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The Planning System of the Iberian Peninsula: Past, EU Integration, EU Cohesion Policy and Cooperation


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Lecture on The Planning System of the Iberian Peninsula: Past, EU Integration, EU Cohesion Policy and Cooperation
Faculty of Spatial Science, University of Groningen
March 25, 2014, Groningen, The Netherlands

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The Planning System of the Iberian Peninsula: Past, EU Integration, EU Cohesion Policy and Cooperation

  1. 1. Faculty of Spatial Science, University of Groningen March 25, 2014, Groningen, The Netherlands
  2. 2. Iberian Peninsula Portugal Spain History Government Mismatch Spatial Planning EU Cooper. Northern Portugal Galicia 2020 EU Integration Present Past Cooperation Key figures Past
  3. 3. Hence only grid statistics can provide a realistic portrait of where people actually live and how many there are. Eurostat Population
  4. 4. On 11 May 2009, the Portuguese Republic submitted to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, in accordance with Art. 76, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, information on the limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
  5. 5. • The persistently uneven development • The rise of new technologies • The financial and economic crisis Albrechts, 2010 • The changes in production processes • The globalisation of culture and the economy • The ageing of the population • The environmental issues • (...)
  6. 6. European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM) The EFSM has been activated for Ireland and Portugal, for a total amount up to €48.5 billion (up to €22.5 billion for Ireland and up to €26 billion for Portugal), to be disbursed over 3 years (2011 – 2013). Austerity Measures in Crisis Countries - Results and Impact on Mid-term Development
  7. 7. Spain: 25,8%Portugal: 15,3%
  8. 8. Spain: 55,2% Portugal: 38,4% NL: 9,8%
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Spain: 0,7% Portugal: -1,7% NL: 1%
  11. 11. Spain: 109 Portugal: 77 NL: 113
  12. 12. 20. Atletico Madrid 19. AS Roma 18. Fenerbahce 17. Hamburger SV 16. Galatasaray 15. Inter Milan 14. Tottenham Hotspur 13. FC Schalke 04 12. Liverpool 11. Borussia Dortmund 10. AC Milan 9. Juventus 8. Arsenal 7. Chelsea 6. Manchester City 5. Paris Saint-Germain 4. Manchester United 3. Bayern Munich 2. FC Barcelona 1. Real Madrid 2012-13 revenue: £444.7m 2012-13 revenue: £413.6m
  13. 13. Located on the southwestern tip of the European continent, the Iberian Peninsula, includes the countries of Andorra, Portugal and Spain, and the British Crown colony of Gibraltar.
  14. 14. From 500 to 1000 A.D., the Iberian Peninsula witnesses different waves of conquests by the Visigothic, Byzantine, and Arab armies. Christian rule under the Byzantines and Visigoths in the first half of the period comes to an end with the introduction of Islam in the eighth century by Arab armies. Under Islamic Umayyad rule, there is remarkable cross-cultural exchange between Christian, Jewish, and Muslim populations in the Iberian peninsula.
  15. 15. Christian kingdoms in the north gradually unite, become much more powerful, and expand their territories through a campaign of reconquista (reconquest). Despite the weakening of Islamic power, its influence in science, medicine, and art is extraordinary and contributes to the rich diversity of the peninsula as Christians, Muslims, and Jews live peacefully together.
  16. 16. Bilateral agreements 1143 Zamora 1267 Badajoz 1297 Alcanizes 1801 Badajoz 1815 Viena 1864 Lisboa 1926 Border agreements
  17. 17. At the start of this period, the Iberian Peninsula is fragmented into several kingdoms, its rulers waging continual warfare and engaging in border disputes. The region eventually emerges unified, and by the end of the sixteenth century is a major international power. At its height, the Spanish empire numbers among its territorial possessions vast portions of the Americas, the Philippines, Milan, and Sicily. The consolidation of the monarchy is largely due to the marriage and joint rule of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile.
  18. 18. In 1800, the Iberian Peninsula, also under the yoke of Napoleon, is torn by war with its occupying forces. After Napoleon's fall in 1814, earlier political boundaries are largely restored.
  19. 19. The countries of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain and Portugal, make important contributions to twentieth-century culture, despite the disruptions and isolation caused by repressive political regimes throughout much of the period. • 1936–39 The Spanish Civil War takes place. • 1974 The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos) brings about an end the fascist regime in Portugal and establishes a liberal democracy.
  20. 20. • The political system is a parliamentary monarchy. The king (El Rey Don Juan Carlos) is the head of the state but he has limited functions. • The Spanish satate is social, democratic and ruled by law. • The power of the state and the government is limited by the constitution and laws.
  21. 21. Casa Real Executive Legislative Judicial Congreso de Diputados El Senado Tribunal
  22. 22. Ministerio de la Presidencia Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Ministerio de Hacienda Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y Cooperación Ministerio de Justicia Ministerio del Interior Ministerio de Fomento Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente Ministerio de Defensa Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deportes Ministerio de Empleo Ministerio de Agricultura y Ministries
  23. 23. • 17 autonomous communities (see map) • 2 autonomous cities • Ceuta • Melilla • Each community is governed by a statute of autonomy or fundamental law – called Xunta. • They also have their own institutions: Regional Parliament Government High Court
  24. 24. • The provinces and municipalities form the local administration. • Their body of government is the Diputación or Provincial Council, composed of deputies elected. • The municipalities are the smallest territorial units. • Their body of government is the Town or City Council. • Their functions are to provide services to the inhabitants of the municipal district: • Waste collection, urbanism, infra-structures (…)
  25. 25. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment Instruments of Ordenación Territorial National level 17 Autonomous Communities MunicipalietiesEU level
  26. 26. Definitions El Ordenamiento territorial es la expresión espacial de la política económica, social, cultural y ambiental e instrumento de planificación y gestión. Es de carácter transversal y afecta las normas de carácter básico o general y todas aquellas que tienen que ver con el funcionamiento y administración del territorio, siendo sus principios básicos la coordinación y subordinación de las políticas sectoriales, destinada a configurar, en el corto, mediano y largo plazo la organización y uso del territorio acorde con las potencialidades y limitaciones del mismo, las expectativas y necesidades de la población y los objetivos de desarrollo sustentables, como principio rector.
  27. 27. Multi-level governance in Spain in terms of spatial planning There is great heterogeneity in the degree of their development, in addition to the existence of a huge variety and disparity of instruments. After 1978 when the new Spanish Constitution was approved, the spatial planning competencies were transferred to the Autonomous Communities (CCAA). SectorialRegional/Sub-Reg.
  28. 28. Types of Plans according to the State legislation • Regional Plans • Master Plans ( Planes Generales de Ordenación Urbana Municipal, P.G.O.U.M ) • Partial Plans ( Planes Parciales) • Special Plans The State Law of 1975 Planning Regulation of 1978 The Municipal Master Plan The Partial Plan
  29. 29. - Municipal Master Plans (Planes Generales de Ordenación Urbana Municipal) should assign not less than 5 m2/ per inhabitant to green areas. The Municipal Master Plan It is the main instrument and the whole planning for the township. Its scope includes the complete surface of the municipality, and it is carried out by the Town Council itself, or by a private planner commissioned for it by the Council. When Master Plan refers to Metropolitan areas, its scope covers the main city that constitutes the focus of the urban aglomeration as well as the rest of councils integrated within the Metropolitan area.
  30. 30. The Master Plan is an integral Plan that establishes: • The Land Classification (Urban, Land to develop, and Land not to develop) • The regulation of the uses of the land and the intensities of the edification. • The general and organisational structure of the territory (System of communications). • The General System of open spaces (parks and green spaces), and community services ( educational , cultural, health assistance, sports, churches, cemeteries, etc ). • The programming for the development of the Plan. The Municipal Master Plan
  31. 31. Metropolitan areas • In Spain although only Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Sevilla and Bilbao, are considered Metropolitan areas, while the Central Area of Asturias, Málaga and the Bay of Cádiz are considered urban agglomerations; • At present only Barcelona has a real Metropolitan Master Plan (27 councils); • The Master Plan of Madrid includes only Madrid and the former councils incorporated to the capital some years ago.
  32. 32. Partial Plans (Operational urban development) that develop the Municipal Master Plans in new urban areas (land in development), meant for residential or industrial use, should assign not less than 18 m2/per dwelling or every 100 m2 built (with a minimum of 10% of the total surface of the Partial Plan ), to green areas in the case of first use ( residential ), and not less than 10% in the case of the second use ( industrial ). Partial Plans • The regulation in detail of the use of the land as well as the intensities and kinds of the edification. • The setting of the local communication systems . • The local System of green and sports areas, and public equipment. • The economic valuation (of the land), and the development plan. Is about land use planning
  33. 33. Land use planning and Urban Ruling Law, approved in 1975 Planning regulation for the development and application of the Land use planning and Urban Ruling Law, approved in 1978 Both laws are prior to the approval of the Constitution, and are applicable to those Autonomous Communities without a legislation of their own. The general legislation applicable in all the Spanish territory is the "Ley sobre Régimen de suelo y Valoraciones " (Land use planning) approved in 1998
  34. 34. Since 2004 the mainly pro-regionalising Socialist governments have approved several new statutes (local constitutions) for CCAAs, which in turn seek in various ways to extend regional powers. Like foreign policy and the armed forces, are pure central tasks, whilst some, like urbanism and regional planning, are regional competences. In practice richer CCAAs have added their own road priorities to those of the central programme, whilst other regions have gratefully accepted every last centrally paid for kilometre, leaving highways totally to central government.
  35. 35. Spatial Planning, Housing and Transportation
  36. 36. Spatial planning, Environment and Infra-structures
  37. 37. As an example A good example of Spanish enthusiasm for high speed rail was the agreement in June 2009 between the central government and the new Galician president, to bring the AVE to Galicia Marshall, 2009
  38. 38. Spatial Planning Guidelines* Setting the spatial patterns of settlement activities. Aims: • Achieve social and territorial cohesion; • Eliminating regional disparities, which also contribute to greater system efficiency productive; • Protection and enhancement of the natural, cultural and landscape and environmental.
  39. 39. Landscape Strategy* A Xunta está a desenvolver as medidas integradas na Estratexia da Paisaxe de Galicia, co fin de protexer e preservar os elementos mais significativos e característicos das diferentes paisaxes da nosa Comunidade Autónoma Landscape Legislation, 2008 The Landscape Strategy will be developed through three fundamental types of actions: • Instruments, arrangements and landscape management • Integration • Awareness, Consensus-building
  40. 40. Landscape Strategy*
  41. 41. With the new framework of participation of the CCAA in the EU, Spanish sub-national governments increase their access to EU decision-making. However, this access is totally mediated through the state. Can we state that the Spanish sub-national governments gain more influence on the EU? Or more influence into the “policy of the Spanish national government on the EU”?. For long time, Spanish CCAA have complained about the lack of information on the evolution of Council negotiations that directly affected their competences. On the one hand, they had easy access to the technical information about the consequences of alternative policies, thanks to their own autonomous lobbying strategies (mainly through their own offices in Brussels)
  42. 42. The direct participation of the CCAA ministers at the EU Council meetings will have a very important impact on the working of existing intergovernmental cooperation.
  43. 43. The new framework of participation of the CCAA at the EU was agreed at the end of 2004 in the CARCE The 2004 CARCE agreement introduces the direct participation of Sub-national ministers in the sessions of the Council of Ministers. The CARCE took into consideration that some of the other Council configurations also affect regional powers: that is the case of the “Competitiveness” Council (which includes research, enterprise policy, industry, tourism and single market issues) as well as “Transport Telecommunications and Energy”, “Economic and Financial Affairs” (ECOFIN), and “Justice and Home Affairs”. Conferencia de Asuntos Relacionados con las Comunidades Europeas
  44. 44. THE HISTORY OF PORTUGAL can be divided into seven broad periods. The first begins in the Paleolithic period and extends to the formation of Portugal as an independent monarchy. During this period, Lusitania, that portion of the western Iberian Peninsula known today as Portugal, experienced many waves of conquest and settlement by Iberos, Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Swabians, Visigoths, an d Muslims. Of these successive waves of people, the Romans left the greatest imprint on present Portuguese society. The second broad period of Portuguese history runs from the founding of the monarchy in 1128.
  45. 45. The third period begins with the founding of the House of Avis, Portugal's second ruling dynasty. The fourth period begins in 1415 when the Portuguese seized Ceuta in Morocco, thus beginning Portugal's maritime expansion. During this period, Portugal explored the west coast of Africa, discovered and colonized Madeira and the Azores, opened the passage to India around Africa, built an empire in Asia, and colonized Brazil.
  46. 46. The fifth period, that of imperial decline, begins with the dynastic crisis of 1580, which saw the demise of the House of Avis. During this period, Portugal was part of the Iberian Union until 1640, when the monarchy was restored and a new dynasty, the House of Bragança, was established. This period includes the advent of absolutism in Portugal and ends with the Napoleonic invasions in the early 1800s. The sixth, the period of constitutional monarchy, begins with the liberal revolution of 1820, which established in Portugal for the first time a written constitution.
  47. 47. The final period begins in 1910 with the downfall of the monarchy and the establishment of the First Republic.
  48. 48. Relations between church and state improved in the second half of the nineteenth century, but a new wave of anticlericalism emerged with the establishment of the First Republic in 1910. Not only were church properties seized and education secularized, but the republic went so far as to ban the ringing of church bells, the wearing of clerical garb on the streets, and the holding of many popular, religious festivals. These radical steps antagonized many deeply religious Portuguese, cost the republic popular support, and paved the way for its overthrow and the establishment of a conservative right-wing regime.
  49. 49. For centuries the most distinctive feature of Portugal's social structure was its remarkable stability. Portuguese society was long cast in an almost premoderrn, quasifeudal mold. The system consisted of a small elite at the top, a huge mass of peasants at the bottom, and almost no one in between. Portugal's industrialization arrived so late, the country did not experience until late in the nineteenth century some of the class changes associated with rapid economic development in other nations.
  50. 50. When industrialization finally did come, Salazar's dictatorship held its sociopolitical effects in check almost to the very end. This period includes the corporative republic of António de Oliveira Salazar; the collapse of that regime on April 25, 1974; and the establishment of Portugal's present democratic regime, the Second Republic.
  51. 51. In the early months following the military coup, the new Portuguese government's economic orientation could be described as moderate- reformist. "to stimulate agriculture and gradual reform of the land tenure system"; and, within the sphere of social policy, favored introduction of "a minimum wage to be progressively extended to all sectors of activity."
  52. 52. 1982 Planning towards right balance Of biological landscapes. 1989 Secure a correct spatial planning (…) land use planning, location of activities, socio-economic development. 1986 - EU Integration April 25, 1974 Democracy
  53. 53. 1992 Sought to adapt the text of the Constitution to the principles of the European Union Treaties and the Treaties of Maastricht and Amsterdam. 2004 The Legislative Assemblies of each autonomous region (Azores and Madeira) have been given the power to legislate on Spatial Planning and Urbanism 1997 Bases for spatial planning and urbanism. Artigo 165.º Exclusive competence of Parliament to legislate on the following matters (…) Z) Spatial planning and urbanism 2005 - Present
  54. 54. Mota, 2010
  55. 55. Encarnação, 2010 Pardal, 2006 Oliveira, 2000 Gaspar e Simões, 2000 Law n.º 48/98, de 11 de Agosto Lei de Bases da Política de Ordenamento do Território e Urbanismo Present National PNPOT National Spatial Planning Programme – National Spatial Strategy PSECT Sectorial Spatial Plans PEOT Special Spatial Plans
  56. 56. National PEOT Special Spatial Plans: Coastline Public Water Protected Areas Archaeological Parks Estuaries Tagus Estuary Natural Reserve Peneda-Gerês National Park The Portuguese maritime spatial plan
  57. 57. Natura 2000 is the centrepiece of EU nature & biodiversity policy. Rede Natura 2000 FINANCING NATURA 2000 2014‐2020
  58. 58. Regional Define the regional development strategy, integrating the options set at the national level and considering the municipal development strategies, constituting the reference framework for the preparation of municipal spatial plans. Integrate the Structural and Cohesion Funds of the European Union. 5 regions (NUT II) 5 plans PROT Regional Spatial Plans
  59. 59. Municipal PMOT Local/Municipal Spatial Plans EU Council adopts the multiannual financial framework 2014-2020 308 Plans
  60. 60. Inter - Municipal Implementation Multiannual financial framework 2014-2020 and EU budget 2014
  61. 61. Mota, 2010
  62. 62. Mota, 2010
  63. 63. Mota, 2010 Pereira, 2003
  64. 64. 3rd enlargement: Spain and Portugal
  65. 65. Next slides are dedicated to international cooperation on spatial planning and urban development. EU – Portugal – Iberian active projects/programmes
  66. 66. URBACT III will be a European Territorial Cooperation programme jointly financed by the European Union (through the European Regional Development Fund) and Member States and will be delivered across the 2014-2020 programming period.
  67. 67. Thematic Objectives 1: Strengthening research, technological development and innovation 4: Supporting the shift towards a low-carbon economy in all sectors 6: Protecting the environment and promoting resource efficiency 8: Promoting employment and supporting labour mobility 9: Promoting social inclusion and combating poverty URBACT III is organised around four main objectives: Capacity for Policy Delivery: To improve the capacity of cities to manage sustainable urban policies and practices in an integrated and participative way Policy Design: To improve the design of sustainable urban policies and practices in cities. Policy Implementation: To improve the implementation of integrated and sustainable urban strategies and actions in cities Building and Sharing Knowledge: To ensure that practitioners and decision makers at all levels have access to knowledge and share know how on all aspects of sustainable urban development in order to improve urban development policies.
  68. 68. Portuguese Strategy follows EU Strategy NPT Strategy follows EU Strategy Cohesion policy 2014-2020 Partnership Agreement Portugal – EU
  69. 69. pe-2020-in-a-nutshell/flagship- initiatives/index_en.htm
  70. 70. These have come from: Polska 10/01 France 14/01 Latvija 15/02 Portugal 04/02 Lietuva 04/01 Slovensko 14/02 Suomi - Finland 17/02 Deutschland 26/02 Eesti 28/02 Danmark 04/03 Magyarország 07/03 Nederland 10/03 The European Commission is now analysing the official Partnership Agreements received from 12 Member States outlining their investment plans for EU Structural and Investment Funds for the 2014-2020 programming period.
  71. 71. The Commission has underlined that a strategic approach to the use of the funds is critical and quality is more important than speed. Investments under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) will be concentrated on 4 key priorities: • Innovation and research • The digital agenda • Support for small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) • Low-carbon economy
  72. 72. Cohesion policy encourages regions and cities from different EU Member States to work together and learn from each other through joint programmes, projects and networks. In the period 2007-2013 the European Territorial Co-operation objective (formerly the INTERREG Community Initiative) covers three types of programmes: • 53 cross-border co-operation programmes along internal EU borders. ERDF contribution: €5.6 billion. • 13 transnational co-operation programmes cover larger areas of co-operation such as the Baltic Sea, Alpine and Mediterranean regions. ERDF contribution: €1.8 billion. • The interregional co-operation programme (INTERREG IVC) and 3 networking programmes (Urbact II, Interact II and ESPON) cover all 27 Member States of the EU. They provide a framework for exchanging experience between regional and local bodies in different countries. ERDF contribution: €445 million. The European Territorial Co-operation objective is financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and supports cross- border, transnational and interregional co-operation programmes.
  73. 73. Facilitate and promote territorial cooperation First EU cooperation structure with a legal personality Strengthening the economic and social cohesion (EU) The European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation (EGTC) is a new European legal instrument designed to facilitate and promote cross-border, transnational and interregional cooperation. 45 EGTCs established by the end of 2013, getting ready for the new Cohesion Policy: EGTC Monitoring Report 2013 – Towards the New Cohesion Policy
  74. 74. Regulation (European Council) no. 1302/2013, 17 December.
  75. 75. European grouping for territorial cooperation
  76. 76. Cross-border cooperation Galicia North of Portugal The EGTC Galicia-Norte de Portugal results from a partnership between Portugal and Spain, involving around 6.4 million inhabitants in a 51.000 km²'s area. This EGTC is an agent and promoter of interconnection for the Euroregion. It has been created as a legally established meeting point for institutions, businesses and citizens on both sides of the border to develop joint projects and programs.
  77. 77. Cross-border cooperation Galicia North of Portugal
  78. 78. Galicia Cross-border cooperation Galicia North of Portugal
  79. 79. Northern Portugal Cross-border cooperation Galicia North of Portugal #2 - Porto #3 - Braga #9 – Guimarães
  80. 80. Cross-border cooperation Galicia North of Portugal Ride Walkor
  81. 81. Because Weak crossborder railway system
  82. 82. The 21st of March, 2014, in the headquarters of the GNP- EGTC in Vigo, took place a meeting between Mr. Alfonso Rueda Vicepresident of Xunta de Galicia, and Professor Emidío Gomes, President of the CCDR-N, where issues related to the recent transfer of the Direction of the GNP-EGTC, from Galicia to the North Region of Portugal were discussed. Cross-border cooperation Galicia North of Portugal At the same time, the main strategic lines and projects for the activities of the GNP-EGTC to be developed in the short term were analyzed.
  83. 83. Galicia North Portugal 20.7%(Dec/2013)* 16.1% 9.3% Unemployment rate - December/2013* Portugal - 15.40% Spain - 25.80% Population EGTC G-NP* 6.430.789 *EUROSTAT Galicia - Northern Portugal: Key Figures
  84. 84. Facilitating cross border relationship (e.g. governance; decision-making). Adding value to the euroregional entrepreneur base, by promoting competition through knowledge and innovation (e.g. universities; R & D). Increasing euroregional social and institutional cohesion (e.g. human capital). Developing transport and access to basic transport systems (e.g. road/rail/air). Cross-border Cooperation Knowledge-Innovation EGTC – GNP: Main Objectives (content analysis) Infra-Structure Regional Cohesion Territorial cooperation Fostering regional competitiveness
  85. 85. Facilitation and coordination of the regions with public entities which take their liability portfolios, defined in terms of central governance. Clarification of the cross-border human resources mobility. Center in EGTC’s financial responsibility for the management of cross border cooperation and territorial projects Explore the possibility of participation of private entities in cooperation with the EGTC. Governance Employment Tax Health Institutional responsibility Decentralisation Partnerships Rights EGTC – GNP: Main Objectives (content analysis)
  86. 86. EGTC – GNP: Operability I Industry Universities R & D Tourism Creativity Knowledge Techn. Sea Key regional sectors towards cross-border branding
  87. 87. It is a cultural, scientific and educational cooperation program that will develop a system for the exchange of professors, researchers and administrative staff among the academic centers of the Euroregion Galicia – Norte Portugal. EGTC – GNP: Operability II Cooperation – Last Minute decision The GNP-EGTC has also between its future priorities, the cooperation with business clusters and the main economic areas of Galicia and North Portugal, as well as the support for the innovation and to those activities able to generate a higher added value and a competitive improvement for the Euroregion. IACOBUS program. Common Investment Plan
  88. 88. Key-sectors / measures for Cross-border cooperation I Cross-border trade • Sharing trade facilities and resources. • Sharing the participation in national and international trade fairs. • Facilitating the coalition of trade associations and unions. Cross-border infra-structure developments • Sharing facilities for cross-border mobility (e.g., railway networks connecting the main cities in the region). • Improving virtual networks and communication technologies. Cross-border entrepreneurship, employment and labour mobility • Facilitating strategic networks enterprise-university. • Exploring synergies with other territories (i.e., EU and non-EU regions) to incentive start-up and spin-off developments.
  89. 89. Cross-border investment and tourism development • Taking advantage of the tourism potential in both sides of the border (e.g., the pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela; River Douro; wine and gastronomy; promoting cross-border cultural touring). • Promoting cross-border sensemaking by taking advantage of the historical roots of Galicia and Northern Portugal to construct project orientations for the future (e.g., cultural events; historical recreations) – short-term actions embedded in long-term strategic visions. • Sharing facilities, social and human capital for joint investment. Promote synergies to support industrial production (e.g., exchanging know-how). Key-sectors / measures for Cross-border cooperation II
  90. 90. Cross-border research and development projects • Sharing facilities to capitalize nanotechnology, bioscience and biomaterials research (e.g., enhance the regional role of the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory located in Braga, Northern Portugal). • Sharing facilities for utilization of laboratories and best- practices in academic research (i.e., food, health, regenerative medicine, high-tech textile materials). • Sharing procedures and tools for talent attraction and retention. Key-sectors / measures for Cross-border cooperation III
  91. 91. Eduardo Oliveira Thank you (references upon request via email)