5000+ children from theMillennium Cohort Study 97% were ability-grouped by age7 Nearly 1 in 5 were streamedwithin their first year of school71%Sept-bornchildren in topsets26%August-bornchildren intop setsTammy Campbell, Institute of EducationLondon (2013)
Which groupbenefits?HighMediumLowMarzano, 2001, p88Nottingham, 2012, p510.090.51- 0.60Impact of Ability Grouping80% of the students heldback in the USA are blackor hispanic boys(Hattie, 2013)
010203040506070Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb35302520151050Aug Sept Oct Nov DecProgress Charts
Achievement AND progressProgressAchievement1. High ALow P2. High AHigh P3. Low ALow P4. Low AHigh P0.4
How many of these phraseshave you used?Clever girlBright boyBrilliant linguistGifted musicianHe’s a naturalBy far the bestTop of the group
Mueller and Dweck, 1998In six studies, 7th gradestudents were given a seriesof nonverbal IQ tests.
Intelligence praise“Wow, that’s a really goodscore. You must be smart atthis.”Process praise“Wow, that’s a really goodscore. You must have triedreally hard.”Control-group praise“Wow, that’s a really goodscore.”Mueller andDweck, 1998
Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls (Dweck, 2010)
1.Good girl; 2.How extraordinary; 3.Great effort; 4.Outstandingperformance; 5.What a scientist you are; 6.Unbelievable work; 7.You’rea genius; 8.Youre getting better; 9.Clever boy 10.You should be proud;11.Youve got it; 12.Youre special; 13. Very talented; 14. Youve outdoneyourself; 15. What a great listener; 16. You came through; 17.You’revery artistic; 18.Keep up the good work; 19.Its everything I hoped for;20.Perfect; 21.A+ Work; 22.Youre a shining star; 23.Inspired; 24.Youre#1; 25.Youre very responsible; 26.Youre very talented; 27.Spectacularwork; 28.Great discovery; 29.Youre amazing; 30.What a great idea;31.Well worked through; 32.Very thoughtful; 33.You figured it out;34.Top of the class; 35. You make me smileSay, Avoid, Cringe?
Carol Dweck, Professor of Psychology and author of MindsetBrightCleverGoodBadStupidRacistNaughty