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Africa physical geography



A recap of the introductory material in the beginning of the chapter.

A recap of the introductory material in the beginning of the chapter.



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Africa physical geography Africa physical geography Presentation Transcript

  • Africa: Physical Geography
    Chapter 20
  • General Information
    Second largest continent
    Atlantic Ocean = West Coast
    Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea = North Coast
    Made up of 4 subregions
    North Africa
    East Africa
    West Africa
    Central and Southern Africa
  • Physical Features
    “Plateau Continent”
    Plateau: Large flat area
    Basins on the plateau
    Basin: low-lying area
    North Africa
    Sahara: the world’s largest desert
    Atlas Mountains in the northwest part of the region
    West Africa
    Sahel: dry grassland
    Niger River: 3rd longest river in Africa
    Runs through the western Sahel
    Lake Chad
  • Physical Features cont’d
    East Africa
    Great Rift Valley
    Lake Tanganyika: longest freshwater lake in the world
    Lake Victoria: second largest freshwater lake
    Lake Malawi: ninth largest freshwater lake
    Mount Kilimanjaro
    East of Lake Victoria
    Highest point in Africa
    Ethiopian Highlands
    North of Lake Victoria
    Covers 2/3 of Ethiopia
  • Physical Features Cont’d
    Central and Southern Africa
    Congo basin: At the center of the continent
    Congo River: goes through the Congo Basin and empties into the Atlantic
    Zambezi River: Many waterfalls, including Victoria Falls
    Two deserts
    Namib desert
    Kalahari desert
  • Climate
    Equator runs through middle of Africa
    Climate is warm all year
    Some regions wet
    Others very dry
    North Africa
    Mediterranean climate: warm all year with dry summers and short, rainy winters.
    West Africa
    Northern part: arid and semi-arid
    Southern part: tropical wet and dry
    Near the equator
    Coastal areas: tropical wet
  • Climate cont’d
    East Africa
    Close to the Sahara: arid or semi-arid
    Ethiopian Highlands/Mt. Kilimanjaro
    Highlands-higher land is cooler and wetter, lower land is warmer and drier
    Southern part: tropical wet and dry
    Central and Southern Africa
    Near equator: tropical wet
    Farther south: tropical wet and dry -> arid or semi-arid
    Southernmost part
    Coastal areas near Indian Ocean = marine west coast: warm summers, cool winters, rainfall year-round
  • Climate cont’d
    Central and Southern Africa cont’d
    Other coastal areas: humid subtropical = hot summers with heavy rain, mild winters with some rain
    Madagascar (island)
    Eastern half: tropical wet
    Northwestern and central: tropical wet and dry
    Southwestern: semiarid
    2/5 of land is tropical grassland: also known as savanna (short and tall grasses, shrubs, trees)
  • Vegetation cont’d
    North Africa
    Desert scrub: small trees, bushes and other plants adapted to a dry climate
    Along the Mediterranean Sea = chaparral: small trees and bushes are adapted to long, dry summers.
    Broadleaf evergreen forest runts along the Nile River through Egypt.
    Tropical grasslands in the southern edge of the Sahara.
    West Africa
    Mostly tropical grassland
    Some desert
  • Vegetation cont’d
    West Africa cont’d
    Southern part = broadleaf evergreen forest (rainforest)
    East Africa
    Tropical grassland
    Some coastal lands = broadleaf evergreen forests
    Ethiopia = highlands: plants change with altitude
    Central and Southern Africa
    Congo basin = broadleaf evergreen forest
    Namib and most of the Kalahari = desert/desert scrub
    Eastern Kalahari = tropical grassland
    Mountain ranges in Southern Africa = highlands
    Southern tip = chaparral