Africa physical geography

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A recap of the introductory material in the beginning of the chapter.

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Africa physical geography

  1. 1. AFRICA: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 20
  2. 2. GENERAL INFORMATION  Second largest continent  Atlantic Ocean = West Coast  Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea = North Coast  Made up of 4 subregions  North Africa  East Africa  West Africa  Central and Southern Africa
  3. 3. PHYSICAL FEATURES  “Plateau Continent”  Plateau: Large flat area  Basins on the plateau  Basin: low-lying area  North Africa  Sahara: the world’s largest desert  Atlas Mountains in the northwest part of the region  West Africa  Sahel: dry grassland  Niger River: 3rd longest river in Africa  Runs through the western Sahel  Lake Chad
  4. 4. PHYSICAL FEATURES CONT’D  East Africa  Great Rift Valley  Lake Tanganyika: longest freshwater lake in the world  Lake Victoria: second largest freshwater lake  Lake Malawi: ninth largest freshwater lake  Mount Kilimanjaro  East of Lake Victoria  Highest point in Africa  Ethiopian Highlands  North of Lake Victoria  Covers 2/3 of Ethiopia
  5. 5. PHYSICAL FEATURES CONT’D  Central and Southern Africa  Congo basin: At the center of the continent  Congo River: goes through the Congo Basin and empties into the Atlantic  Zambezi River: Many waterfalls, including Victoria Falls  Two deserts  Namib desert  Kalahari desert
  6. 6. CLIMATE  Equator runs through middle of Africa  Climate is warm all year  Some regions wet  Others very dry  North Africa  Mediterranean climate: warm all year with dry summers and short, rainy winters.  West Africa  Northern part: arid and semi-arid  Southern part: tropical wet and dry  Near the equator  Coastal areas: tropical wet
  7. 7. CLIMATE CONT’D  East Africa  Close to the Sahara: arid or semi-arid  Ethiopian Highlands/Mt. Kilimanjaro  Highlands-higher land is cooler and wetter, lower land is warmer and drier  Southern part: tropical wet and dry  Central and Southern Africa  Near equator: tropical wet  Farther south: tropical wet and dry → arid or semi-arid  Southernmost part  Coastal areas near Indian Ocean = marine west coast: warm summers, cool winters, rainfall year-round
  8. 8. CLIMATE CONT’D  Central and Southern Africa cont’d  Other coastal areas: humid subtropical = hot summers with heavy rain, mild winters with some rain  Madagascar (island)  Eastern half: tropical wet  Northwestern and central: tropical wet and dry  Southwestern: semiarid  Vegetation  2/5 of land is tropical grassland: also known as savanna (short and tall grasses, shrubs, trees)
  9. 9. VEGETATION CONT’D  North Africa  Desert scrub: small trees, bushes and other plants adapted to a dry climate  Along the Mediterranean Sea = chaparral: small trees and bushes are adapted to long, dry summers.  Broadleaf evergreen forest runts along the Nile River through Egypt.  Tropical grasslands in the southern edge of the Sahara.  West Africa  Mostly tropical grassland  Some desert
  10. 10. VEGETATION CONT’D  West Africa cont’d  Southern part = broadleaf evergreen forest (rainforest)  East Africa  Tropical grassland  Some coastal lands = broadleaf evergreen forests  Ethiopia = highlands: plants change with altitude  Central and Southern Africa  Congo basin = broadleaf evergreen forest  Namib and most of the Kalahari = desert/desert scrub  Eastern Kalahari = tropical grassland  Mountain ranges in Southern Africa = highlands  Southern tip = chaparral

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