanas. • No-ciudad. • Regiones funcionales urbanas. • Suburbanización. • Periurbanización. • Rurubanización. • Contraurbanización. • Desurbanización. • Descentralización urbana. • Metropolización del espacio rural. • Exurbanización. • Antiurbanización. • Urbanización por desplazamiento. • Desconcentración urbana. • Derramamiento urbano • Urbanización del campo
  4. 4. COUNTERURBANIZATION • Population spreading. • Demographic flows changes: rural- urban vs urban-rural • Translation of business and employment from CBD to metropolitan areas • Dissolution of the urbanization on the territory and society.
  5. 5. GROWTH OF THE HOUSING BUSINESS (1996-2006) • Expansive economic climate. • Exceptional financial conditions (mortgage). • Consideration of real estate as a capital above its residential value (purely speculative). • Increase in family income. • Increase in the number of households. – Massive influx of immigrants. – Increased single-person households. • Residential tourism outburst. • Demand for second homes. • New preferences in housing typologies.
  6. 6. TERRITORIAL EXPRESSIONS OF PROCESS • 1 / 3 of homes built in Spain in the nineties, has been constructed in the form of low density (single-family and townhouses). • They are in the first city ring. – Outskirts of the large Spanish cities . – Suburbs of medium-sized towns . – Coastal areas.
  7. 7. EVOLUTION OF THE AVERAGE PRICE OF HOUSES IN SPAIN AND CLM (1996-2006)
  8. 8. EXPLANATORY FACTOR OF GROWTH OF THE SPRAWLING CITY. • Incorporation of new Information Technologies and telecommunications. • Broadening of transport •It has encouraged the decentralization of population and economic activities. •It has created high-capacity networks
  9. 9. ARGUMENTATION IN FAVOR OF DIFFUSE CITY MODEL • Sustainable patterns of diffuse regional towns • Beneficial effects on host rural areas (population dynamics, economic ...). • Cheaper land prices. • New consumer preferences.
  10. 10. CRITICAL TO THE DIFFUSE CITY MODEL • Ecological approaches. – Extensive use of space – High consumption of land . – High emissions of pollutants (gases, noise, environmental impacts). • Economical approaches. – Increasing demands for resources and energy . – Shortage of public and private services . – High cost of infrastructure and equipment . – Conflict between new residential functions and rural activities. – Increased daily urban mobility – Densification of transport and communication networks. • Social approaches. – Dissolution of the urban structure. – Fragmentation of the social network. – Space privatization and partitioning. – Increased mobility: wasted traveling time. – Planning deficit.
  11. 11. THE URBAN GROWTH OF TOWNS. THE CASE OF CASTILLA-LA MANCHA. • 1.- Factors and events of the sprawling city. • 2.- Urban sprawl in the environment of medium-sized towns of Castilla-La Mancha. – Populations changes – Commuting – Growth of urban surface – Increased housing • 3.- Multiscale analysis. – 3.1.- The expansion of continuous urban land and discontinuous urban land at the provincial level. – 3.2.- The changes in urban rings – 3.3.- Changes inside county level
  12. 12. METHODOLOGY - Study Hypothesis: - Study area: - Analyzed variables: The increase of population, housing and daily mobility are expressions of the growth of the sprawling city. Outskirts of the main seven towns in Castilla-La Mancha (Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Ciudad Real, Guadalajara, Puertollano, Talavera de la Reina and Toledo). •Demographic dynamics. •Daily commuting. •Changes in land cover •Housing
  13. 13. - Period analyzed : - Sources: - Area of analysis : Municipalities within a radius of 30 km on the outskirts of the seven main cities. •INE. Demographic bureau. 2001. •INE. Population register, 1996 y 2007. •CORINE land Cover 1996-2007 (It starts with the beginning of the growth cycle of housing in Spain and it ends with the latest available data ). METHODOLOGY
  14. 14. Fuente: Atlas del turismo rural de Castilla-La Mancha
  15. 15. URBAN DYNAMICS AND FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION OF CITIES. CIUDAD Población 1996 Población 2007 Tasa 1996/2007 Cuenca 43.733 52.980 1’74 Talavera de la Reina 70.922 85.549 1’70 Ciudad Real 59.392 71.005 1’62 Toledo 66.006 78.618 1’58 Guadalajara 67.108 77.925 1’36 Albacete 143.799 164.771 1’24 Puertollano 50.772 50.838 0’01 Fuente: INE, Censo de Población y Vivienda, 2001. Elaboración propia. Evolution of the population in medium-sized towns of Castilla-La Mancha (1996-2007)
  16. 16. URBAN DYNAMICS AND FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION OF CITIES. - Accessibility - Tourist role : - Administrative functions: -Different functional specialization : - University: - Comercial functions: - Industrial functions: Toledo. Cuenca. • High-Speed train AVE: Ciudad Real, Puertollano, Toledo, Guadalajara •Airports: Ciudad Real, Albacete. •Highways
  17. 17. ATTRACTION FACTORS OF COUNTIES AROUND MIDDLE-SIZE TOWNS. • Abundance of land at competitive prices . • Accessibility. • Balance: – proliferation of sprawling development along the main axes of communication – Much of its residents come from the city and move into old family second homes or new neighborhoods.
  18. 18. COMMUTING IN CITIES AND TOWNS WITHIN THEIR RESPECTIVE URBAN BUFFER (2001) Fuente: INE, Censo de Población y Vivienda, 2001. Elaboración propia. Movilidad laboral diaria en la ciudad principal (%) Movilidad laboral diaria. Valor medio de los municipios de su área de influencia (%) Albacete 11 32 Ciudad Real 16 42 Cuenca 11 41 Guadalajara 31 53 Puertollano 17 34 Talavera de la Reina 17 39 Toledo 16 47
  19. 19. Total población vinculada1 Toledo 31.176 Guadalajara 15.847 Ciudad Real 12.071 Talavera de la Reina 6.575 Albacete 4.738 Puertollano 3.096 Cuenca 2.117 PEOPLE THAT WORK IN TOWNS DIFFERENT THAN THEIR HOMETOWNS. 2001 Fuente: INE. Elaboración propia. 1. Excluida la población vinculada de la ciudad principal.
  20. 20. CONCENTRATED AND SPRAWLING URBAN LAND GROWTH IN CASTILLA-LA MANCHA (PROVINCIAL LEVEL) Evolución de la Superficie de Tejido Urbano Continuo 0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 100,0 120,0 1987 2000 2006 Albacet e Ciudad Real Cuenca Guadalajara Toledo Evolución de la Superficie de Tejido Urbano Discontinuo 0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 100,0 120,0 1987 2000 2006
  21. 21. GROWTH OF THE LAND SURFACE OF SPRAWLING URBANISM BY PROVINCES (1987- 2000-2006) Provincias 1987 2000 2006 1987-2000 2000-2006 1987-2006 Albacete 11.3 17.3 20.9 52.4 21.1 84.6 Ciudad Real 11.6 19.7 25.7 69.6 30.7 121.7 Cuenca 11.1 17.1 22.4 53.5 31.1 101.2 Guadalajara 30.2 45.1 55.0 49.3 21.9 82.0 Toledo 58.8 93.2 109.5 58.3 17.6 86.1 Castilla-La Mancha 123.1 192.3 233.6 56.2 21.5 89.7 Tasa de crecimiento (%)Superficie en Km2
  22. 22. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF URBAN LAND SURFACE BY PROVINCES (1987-2000-2006) 1987 2000 2006 Tejido urbano continuo 80.6 73.2 69.4 Tejido urbano discontinuo 19.4 26.8 30.6 Albacete 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 88.1 81.7 77.4 Tejido urbano discontinuo 11.9 18.3 22.6 Ciudad Real 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 82.5 75.5 70.0 Tejido urbano discontinuo 17.5 24.5 30.0 Cuenca 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 61.7 51.9 46.3 Tejido urbano discontinuo 38.3 48.1 53.7 Guadalajara 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 63.0 52.1 48.0 Tejido urbano discontinuo 37.0 47.9 52.0 Toledo 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 73.1 63.7 59.0 Tejido urbano discontinuo 26.9 36.3 41.0 Castilla-La Mancha 100.0 100.0 100.0
  23. 23. EVOLUTION OF THE SURFACE OF URBAN LAND OF SPRAWLING URBANISM IN THE RINGS OF THE SEVEN MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS (1987-2000-2006). Coronas (30 km) 1987 2000 2006 1987-2000 2000-2006 1987-2006 Albacete 8.8 12.6 14.9 42.8 18.6 69.3 Ciudad Real-Puertollano 7.4 12.4 16.0 66.9 29.4 116.0 Cuenca 2.0 2.4 3.7 20.6 54.4 86.3 Guadalajara 12.3 24.7 33.9 101.0 37.4 176.2 Talavera de la Reina 15.8 21.5 23.4 36.4 8.9 48.4 Toledo 12.4 27.7 33.1 123.4 19.7 167.3 Total coronas 58.7 101.3 125.1 72.5 23.6 113.2 Superficie en Km2 Tasa de crecimiento (%)
  24. 24. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF URBAN LAND SURFACE IN THE RINGS OF THE SEVEN MEDIUM- SIZED TOWNS . Coronas (30 km) 1987 2000 2006 Tejido urbano continuo 60.0 51.2 46.6 Tejido urbano discontinuo 40.0 48.8 53.4 ALBACETE 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 80.7 72.4 66.9 Tejido urbano discontinuo 19.3 27.6 33.1 CIUDAD REAL-PUERTOLLANO 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 74.5 70.8 61.1 Tejido urbano discontinuo 25.5 29.2 38.9 CUENCA 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 58.4 41.1 32.2 Tejido urbano discontinuo 41.6 58.9 67.8 GUADALAJARA 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 53.9 46.7 44.4 Tejido urbano discontinuo 46.1 53.3 55.6 TALAVERA DE LA REINA 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 73.2 55.4 50.9 Tejido urbano discontinuo 26.8 44.6 49.1 TOLEDO 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tejido urbano continuo 67.1 54.6 49.0 Tejido urbano discontinuo 32.9 45.4 51.0 Total coronas 100.0 100.0 100.0
  25. 25. GUADALAJARA
  26. 26. MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SPRAWLING CITY •Major Cities: The influence area is up to 100 km. •Medium-sized Towns: Their influence radios do not often exceed 30 km. •The peripheral municipalities grow above the dynamics of medium-sized towns. •This growth is due to population and activities disseminating.
  27. 27. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS - Especially intense manifestations of the sprawling city phenomenon •Guadalajara. •Toledo - Intermediate cases: •Ciudad Real. •Talavera de la Reina. •Cuenca. •Albacete • Puertollano. - Emerging impact on the environs of the cities of:
  28. 28. Creation of new sites away from traditional urban spaces. New suburban landscapes. Polycentricism, especially residential. Problems of definition: From the standpoint of the territorial delimitation, the concept of diffused city is imprecise. Rupture and dissolution of the traditional boundaries of cities. No building or population density thresholds. MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SPRAWLING CITY
  29. 29. It is difficult to properly distinguish the boundaries between rural and urban environment. Juxtaposition of the two urban models: compact city vs diffuse city. Low building density. Proximity to communication routes. High mobility of the population every working day. MANIFESTATIONS OF THE SPRAWLING CITY
  30. 30. Gracias por su atención Síguenos en “Geografiando en las nubes ;-)” http://www.facebook.com/juanantonio.garciagonzalez.37 @JGARCIAGONZALEZ http://geografiandoenlasnubes.blogspot.com.es/ http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=139061635&trk=tab_pro garciagonzalez.juanantonio@gmail.com http://es.slideshare.net/JuanAntonioGarciaGonzlez http://pinterest.com/geografiando/boards/ https://plus.google.com/u/0/105941284089211583758/posts http://www.youtube.com/user/garciotum1?feature=mhee

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