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  1. 1. Why Bloom? Implementing Bloom’s Taxonomy of Higher-Order Thinking Questions
  2. 2. Bloom’s Taxonomy is simply a classification system for educational goals that tie in to the level of student comprehension that is necessary for achievement or mastery. The Higher-Order Questions based upon six cognitive states of development help to build and enhance critical and creative thinking skills in children
  3. 3. <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>recall or recognize information and ideas in the general form in which they were learned </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>interpret or translate information based on prior learning </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>manipulate data and principles to complete a problem or task with a minimum of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>classify and relate the assumptions or evidence of a statement or question </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>integrates and combine ideas into a new product or plan </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>appraise, assess, or critique on specific criteria </li></ul>
  4. 4. It’s Elementary My Dear Bloom-ies Paraphrased from The Complete Idiot's Guide to Success as a Teacher © 2005 by Anthony D. Fredericks <ul><li>Many teachers think primary-level students cannot “handle” higher-level thinking questions (application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation). Nothing could be further from the truth! Challenging all students through higher-order questioning is one of the best ways to stimulate learning and enhance brain development—regardless of age. </li></ul><ul><li>This means you can ask your students several different kinds of questions. If you only focus on one type of question, your students might not be exposed to higher levels of thinking necessary to a complete understanding of a topic. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Bloom's Taxonomy is not grade-specific. That is, it does not begin at the lower grades with knowledge and comprehension questions and move upward to the higher grades with synthesis and evaluation questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The six levels of questions are appropriate for all grade levels. </li></ul>Paraphrased from The Complete Idiot's Guide to Success as a Teacher © 2005 by Anthony D. Fredericks Bloom’s Taxonomy is for Everyone
  6. 6. <ul><li>Perhaps most important, students tend to read and think based on the types of questions they anticipate receiving from the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, students will tend to approach any subject as a knowledge-based subject if they are presented with an overabundance of knowledge-level questions throughout a lesson. On the other hand, students will tend to approach a topic at higher levels of thinking if they are presented with an abundance of questions at higher levels of thinking. </li></ul>Paraphrased from The Complete Idiot's Guide to Success as a Teacher © 2005 by Anthony D. Fredericks Students’ Minds Bloom with Bloom’s Style of Questioning
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  8. 8. Knowledge <ul><li>Question Starters </li></ul><ul><li>What happened after...? </li></ul><ul><li>How many...? </li></ul><ul><li>Who...? </li></ul><ul><li>Name the... </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what happened at...? </li></ul><ul><li>Who spoke to...? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why...? </li></ul><ul><li>Find the meaning of...? </li></ul><ul><li>What is...? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is true or false...? </li></ul><ul><li>Make a list of the main events… </li></ul><ul><li>List all of the .... </li></ul> upload/FF_70_brain1_f.jpg “ Revenge of the Right Brain” <ul><li>Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>tell </li></ul><ul><li>list </li></ul><ul><li>describe </li></ul><ul><li>relate </li></ul><ul><li>locate </li></ul><ul><li>write </li></ul><ul><li>find </li></ul><ul><li>state </li></ul><ul><li>name </li></ul>
  9. 9. Comprehension <ul><li>Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>explain </li></ul><ul><li>interpret </li></ul><ul><li>outline </li></ul><ul><li>discuss </li></ul><ul><li>distinguish </li></ul><ul><li>predict </li></ul><ul><li>restate </li></ul><ul><li>translate </li></ul><ul><li>compare </li></ul><ul><li>describe </li></ul><ul><li>Question Starters </li></ul><ul><li>Write in your own words... </li></ul><ul><li>Write a brief outline... </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think could happened next...? </li></ul><ul><li>Who do you think...? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the main idea...? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was the main character...? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you distinguish between...? </li></ul><ul><li>What differences exist between...? </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an example of... </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a definition for... </li></ul>
  10. 10. Application <ul><li>Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>solve </li></ul><ul><li>show </li></ul><ul><li>use </li></ul><ul><li>illustrate </li></ul><ul><li>construct </li></ul><ul><li>complete </li></ul><ul><li>examine </li></ul><ul><li>classify </li></ul><ul><li>Question Starters </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of another instance where...? </li></ul><ul><li>Could this have happened in...? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you group based on these characteristics...? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors would you change...? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you apply this to an experience of your own...? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions would you ask...? </li></ul><ul><li>From this information, can you create a set of instructions about...? </li></ul><ul><li>Would this information be useful in this situation ...? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Analysis <ul><li>Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>analyze </li></ul><ul><li>distinguish </li></ul><ul><li>examine </li></ul><ul><li>compare </li></ul><ul><li>contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Question Starters </li></ul><ul><li>Which events could have happened...? </li></ul><ul><li>What might the ending have been? </li></ul><ul><li>How is this similar to...? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the underlying theme of...? </li></ul><ul><li>What are other possible outcomes? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes occurred as a result of…? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare... with that presented in... </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what must have happened when...? </li></ul><ul><li>How is ... similar to ...? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some problems as a result of...? </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between...? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the motives behind...? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the turning point? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the problem with...? </li></ul><ul><li>investigate </li></ul><ul><li>categorize </li></ul><ul><li>identify </li></ul><ul><li>explain </li></ul><ul><li>separate </li></ul><ul><li>advertise </li></ul>
  12. 12. Synthesis <ul><li>Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>create </li></ul><ul><li>invent </li></ul><ul><li>compose </li></ul><ul><li>predict </li></ul><ul><li>plan </li></ul><ul><li>construct </li></ul><ul><li>design </li></ul><ul><li>imagine </li></ul><ul><li>propose </li></ul><ul><li>devise </li></ul><ul><li>formulate </li></ul><ul><li>Starter Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Design a ... </li></ul><ul><li>Compose a song about... </li></ul><ul><li>Can you see a possible solution to...? </li></ul><ul><li>If any resource was available, how would you...? </li></ul><ul><li>Devise your own way to solve... </li></ul><ul><li>What would happen if...? </li></ul><ul><li>How many ways can you...? </li></ul><ul><li>Create new and unusual uses for... </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a proposal which would... </li></ul>
  13. 13. Evaluation <ul><li>Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>judge </li></ul><ul><li>select </li></ul><ul><li>choose </li></ul><ul><li>decide </li></ul><ul><li>justify </li></ul><ul><li>debate </li></ul><ul><li>verify </li></ul><ul><li>argue </li></ul><ul><li>recommend </li></ul><ul><li>assess </li></ul><ul><li>discuss </li></ul><ul><li>rate </li></ul><ul><li>prioritize </li></ul><ul><li>determine </li></ul><ul><li>Starter Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a better solution to... </li></ul><ul><li>Judge the value of... </li></ul><ul><li>Defend your position about...? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is... is a positive or a negative outcome? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you have handled...? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes to ... would you recommend? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you believe? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you feel if...? </li></ul><ul><li>How effective are...? </li></ul><ul><li>Form an opinion about...? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion