Many Germans believed their leadershad betrayed them by signing an unfair treaty to end WWI. Germany had to;1. Pay war damages.2. Give away colonies.3. Reduce territory in Europe.4. Disarm.5. Prohibited from rebuilding a military.
What was the U.S. foreign policy following WWI? American people and Congress did not want any involvement in world affairs, except for trade.
Europe begins to fall to totalitarian regimes. When the German economy collapsed Germans became desperate. They looked to Adolf Hitler leader of the Nazi party to save the country.
Hitler’s control of Germany Used secret police to place all aspects of citizen life under their control. Reminded Germans of the humiliating WWI defeat. Promised to make Germany strong again.
Hitler’s control of Germany Hitler believed that German people belonged to a superior race, Aryans , who were the rightful rulers of the world. Began a campaign of persecution and harassment of German Jews.
Italy saw a solution to Italy its economic problems in the Fascist party. Fascist party was led by dictator Benito Mussolini. Mussolini made all other political parties illegal.
Great Depression swept over the world. Fascists and Nazis gained followers. By 1932 the Nazi party was the strongest political party in Germany. Hitler became chancellor. Within a year, Hitler was the absolute ruler of Germany. Began to build up army to extend territory.
Effects of the Great Depression on Industrialized Europe. The economies of Europe were tied to the United States economy. Lowered demand for goods resulted in lower production and widespread unemployment. Many businesses failed.
How did countries deal with the depression? Italy Germany Spain Japan
Dictators gave rise to militarist states. Supported strong national armies and police to crush dissent and extend the borders of their empires.
The Russian Revolution Caused by dissatisfaction with government CZAR policies. Serfs lived on the nobles land. Russian Nobles By 1700 serfs were little better than slaves. They lived in poverty and had little opportunity for Russian Serfs education of any kind.
Causes of the Russian Revolution 1890 people were starving due to bad harvests. Workers in cities were dissatisfied with rising industrialization. Workers began to form unions.
Causes continued In 1917 Worker strikes, public anger over impending military defeat food shortages, and economic collapse made Russia ripe for Revolution. Czar Nicholas II had no support. Forced out of office. Imprisoned. Shot to death along with his whole family.
Karl Marx Argued that worker control of society would lead to greater fairness and eventual end of the need for government. Marxists est. the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1898. Party split into two groups. Bolsheviks- Communists. Mensheviks
New Government in Russia Government attempted to bring order to society and improve conditions for workers. Policies were unsuccessful. Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin took over the government. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI.
Russia signed peace treaty with Germany. The treaty gave away much of Russia’s resources and industries, as well as some of its rich land, to the Germans. In 1922 the Bolsheviks created the USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Colonial Rebellion in Asia and Middle East Following WWI Burma, Indochina, and Indonesia began to seek independence. Desire for self-rule created the National Indonesian Party in 1927. Will not have complete independence for several decades.
India Independence movement Mohandas Gandhi urged people for 15 years to resist the government nonviolently. The British government created the Government in India Act in 1935. This act gave Indians a voice in the government and est. providences governed only by Indians.
Middle East Many countries in the Middle East expected freedom following WWI because they supplied the Allies with Oil during the war. In 1922 Britain allowed an Arab prince to become king of Iraq. The same year Egypt won its independence. Iran was taken over in 1925. Saudi Arabia was established in 1932.
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