Chemical Reactions

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Presented by Karen Compton, Jane Smith and Claudia Wallace in the ACT2 stand at CAST2010 in Houston, Texas

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Chemical Reactions

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chemistry Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Eligible Texas Essential </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and Skills </li></ul>Texas Education Agency Student Assessment Division September 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Readiness standards have the following characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>They are essential for success in the current grade or course. </li></ul><ul><li>They are important for preparedness for the next grade or course. </li></ul><ul><li>They support college and career readiness. </li></ul><ul><li>They necessitate in-depth instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>They address broad and deep ideas. </li></ul>Texas Education Agency Student Assessment Division September 2010
  3. 3. <ul><li>Supporting standards have the following characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Although introduced in the current grade or course, they may be emphasized in a subsequent year. </li></ul><ul><li>Although reinforced in the current grade or course, they may be emphasized in a previous year. </li></ul><ul><li>They play a role in preparing students for the next grade or course but not a central role. </li></ul><ul><li>They address more narrowly defined ideas. </li></ul>Texas Education Agency Student Assessment Division September 2010
  4. 4. <ul><li>TEA is implementing a number of changes that should serve to test knowledge and skills in a deeper way. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests will contain a greater number of items that have a higher cognitive complexity level . </li></ul><ul><li>Items will be developed to more closely match the cognitive complexity level evident in the TEKS . </li></ul><ul><li>In science, process skills will be assessed in context , not in isolation, which will allow for a more integrated and authentic assessment of these content area. </li></ul><ul><li>In science, the number of open-ended (griddable) items will increase to allow students more opportunity to derive an answer independently. </li></ul>Texas Education Agency Student Assessment Division September 2010
  5. 7. Engage Whoosh bottle Gummi bear Burning bubbles Sodium in H 2 O
  6. 8. Prior knowledge? <ul><li>Write chemical formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic masses </li></ul><ul><li>What is a precipitate </li></ul>
  7. 9. What should be taught? <ul><li>Write equations given formulas or names </li></ul><ul><li>Balance equations by counting atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Types of reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Predict products </li></ul><ul><li>Activity series </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility rules and net ionic equations </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation and reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Assign oxidation numbers; ID agents </li></ul><ul><li>Simple equilibrium using LeChatelier’s principle </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting rates of reactions </li></ul>
  8. 10. What will constitute mastery? <ul><li>The student should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Write, balance and predict equations for all 5 general types of reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Write net ionic equations </li></ul><ul><li>Use activity series </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Calcium hydroxide reacts with ammonium sulfate. </li></ul><ul><li>The balanced equation for this reaction is </li></ul><ul><li>CaOH 2 + NH 4 SO 4  CaSO 4 + NH 4 OH </li></ul><ul><li>Ca(OH) 2 + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4  CaSO 4 + 2 NH 4 OH </li></ul><ul><li>Ca(OH) 2 + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4  CaSO 4 + NH 4 OH </li></ul><ul><li>Ca(OH) 2 + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4  CaSO 4 + 2 NH 3 + H 2 O </li></ul>Do they really need to know this?
  10. 12. <ul><li>Which reaction shows a balanced net ionic equation for the reaction between silver nitrate and potassium iodide? </li></ul><ul><li>AgNO 3 + KI  AgI + KNO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Ag + + I -  AgI </li></ul><ul><li>K + + NO 3 - +  KNO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>2 AgNO 3 + 2 KI  2 AgI + 2 KNO 3 </li></ul>Net Ionic CCRS
  11. 13. <ul><li>CH 4 + 2 O 2  CO 2 + 2 H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>In this equation, what substance is being oxidized? </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the oxidizing agent. </li></ul>Oxidation/reduction
  12. 14. <ul><li>Which of these reactions will occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Pb + ZnCl 2  </li></ul><ul><li>Mg + FeCl 3  </li></ul><ul><li>Zn + MgCl 2  </li></ul><ul><li>Cu + NaCl  </li></ul>Activity series CCRS
  13. 15. <ul><li>Carbon burns faster in pure oxygen than in air because….. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher concentration of reactant </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is a catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature is increased </li></ul><ul><li>The oxygen is a gas </li></ul>Factors that affect reaction rates
  14. 16. <ul><li>In which direction will the equilibrium shift for this reaction if the temperature is increased? </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 + 2 O 2  CO 2 + 2 H 2 O + energy </li></ul><ul><li>Left because it is exothermic </li></ul><ul><li>Left because it is endothermic </li></ul><ul><li>Right because it is exothermic </li></ul><ul><li>Right because it is endothermic </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>SO 2 + O 2 ↔ 2 SO 3 ∆H = -197.9 kJ/mol </li></ul>CCRS Pre-AP

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