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P4C Level 2, Southwark

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Slides used on Fri 6th and Sat 7th July for Day 3 and 4 of P4C Level 2 course, Southwark

Slides used on Fri 6th and Sat 7th July for Day 3 and 4 of P4C Level 2 course, Southwark

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    P4C Level 2, Southwark P4C Level 2, Southwark Presentation Transcript

    • Philosophy for Children (P4C) Will Ord& James Nottingham www.p4c.com www.sapere.org.uk
    • P4C – Created by Matthew LipmanThe aim of a thinking skills programme such as P4C is not to turn children into philosophers but to help them become more thoughtful, more reflective, more considerate and more reason-able individuals
    • The four C’s of P4CCollaborative CommunityCaring ofCritical InquiryCreative
    • youtube.com/Jabulani4
    • An Ethos for Learning Not all of our questions answered … … but all of our answers questioned
    • The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition Can read Need routines the contextBasis for Action Novice Beginner Competent Proficient Expert
    • Novice: rule-governed behaviour Need generalised rules and structures as a guide Quality management systems can be very helpful If something goes wrong, blame the system or senior people Little personal responsibility in this context Beginner: hungering for certainty Starting to notice patterns Wishing things were more predictable Looking for “the book” or “the expert” to provide the answers Feel limited personal responsibility
    • Competent: planned & analytical Efficient and organised Can assess relative importance and urgency Can readily describe and explain actions Feel personal responsibility for outcomes Proficient: strategic and able to read context Seldom surprised, have learned what to expect Have organised knowledge into wise sayings Sometimes forget to explain complexities of the big picture toanalytical competent colleagues Rapid, fluid, involved, intuitive type of behaviour
    • Expert: right thing at the right timeHighly intuitive, based on huge store of wisdomGreat capacity to handle the unexpectedHighly nuanced behaviour, very context specificOften there are no words to describe expert performance, and often it is subconscious anywayHard to fit this into quality systemsPerformance drops if generalised rules are imposedUsually does not make for good teaching of novices, but great for teaching competent people
    • Facts and ConceptsFact Paris is the Knowledge capital of FranceConcept (Capital) cities Understanding
    • What concepts can be inferred from this Banksy piece?
    • Example question startersWhat is … playing?How do we know what is … Who decides what is …What if …Always or neverWhen would …What is the difference between …Is it possible to …Should we …
    • Socratic questionsClarify Are you saying that …? Can you give us an example of …?Reasons Why do you say that …? What reasons support your idea?Assumptions Are you assuming that …? What would happen if …? How could we look at this in a different way?Viewpoints What alternatives are there to this? Wouldn’t that mean that …?Effects What are the consequences of that?
    • Scandinavians talk about ‘curling parents’
    • The Learning Challenge Clarity 1. Concept 2. Conflict 1 2 Confusion
    • A selection of thinking skillsANALYSE DESCRIBE GROUP RESPONDANTICIPATE DETERMINE HYPOTHESI SEQUENCEAPPLY DISCUSS SE SIMPLIFYCAUSAL- ELABORATE IDENTIFY SHOW HOWLINK ESTIMATE INFER SOLVECHOOSE EVALUATE INTERPRET SORTCLASSIFY EXEMPLIFY ORGANISE SUMMARISECOMPARE EXPLORE PARAPHRA SUPPORTCONNECT SE GENERALISE TESTCONTRAST PREDICT GIVE VERIFYDECIDE EXAMPLES QUESTION VISUALISEDEFINE GIVE RANK REASONS REPRESEN T
    • Being in the pit represents cognitive conflict Robin Hood Stealing was right is wrong
    • Wobblers (If A = B) Friend Trust If A = B then Does B = A? Trust Friend For example …
    • Eureka moments come from challenge Clarity 1. Concept 2. Conflict 1 3. Construct Confusion 3 2
    • Kriticos = able to make judgements Critical Thinking Comes from the Greek, Kriticos Meaning: able to make judgements Source: www.etymonline.com
    • Rank order should not matter … Progress is the key to learning 92 90 90 85 86 85 73 78 84 64 70 78 43 41 40 32 35 34
    • Download slides from …www.challenginglearning.comResources for inquiry from:www.p4c.com www.facebook.com/C hallengingLearning @JamesNottinghm