Chapter 12 Section 3National Unification and the National State
I. Breakdown of the Concert of Europe. A. By 1871 both Germany and Italy were unified, a change caused by the Crimean War. B. The Crimean was a conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. 1. Russia wanted to expand its territory into the Mediterranean so it could build its navy. 2. Russia invaded Moldavia and Walachia, causing the Ottomans to declare war on Russia. a. G.B. and France will align with the Ottomans.
C. Heavy losses caused the Russians to seek peace. 1. Treat of Paris 1856. a. Moldavia and Walachia placed under the protection of all the Great Powers.D. Crimean War destroyed the Concert of Europe. 1. Russia will withdraw from European affairs for the next 20 years. 2. Germany and Italy now could unify.
II. Italian Unification A. In 1850 Austria dominated the Italian Peninsula. 1. Piedmont will lead the fight for unification. B. King of Piedmont named Cavour prime minister. 1. Cavour supported economic expansion, which will enable the government to support an army. 2. Aligned himself with France. 3. Austrians will invade in 1859.
C. This conflict will result in a peace settlement that made Piedmont an independent state. 1. Nationalists in other northern Italian states will begin to overthrow their governments and join Piedmont.D. Giuseppe Garibaldi S. Italy leader for unification. 1. 1,000 volunteers called Red Shirts.
E. Sicily and Naples will revolt from France and will be controlled by Piedmont. 1. In 1861 King Victor Emmanuel II king of Piedmont was crowned ruler.F. French troops will withdraw from Rome in 1870. 1. The Italian army annexed Rome that same year, and Rome became the capital of the united Italy.
III. German Unification A. Germans looked to Prussia for leadership in unification. 1. King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck. B. Bismarck collected taxes and strengthened the army. 1. Friction with Austria will cause a war in 1866. 2. Prussians will defeat the Austrians in less than a month.
C. Prussia organized northern German states into a Confederation. 1. Problems with France developed rapidly. 2. France feared a strong German state.D. Franco-Prussian War- 1870 1. Began as a misunderstanding between France and Prussia. 2. Prussia was able to handily defeat the French. 3. Prussia captured Napoleon III and his whole army.
E. Paris surrendered in 1871 1. Paid 5 billion francs. 2. Gave up Alsace and Lorraine to the New German state.F. Southern states will join Northern states to unify Germany.
IV. Nationalism and Reform in Europe. A. G.B will avoid the revolutionary upheavals of the first half of the 19th century. 1. 1815 Aristocratic classes dominated Parliament. 2. 1832 voting rights extended to industrial middle class. B. Following 1850 the industrial middle class was prosperous and wages were beginning to climb.
C. Queen Victoria reigned from 1837- 1901. Longest in English History. 1. Her era is known as the Victorian Age.D. After 1848 France moves towards restoring the monarchy. 1. In 1852 plebiscite, or popular vote, 97 percent voted to restore the empire. 2. Louis-Napoleon became Napoleon III, 2nd emperor of France.
E. Napoleon’s government was authoritarian. 1. He limited civil liberties.F. Napoleon also built Paris into a modern City. 1. Underground sewers, public water supply, and gaslights.G. Opposition to the emperor arose in the 1860s. 1. Napoleon III liberalized his regime, giving the legislature more power, for more power. 2. After the Prussians defeated the French the second empire fell.
H. At the beginning of the 19th century, Russia was highly rural, with a divine-right monarch with absolute power. 1. In 1856 Russia was defeated in the Crimean War. 2. Russia was falling behind Western Europe and needed to modernize.
I. Czar Alexander II made reforms. 1. Freed the serfs with an emancipation edict. i. They could now own property and marry as they wished. 2. The government bought land from the landlords and provided it to the peasants. i. Landlords often kept the best lands for themselves. ii. Emancipation led to many unhappy, land starved peasants.J. Radicals assassinated Alexander II in 1881. 1. His son and successor turned against reforms.
V. Nationalism in the United States. A. The Constitution committed to both nationalism and liberalism. B. Federalists and Republicans fought over the division of powers. 1. Feds wanted a strong central government. 2. Reps wanted a strong state government. C. War of 1812 will create a national feeling that will cover up divisions. 1. Andrew Jackson opened a more democratic era in U.S. i. Voting rights was extended to all white males.
D. By 1850 American unity was threatened by slavery. 1. South’s economy was based on growing cotton using slave labor. 2. Abolitionism- movement to end slavery.E. 1860 Abraham Lincoln elected president. • Seven southern states will secede.F. Civil War, 600,000 soldiers died. 1. National unity prevailed in the U.S.
VI. The Emergence of a Canadian Nation. A. By 1800 most Canadians favored more independence from British rule. B. Problems in the Canadian colonies. 1. Upper Canada- English speaking. 2. Lower Canada- French speaking.
C. John Macdonald, head of the Upper Canada’s Conservative party, was a strong voice for self-rule. 1. Britain gave in, fearing America. 2. British North American Act- established the new nation.D. John Macdonald was the 1st prime minister of the new Dominion. 1. Canada has a parliamentary system and ruled itself. 2. The British government handled their foreign affairs.