Women Entrepreneurship-A Dynamic Approach To The Pulsating World Of Economy For An OrganizationProf.(Dr.) Deepak Gupta1, Mrs.Meenakshi Sharma2AbstractThe role of women Entrepreneurship is the most important towards economic contribution for an organization as well as to thenation. This is the resource of economic growth. The Women Entrepreneur is an innovator, action Oriented and highlymotivated. They create new jobs for themselves, others and provide society with different solutions to the Management problems.The economic participation of women as entrepreneurs, employees and leaders is recognized as a measure of a nation‟sdynamism. Government is promoting women‟s economic empowerment which will be the driving force behind economic growthand the fight against poverty. Development Corporations are now gearing itself towards the management of the home grownentrepreneurs. Credit Scheme of the government will prove sustainable for the benefit of women entrepreneurship. This will be apositive step to stimulate entrepreneurships, economic development and growth with high technology and manufacturing.It has been seen that the equal opportunity between men and women from the perspective of women entrepreneurship is still not areality. In order to realize the benefits of policy changes it is important to incorporate a Women Entrepreneurial Dimension inconsidering al SME‟s and growth policies eg.meeting women financial needs at all stages of the business continum,take-up ofbusiness development and support services, access to Corporate, government and International markets, technology access andutilization..Motivation towards Women Entrepreneurs are governed by Push and Pull factors such as the need for independence, self-fulfillment , work flexibility and a need for challenge to self employment, Other factors such as dissatisfaction with salaried jobsand insufficient family income pushed them into self employment. Women Entrepreneurs are also facing obstacles such asobtaining finance, work home conflict; lack of training in business and management skills. Government is to increase the abilityof women to participate into the labor force and equal treatment in the workforce as well as improve the position of women insociety to have benefits in terms of women entrepreneurs.This research paper deals with the dynamism of women Entrepreneurship, objectives, motivational factors, obstacles andsupports to women entrepreneurship, government activities towards the upliftment of women entrepreneurship, their training anddevelopment program to be organized by government / private organizations and practical recommendations.Keywords: Dynamism, Econimic Empowerment, Entrepreneurial dimension.1. Director, Appejay Institute of Technology, School of Management for Women, Greater Noida.2. Lecturer, Appejay Institute of Technology, School of Management for Women, Greater Noida.
IntroductionWomen entrepreneurship plays an important role towards economic contribution for an organizationas women entrepreneurs have right attitude for innovation, orientation of their actions in thedesired direction and high motivational thinking towards the people working with them. In thepresent age they have their economic participation as entrepreneurs, employers and leaders whichare reorganized as a measure of the nation‘s dynamism.Government is also encouraging to promote women‘s economic empowerment which will be drivingforce behind the economic growth and the fight against poverty. Corporations also are now gearingup for the management of home grown women entrepreneurs with creative scheme which will provesustainable for the benefit of women entrepreneurship.Motivational factors are also governing women entrepreneurs and those factors are push and pullfactors such as the need for independence, self fulfillment, work flexibility – and a need for challengeto self employment and other factors such as dissatisfaction with salaried jobs and in sufficientfamily income pushed them into self employment. Government should look into the benefit of policychanges where growth policies are meeting . Women financial needs at all stages of the businesscontinuum, take up of business development and support services as well as technology access andutilization.It is obvious that women‘s presence in politics and elsewhere in society is one of the greatestachievements in history. They put their great effort and the right attitude to thrive for their goals insociety and prove their independence from men. The continuing improvement of a women‘s role insociety will continue to benefit the economy. Moreover, they are willing to take jobs in areas wheremen have no desire to work at all.Importance of Women EntreneursWomen entrepreneurs are putting their efforts , with right attitude to achieve their goal either insociety or in any organization or at their working place. They have their self motivational efforts inthe areas of interest. They also have a massive potential which can be utilized for the development ofthe organization or nation. At present women brings in solutions to market inequalities with theirdifferent type of innovations of those of the men.Nowadays they are making their innovations based on the works requirement and womenentrepreneurs are covering in a big way in the service sector that is tourism, health, social services,teaching etc. They have their creativity and new ways of thinking innovation, involving theconsumer as well as they adapt policies to allow better family life and work balance.In business world the main reasons for women to come forward into business are their skill,knowledge and adaptability. They also accept challenging role to meet her personal needs andbecome economically independents. At present they are meeting the challenges and coming in a bigway as designers, interior decorators , exporters, publishers , garment manufacturers as well as theyare still exploring new avenues for participation in the economical fields.Obstacles to Women EntrepreneursThe negative attitudes fo the society towards women in business make them suffer from significantmaterial constraints through to unhelpful thinking of the environment. They feel that they arevictims of discrimination. It has been seen from the society that the discrimination against womenseems to be even worse in cities where financial sector is male oriented. They feel particulardifficulties in getting bank finance for their ventures.Women entrepreneurs face challenges which cover a wide spectrum including level of education,inter role conflicts emanating from greater parenting responsibilities. They face a dearth of financialassistance and social cultural constraints. No doubt with men and women experiencing personalproblems, women feel more difficulties. The women have lack of self confidence and not being takenseriously by providers of funds. This has been widely acknowledged that Indian women have accessto fewer researches then men. They tend to have lower access to lend credit facilities, education andtraining facilities.
Practically, following obstacles are being faced by women entrepreneurs:-1. Lack of business management skill2. Lack of education and training in general3. Inter- role conflict ( Work /home conflict)4. Lack of self confidence5. Isolation from business network.6. Socio-cultural environment /lack of respect form male community and stereotype.7. Lack of timely business performance.8. Presence of child care.9. Family presence10. Great fear of failure.Role and Characteristics of Women EntrepreneursThe role of women entrepreneurs is considered in the economic development of the nation for variousreasons due to their own characteristics. They tend to be highly motivated and self directed. Theypossess specific characteristics that promote their creativity and generate new ideas for dong thethings. Based on observations it has been found that most of the women have 7 ( seven) commoncharacteristics in their mid life.1. Autonomy: They have strong desire to think of their own and call their own shots and put their value first.2. Resilience: They have the ability to bounce back form setbacks as things have learned to be through the road blocks that will evitable show up .3. Initiatives: Women entrepreneurs are self starters. They keep momentum swing after the initial burst of energy.4. Confidence: They have their high level of confidence and get others to believe in them too. They have the confidence to find the resources they need.5. Intutive: They have good business sentiments. They use left brain rational thinking to analyse problems. Women tend to trust their intuition in business more often than man.6. Decisive : Women entrepreneurs are action oriented. They take the decision at right time to achieve their desired results. Women have had a life time of experience to fire tune their decision making ability.7. Connections: Women enterprenurers build relationships. They build networks and try on seeing opportunities for connections for mutual benefits with their network at the developed stage they start and sustain their business. In sum, women entrepreneurs share their characteristics of sharp communication skill, intuitivepeople skills, consciousness building competitive, and nurturing integrating abilities to get thedesired business goal.Dynamics of Motivational Factors (Push and Pull Factors) To WomenEnterpreunersThe study /resarch has been made about the forces involved in movement of motivational factorswhich motivate the women to start their business. The knowledge regarding the profile of the womenentrepreneurs will help the govt or the policy makers to develop a positive environment for women tostart their own business.The motivational factors which act in the form of push and pull for women entrepreneurs to start thebusiness are generally diagnosed as negative ( Push) and positive ( pull) factors.The push factors such as unemployment and retrenchment, which force people to becomeentrepreneurial in order to survive. On the other hand pull factors are positive factors, such as govtsupport and role models, which might influence people to choose entrepreneurship as a career option. It has been seen that 20% of women are encouraged into entrepreneurs by pull factors and the near80% have been forced by push factors.
The pull factors i.e. positive factors to entrepreneurships are very much useful for independence,advancement and self fulfillment providing a challenge to the female entrepreneur the desire to betheir own boss and to control their own life. It provides more flexibility for balancing work andfamily.The influence of role models such as their parents, family, friends or leading entrepreneurs in thecommunity can make career choice to them.Push motivational forces are dissatisfaction with salaried jobs redundancy ( lost your job orrepresentation), lack of available work insufficient family income or need for a flexible workschedule.Support and Development for Women EntrepreneursWomen Entrepreneurs need to be understood for their better conditions favourable to anentrepreneurial environment to provide a better education and support system.Govt can provide female entrepreneurs with special loans, subsidies, funds, enterprise centres,entrepreneurs awards training, advisory support, information products and web portals. Govt shouldadd factors such as education, training and family work reconciliation. Govt should create andguarantee the existence of favourable conditions.In most of the cities many programmes and legislations have been implemented to improve life forwomen entrepreneurs but results are yet to come. Apart from the above support system govt shouldget the provisions of facilities embedded in the programmes through community based assignmentsor group rather than political applications . Govt should also ensure that facilities are put intoproper use and to prevent the misappropriation of funds.Women entrepreneurs want post -start up support that should be accessible after trying out theskills, learned in earlier training. Mentoring in the method to provide this type of support which canbe very effective as it addresses the specially problems faced by individual entrepreneur. The supportis to be based as individual as well as group based assistance in specific problems where mentorsseek as a role models.Development of Women EntrepreneurshipThis is based on three main goals namely1. Increasing access to finance for women.2. Adding value to investment products and3. Advertising gender barriers in the business enabling environment.Govt should help in developing women entrepreneurship providing small business as well as a set ofincentives to them such as business incubation training and the creation of a networkingorganization for business people.ConclusionWomen entrepreneurs are motivated to start their own business by motivational factors – Push andPull factors. The most important motivators for starting up a business are the need forindependence, the need for flexible work schedules, the need for a challenge , dis satisfaction withsalaried jobs, the need for social status, the influence of role models and insufficient family income.The problems of women entrepreneurs are inhibiting laws and regulations family problems, lack ofconfidence, influence of the social cultural environment.The support and development needs indicated also reflect the obstacles. Govt should overcome theseobstacles to ensure the success of small and medium sized women owned business in India.There are insufficient organizations for women development in the country. The womenentrepreneurs have specifc needs such as training and skill development , financial support for theirbusiness which needs to be handled ina way which could enhance their capabilities and strengths.
Women Entrepreneur: A conceptual study on their challenges and opportunitiesSaroj RanjanAbstractEconomic development of any country will be lop –sided without involving women who constitute half of the world population.Evidence has unequivocally established that. Entrepreneurial sprit is not a male prerogative. Women owned business are highlyincreasing in the economies of almost all countries. The hidden entrepreneurial potential of women has gradually been changingwith the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. Skill, knowledge and adaptability in business are themain reason for women to emerge into business ventures. Major objective of the study are to ascertain the factors in theemergence of women entrepreneur. Further study highlighted the major constraint and challenges faced by women entrepreneurand opportunities available to them. At the end the paper makes some suggestion for increase or promotion of womenentrepreneurs and healthy growth of women entrepreneurs in IndiaKeywords: Lop-sided, unequivocally, Growing sensitivity, healthy growth.1. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, KNIPSS, Sultanpu (U.P.)IntroductionThe emergence of women entrepreneur and their contribution to the national economy is quit visiblein India. The number of women entrepreneurs has grown over a period of time, especially in the1990s. Women entrepreneur need to be lauded for their increased utilization of modern technology,increased investments, finding a niche in the export market, creating a sizable employment forothers and setting the trend for other women entrepreneur in the organized sector. Indian womenbusiness owners are changing the face of business of today, both literally and figuratively. Thedynamic growth and expansion of women owned business is one of the defining trends of past decade.and all indications are that it will continue unabated. For more than a decade, the number ofwomen owned business has grown at one and a half to two times the rate of all business. Even moreimportant, the expansion in revenues and employment has far exceeded the growth in numbers. Women Entrepreneurship in India States No of Unit Registered No of Women Entrepreneurs Percentage Tamil nadu 9618 2930 30.36 Uttar Pradesh 7980 3180 39.84 Kerala 5487 2135 38.91 Punjab 4791 1618 33.77 Maharastra 4339 1394 32.12 Gujrat 3872 1538 39.72 Karnataka 3822 1026 26.84 Madhya Pradesh 2967 842 28.38 Other states 14576 4185 28.71 and UTS 57452 18848 32.82
Why do women take –up Employment? Push factors1. Death of bread winner2. Sudden fall in family income3. Permanent inadequacy in income of family Pull factors1. Women‘s desire to evaluate their talent2. To utilize their free time or education3. Need and perception of women‘s liberation, equity etc.4. To gain recognition , importance and social status5. To get economic independence· Some other factors· Nature of entrepreneurship; -women enter into entrepreneurial activity because regularemployment does not provide them with the flexibility, control or challenge offered by businessownership.· Motivation; several evidences suggest that women do not lack the motivation to enter intobusiness ownership. They are often highly motivated than their male counterparts to overcome thebarriers to business start up.· Empowerment; Indian women are becoming more empowered now a days. Legislation is beingprogressively drafted to offer them more opportunities at various levels.· Social condition; population growth results in a strong positive relationship on entrepreneurialactivity. Across genders, the increase in demand and competition for the job pushes more people intonecessary entrepreneurship. For women, in particular, the relatively high involvement in necessaryentrepreneurship indicates that self employment is used as a way to circumvent institutional andcultural constraints with respect to female employment, as well as a way to provide supplementalfamily income.· Economic condition; Auspicious economic condition favors the participation of womenentrepreneurial activity. the smaller amount of financial capital requirement and higher proportionof available bank loans positively correlates the level of female entrepreneurship to economiccondition . in fact in a country like India , the relationship between the size of unofficial economyand entrepreneurial activity is positive.· Literacy and education; increased level of education have played a crucial role in initiating· Literacy and education; increased level of education have played a crucial role in initiating theprocess of entrepreneurship. It is not only the literatures that are starting the business but thosewith education and skill are also exploiting profit opportunities.Women Entrepreneurship in India· Earlier there were 3Ks1. Kitchen2. Kids3. Knitting· Then came 3ps 1 Powder 2. Pappad 3. Pickles· At present there are 4Es 1. Electricity 2. Electronics
3. Energy 4. Engineering· Mhila Grih Udyog 7 ladies started in 1959; lizzat pappad Lakme Simon Tata o Shipping corporationa. Mrs.sumati MorarjiConstraints faced by women entrepreneurIn India, although women constitute the majority of the total population, the entrepreneurial worldis still a male dominated one. Women in advanced nation are recognized and are more prominent inbusiness world. But the Indian women entrepreneurs are facing major constraint .like—-Lack of confidence – in general, women lack their confidence in their strength and competence. Thefamily members and society are reluctant to stand beside their entrepreneurial growth. To a certainextent, this situation is changing among Indian women and yet to face a tremendous change toincrease the rate of growth in entrepreneurship.Socio cultural barrier – women‘s family and personal obligations are sometime a great barrier forsucceeding in business carrier. Only few women are able to manage both home and businessefficiently, developing enough time to perform all their responsibility.Market oriented risk —- self compition in market and lack of mobility of women make thedependence of women entrepreneurs on middlemen indispensable. Many business women find itdifficult to capture the market and make their products popular. They are not fully aware of thechanging market conditions and hence can effectively utilize the services of media and internet.Motivational factor –self motivation can be realized through mindset for a successful business,attitude to take up risk and behavior towards business society by shouldering the socialresponsibilities. Other factors are family support, government policies, financial assistance frompublic and private institution and also the environment suitable for women to establish businessunits.Knowledge in business administration – women must be educated and trained constantlytoKnowledge in business administration – women must be educated and trained constantly toacquire the skills and knowledge in all the functional areas of business management. This can befacilitating women to excel in decision making process and develop a good business network.Awareness about the financial assistance – various institution in financial sector extend theirmaximum support in the form of incentives , loans and scheme etc. even then every womenentrepreneur may not be aware of all assistance provided by the institutions . so the sincere effortstaken towards women entrepreneurs may not reach the entrepreneurs in rural and backward areasExposed to the training programme — training programmme and workshop for every type ofentrepreneurs is available through the social and welfare associations based on duration, skill andpurpose of training programme. Such programme is really useful to new, rural and youngentreuneurs who want to set up a small and medium scale unit on their own.Identifying the available recourses — women are hesitant to find out the asses to cater their needs infinancial and marketing areas. In spite of the mushrooming growth of associations, institutions andscheme from the govt. side, women are not enterprising and dynamic to optimize the resources in theform of reserves, assets mankind or business volunteers.Challenges Faced by women entrepreneur1. Many girls who study well are denied of good education. The parent should not restrict them and they should be allowed to choose the field of education as per their choice. In young age itself, the decision making quality and freedom to choose make them grow well .not only for studies, for marriage and choosing their carrier also, they should be given full freedom.
2. The women are expected to spend more time for family and more responsibilities are thrust on them so that they can not even think of doing business. The family members should understand them and give way for continuing their effort for becoming and being women entrepreneurs.3. The family members may hesitate to invest money in business started by women or permit to avail bank loan. Sometimes, all the property may in the name of male persons and they may not be ready to put security for availing a bank loan. First the women should find a solution for the opposition in the family for doing a business and try to get full moral and financial support from them, the women should not be treated as supplementary income providers4. In the male dominant society, it is not easy to come up in business field. Many business men do not want to enter into business deals with women entrepreneurs. The women should tackle this problem wisely and make understand that they are in no way, inferior to men5. To earn confidence from bank for getting a loan is much more difficult task for women entrepreneurs. But, the women entrepreneurs are sincere in repayment of loan. The local government and bank should come forward to help the women to get loan in easy way, without putting unrealistic conditions.6. The women should not take emotional fillings in business. They should prove that they posses high management skills and courage, ready to take risk and ability to solve problems.7. The women should not lose hope if they face failure, in spite of taking many efforts. They should not give up even if the loss is more. They should try to come up successfully again.8. The women entrepreneurs should meet and discuss their problem, whenever they find time. They should bring up many women to this field. They should attained seminar and conferences.9. The women entrepreneurs should not stand alone saying that they are women they can move well with other women and men entrepreneurs.10. The women should learn to keep up business secrets and avoid gossip. They need not enter into disputes or support unnecessarily to anybody.Supportive Measures for Women‘s Economic Activities andEntrepreneurshipDirect and Indirect Financial support· Nationalized bank· State Financial Corporation· State industrial development corporation· District industries centre· Difference rate scheme· Mahila udyug needhi scheme· SIDBI· State small industrial development corporation (SSIDCs)Yojna/scheme and programmes· Nehru rojgar yojna· Jawahar rojgar yojna· TRYSEM· DWACRA· Rashtriya Mahila kosh· Mahila samridhi yojna· Indira mahila yojnaTechnological training and award· Stree shakti package by SBI· Entrepreneurship development institute of India· Trade related entrepreneurship assistance and development· National institute of small business extension training· Women‘s university of Mumbai
· Vocational training progrrame for women· State level specialized training institutions.Federation and associations· National commission for women· Employment and income generating training cum production units for women· Women ‗s development corporation· Central government institutions· Scheme available thorough banks state level financial packages for women· NGO initiatives.Suggestions1. Procedure of getting finance should be simple2. Effective propagation of progrrammes and yojna3. Linkages between product ,services and market centers4. Encouragement to technical and professional education.ConclusionIndependence brought promise of equality of opportunity in all sphere to the Indian women and lawsguaranteeing for their equal right of participation in political process and equal opportunity andright in education and employment were enacted. But unfortunately, the government sponsoreddevelopment activities have benefited only a small section of women. The large majority of them arestill unaffected by change and development activities have benefited only a small section of womeni.e. the urban middle class women. The large majority of them are still unaffected by change anddevelopment. the reason are well sighted in the discussion part of this article . it is hoped that thesuggestions forwarded in article will help the entrepreneurs in particular and policy –planners ingeneral to look into this problem and develop better scheme , developmental programmes andopportunities to the women folk to enter into more entrepreneurial ventures . This article here triesto recollect some of the successful women entrepreneurs like Kiran Majumdar Shaw CEO Biocon,Shahnaz Hussain and vimalben M pawale, ex president, Sri Mahila udyog lijjat papad.References1. Babbar, bindiya,‖women entrepreneurship in India challenges and achievements.‘‘2. Bashier, seema, attitude towards women entrepreneurs in J&K.3. Bhattacharjee, s.k and Akhouri, M.m.p, profile of a small industry entrepreneur4. Vasant desai, Dynamics of entrepreneurial development and management5. Journal of small business and entrepreneurship6. Kurukshetra, January 20087. WWW.Google.com8. www. education.com
Motivations And Realities In Women’s Business NetworkingHemant Chauhan1, Palki Setia2, Rajesh Saini3AbstractPurpose: The aim of the paper is to highlight some interim findings from an ongoing action research project centred on awomen‟s business network in Uttarakhand. This paper focuses on the motivations of women business owners for participation inthe network and their actual experiences of doing so. It draws upon the business relationships literature, social capital theoryand previous entrepreneurship network research. It recognises the recent critique of the over-emphasis in the extant research onstructural and quantifiable interact ional dimensions and particularly the limitations in relation to providing an understanding ofwomen‟s experience.Design/Methodology/Approach: The current study is located within an action research framework of cycles of planning, acting,observing and reflecting leading to a spiral effect towards increasing precision. In addition to the opportunities provided withinthe overall methodology for ongoing observation and critical reflection, the empirical data for the paper was gathered via 25telephone interviews and two sets of qualitative questionnaires administered at network events resulting in 16 and 26 responsesrespectively.Findings: In relation to motivations for participation in the network, the most common was to meet like minded women; it issignificant to note that a fifth of respondents were seeking new business. In relation to perceived benefits achieved from networkparticipation, personal benefits identified were sharing experiences with a peer group and deriving motivation and confidencefrom speakers. A fifth of respondents reported specific business benefits. However, significantly, there was a mismatch betweenthose who had joined the network to gain business and those who had achieved new business as a result of participation in thenetwork. Further, those reporting new or increased business which they attributed to their involvement in the network werethose who regularly attended network events and activities.Implications: Women‟s business networking is explored within the context of building business relationships. It is proposed thatwomen entrepreneurs need to better understand and draw upon the issues of demonstration of commitment, trust building,reciprocity, information sharing and cooperation which lead to the building of social capital, in order to maximise theeffectiveness of their business network activity.Originality/Value: The study supports the case for alternatively framed research in order that women‟s experience of businessnetworking can be more fully revealed.Keywords: Women Entrepreneurs, Business Networks, Business Relationships.1. Research Scholar (Management) Uttarakhand Technical University Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.2. Research Scholar (Management) Uttarakhand Technical University Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.3. Student (Management) BRD College of Management & Science Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India.
IntroductionRecent critique of the extant entrepreneurship network research suggests there has been an over-emphasis on structural and quantifiable interact ional dimensions. Corresponding limitations areidentified in relation to providing an understanding of women‘s experience in this area. Thisexploratory paper presents some interim findings from ongoing action centred on a network ofwomen business owners in Uttarakhand, with a view to contributing to the current gap.The paper focuses on the motivations of women business owners for participation in the womenbusiness owner network and their actual experiences of doing so. It questions the extent to which thedevelopment of business relationships within women‘s business networking is currently fullyunderstood (especially among women business owners themselves and within the business supportsector) and the potential influence of perceptions about the social capital of a network of this type onits sustainability.Therefore, the aim of the paper are: to highlight some indicative findings from the latest cycle of theaction research; and, to explore the findings in relation to the literature on business relationshipsand on social capital theory. Building upon the action research context, there are opportunities toprovide feedback data to the Network participants that may influence the ongoing development oftheir individual and collective networking activities Secondly, the indicative findings suggestopportunities for future and further research in this areaEntrepreneurship network researchExisting entrepreneurship research into networks has tended to consider inter-organisational (orformal) networks and personal (or personal contact, social, or informal) networks. The latter of theseconstructs, with its emphasis on the social context and environment of entrepreneurship and roots insocial network theory, provides the background for this paper.Widely accepted frameworks of network analysis, drawn from social network theory, focus onnetwork morphology (the pattern and structure of the network) or interact ional dimensions(network process).The four elements of the structural dimension being anchorage (network focus),reach ability (how easy it is for network actors to contact one another), density (extent to whichnetwork actors are connected to one another) and range (the diversity of the network actors). Thefive interact ional elements being content (how people understand, act, and behave in relation toother network actors), intensity (the extent to which individual actors honour their obligations to oneanother), frequency (frequency and amount of time network actors spend interacting with oneanother), durability (the length of time a network relationship lasts) and direction (the degree ofmutuality or reciprocity or otherwise of a relationship)Current gaps in the research or under-researched areas have been identified as ―the process of networking; the contents of networkrelations; the dynamic nature of networks; networks in practice; and the skill of networking. Furtherthere are specific gaps in understanding ―the relationship between gender, business owner networks,social capital and men and women‘s‘ experiences of business ownership‖.Social capital and entrepreneurshipAmong the numerous descriptions and definitions of social capital, while referring also to the WorldBank definition, ―the norms and social relations embedded in social structures that enable people tocoordinate action and to achieve desired goals‖, if human capital is ‗know how‘, social capital is ‗knowwho‘.s.s pandey (2009) and kumari rinki (2010) discerned different types of social capital, exploring thesignificance of weak ties in particular. In Putnam‘s analysis of bridging and bonding capital,bonding social capital (strong ties) in existing networks of those with shared characteristics(ethnicity, age, gender etc) is equated with ‗get by‘, compared to bridging social capital and creatingnew network relationships (weaker ties) of people who are unlike one another, characterised as ‗getahead‘). Sharma (2011) work ads further to this analysis by identifying the significance of bridging
capital as a means of overcoming structural holes between groups. This translates as being able toachieve earlier access to and transmission of a more diverse range of information leading to thepotential for faster revenue growth. Recent research questions the value in all situations of longties, proposing rather that complex contagions, including social contagions, might require widebridgesIn their summary of previous research, pooja mehta (2008) comment that the social capital ofnetworks has been ―variously described as resulting from the form, content, connections, tangibleand intangible resources and support that may be acquired‖. The debate over how social capital maybe measured, however, is ongoing. Social capital has also been linked to sustainable development,being described as ―an important asset for creating and maintaining healthy communities, robustorganisations and vibrant civil societies‖ .Previous research has indicated that women businessowners are more likely to source from and employ people from local communities thus building asustainable business with slow but steady long term growth and commitment to local communitiesand a local area.Significantly, in the context of the following section on the development and management of businessrelationships, trust, reciprocity, information sharing and cooperation have been identified asessential factors in building social capital, increasing in a cumulative effect with each interaction.Critique of extent frameworks of network analysisMore recently limitations in the accepted understandings of entrepreneurship networks researchhave been identified. In common with other aspects of entrepreneurship, research on business ownernetworks has been based on male models of entrepreneurship and on male experiences andperceptions and may not reflect accurately those of female entrepreneurs. There is a dearth ofempirical research into the types of networks women business owners use and how they make use ofthem.Further, it has been suggested that extant frameworks for analysing networks, network activity andfor measuring network success may be gendered. Their focus on structural and quantifiable interactional dimensions gives rise to an over-reliance upon counting, for example, numbers of contacts andfrequency of using them. As a result they fail to adequately identify and measure the experience ofwomen business owners.Methodology: Action research context and methodsThe empirical study was undertaken within an action research framework. Action research has beencharacterised as lending itself particularly to situations where the researcher is an insider withinthe research setting, to the pursuit of small scale studies of relevance within the immediate locus ofresearch and where there is an issue to address with some kind of practical change envisaged as anoutcomes.In this case, the researcher currently has a part-time involvement as a lecturer and researcherwithin a university setting but is also a woman business owner herself of almost 20 years standingand is therefore part of the local business community. The researcher was a founder member of the‗WBO‘ Network and continues to have an involvement in the organising committee.As outlined above, the current paper is based upon a study undertaken within the most recent cycleof ongoing action research based on the Vale Women‘s Business Network. Three ongoing areas ofconcern to the organising committee provided the key research questions for the study: what are themotivations of individual women business owners for participation in the network? What benefits dothey perceive as a result of network participation? Is there a correlation between their initialmotivation and perceived benefits? The data was collected via telephone interviews with a sample of25 network members selected randomly using the ‗WBO‘ network database of members and two setsof qualitative questionnaires administered at network events, resulting in 16 and 26 questionnaireresponses respectively. The research participants were asked why they had joined the network,what personal benefits they had derived from taking part in the network and what business benefitsthey had derived from taking part in the network, how they would describe the skill(s) involved in
networking and what if anything prevents them from being able to network as effectively as theywould like in general and more specifically in relation to the ‗WBO‘ network. From this a codingframework was developed and segments of text were then coded and clustered accordingly. Eventparticipation records were used to confirmed attendance patterns.FindingsMotivations for participating in the women business owner networkWhen asked about their motivations for joining the ‗WBO‘ Network, the most common response wasto meet like minded people (36% of telephone interview respondents). Typical comments were: ―tomeet like minded women‖, ―to meet business women for support‖, ―to meet and network with otherbusiness women locally‖ Those new to business, had slightly more specific aims: ―To meet otherwomen who are self employed and to gain any help and guidance from ‗WBO‘ Network and memberson running your own business‖, ―Was quite desperate to join some networks in the area as theredidn‘t seem to be very many! Also liked the idea of a women-only network, it seemed lessintimidating when I was just starting out in business‖. 24% of the telephone interview respondentshad joined ―to network‖. Only 20% of telephone interview respondents reported overtly that theyaimed to get business as a result of taking part in the network. 8% of the telephone respondentswere partly interested in joining the network for social reasons:Personal benefits of taking part in the women business owner networkThe most common personal benefits reported centred on sharing experiences with a peer group,making business contacts and deriving motivation and confidence from speakers at monthlynetworking events: ―Meeting people and making friends, becoming better known in the community‖,―Meeting members and gaining information regarding contacts in business, e.g. Venture Wales‖,―Meeting other women who are trying to juggle many priorities who are prepared to ‗tell it how it is‘‖,―The talks at the meetings have been positive and empowering. I always leave feeling very uplifted!‖Business benefits20% of telephone interview respondents and 20% of questionnaire respondents identified specificbusiness gains as a result of their participation in the network: ―I have been able to talk aboutaspects of my business and sell some products‖, ―Making business contacts to support my business inthe form of supply as well as customer‖, ―The work we have gained through the network, the contactswe‘ve made both directly and indirectly that have led either to suppliers or to work‖, ―The meetings,making contacts which have happily resulted in quite a few jobs for us‖.Interestingly, those who had achieved new business as a result of taking part in the network werenot those who had joined with that as their key motivation. It may be significant that all of thosewho did report direct business benefits had participated in the monthly networking events.Skills involved in networkingThe most common response to the question of which skills are involved in networking wascommunication skills (50% of the questionnaire respondents). Typical, specific comments were:―Being able to talk to people you don‘t know‖, ―Listening‖, ―Be interested, not interrogational!‖. Onerespondent summarised eloquently points made by several others: ―Other significant responses/skillsidentified were confidence (15% of the questionnaire respondents) and interpersonal skills (also 15%of the questionnaire respondents).Barriers to effective networkingThe most common barrier to being able to network effectively was lack of time (42% of thequestionnaire respondents). The only other significant response was Lack of confidence/shyness(19%). Specific comments were: ―Time, or lack of! Juggling family and work‖, ―Sometimes feel shy incompany when everyone knows each other‖ and ―Perhaps not enough self belief‖.
conclusionThe emphasis on accessing a group of like minded business women aligns with the proposals of for anew framework of analysis (including emotional support data) to include women‘s experience ofbusiness networking in order to achieve better understandings. It also reflects recent research frompsychology which suggests that same gender role models are more important for women than formen in relation to increasing self efficacyWhile the most significant skills identified as necessary for effective networking werecommunication skills, it is interesting also that confidence was regarded both as a skill involved innetworking but also that lack of confidence was perceived as a barrier to effective networking. Inthis particular case, the ‗WBO‘ network launch event centred on ‗how to network‘ but it may be thatpractical guidance or workshops on how to manage communications within network environments,or how to network, are themes that need to be repeated at regular intervals for the benefit of newparticipantsThe issue of the extent to which initial motivations for network involvement are fulfilled clearly willhave an impact on future participation and this in turn will ultimately have a bearing on thesustainability of the Network itself. Two sets of issues arise in this connection.Firstly, there was a mismatch between those whose motivation for participation in the Network wasprimarily to gain business and those who actually did achieve new business. Further, it wasobserved at a number of the Network events that there was reluctance among some women businessowners to promote their businesses too overtly, or that permission to do so would be sought from theperceived organisers. Equally, there was a degree of resistance to individual attempts to do so,particularly in the case of a guest or new member. As an interesting parallel, previous research hasrecognised that women tend not to make instrumental use of their network contacts in order toprogress their careers.Secondly, it is interesting to note that those who had derived a direct business gain from beinginvolved in the Network were those who participated in the monthly events. It has also beenobserved at events that groups of the women business owners have consciously discussed trust and‗give and take‘ as factors involved in relationship building.As indicated in earlier sections, the literature suggests that successful business relationshipsdevelop over time. It has been claimed that ―it takes 6-8 contacts with someone before you knoweach other well enough to have established a long term business relationship‖. Therefore, it isproposed that women entrepreneurs need to better understand and draw upon the stages andprocesses involved in developing and managing business relationships and the issues ofdemonstration of commitment, trust building, reciprocity, information sharing and cooperationwhich lead to the building of social capital in order to maximise the effectiveness of their businessnetwork activity.Next stageAs discussed, the small scale study that informs this paper was framed within an action researchapproach. These interim findings have already been reported back to the ‗WBO‘ network organisingcommittee who have discussed and supported them. Consequently, they have been used both in theplanning of the next programme of activities but also in re-formatting the monthly meetings. Thereis also support for further research with current members to explore some of these findings infurther depth but also a study involving past members aimed at understanding why they no longerparticipate in this particular network.
“Stepping-Out to Seize the Power”Jaya Jain1, Uppasna Mittal2AbstractWomen, an important part of society or commonly known as better-half in a family has been growing and unfolding her wingsand occupying the top most positions in organizations whether banking, entertainment, infrastructure or stock broking etc.The paper tries to find out various factors which affect growth and development of women entrepreneurship in India and providesuggestive strategies to overcome the barriers for women empowerment. Indian society was not open or positive towards thethought of „woman as a risk-taker‟ which posed many barriers in their growth, but gradually the mindset has been changingtowards the promotion and development.Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship, Barriers, Empowerment, Woman risk-taker, Mindset.1. Lecturer, MBA Deptt. SRSMCEM, Tewariganj, Lucknow.2. Lecturer, MBA Deptt. SRSMCEM, Tewariganj, Lucknow.Introduction‗WOMEN‘ is an important part of society. In India females are always dominated by men as malesare considered superior than woman. In early days women‘s in rural areas use to do some handicraftwork or prepare some homemade food products to earn some money. As they are illiterate so chancesof growth are very less but as day by day they become aware of their needs and importance therestarts improvement in there conditions. There are certain factors which force women to takeemployment like death of bread winner, permanent inadequacy in family income or their desire toevaluate their talent, to utilize their free time etc. Women bear all the responsibility for meetingbasic needs of the family.Entrepreneurs There are many ways and meaning to understand the term entrepreneur. But in general it can besaid ―Entrepreneur is one who sees opportunity, takes risk, utilizes his /her capital and arrangesresources to accomplish a task that is of a new/pioneer/innovative type‖.The pioneer or new or innovative criteria can be explained by:-Any value adding process which is completely or partly or even fractionally new to other availablesubstitute.The new mess may be in product, in manufacturing process, in supply process or even in feature ofthe product with some core problem solving capacityThis is a very broad definition of entrepreneur to cover the various aspects and interest ofbusinessman/women of developing countries because they are having no such adequate resourcesand knowledge to go for real innovations for their business and suppose they innovate something,the acceptability, absorbility, affordability of the innovations in the market is questionable anddoubtful.An entrepreneur is a person who buys ‗services‘ at a certain price with a view to sell their product at‗uncertain‘ prices in the future.For ex.: vegetable vendor, grocer, etc. they all are entrepreneurs.Apart from this if we talk about a school going child or one pursuing any kind of education is also anentrepreneur, because they invest in their education with a hope of getting reward in the future.Women entrepreneur
When we speak about the term ―women entrepreneurship‖ we mean an act of business ownershipand business creation that empowers women economically, increase their economic strength andposition in the society.―An enterprise owned and controlled by a women having a minimum financial interest of 51% ofcapital and giving at least 51% of the employment generated by the enterprise to women.Characteristics of women entrepreneuri. Women see their business as a cooperative network of relationships among members not as a distinct profit generating activity.ii. Women entrepreneur have passion for their work.iii. Willingness to work for their community.iv. They have a suppressed need to be recognized as an individual rather than dependent onsomebody.v. Management style of women entrepreneur relays on open communication and participativedecision making.vi. Can handle the pressure and make adjustments accordingly.Objectives of the studyThe main purpose of the study of women entrepreneurship is as follows:a) To find out various reasons as to why more and more women are moving towardsentrepreneurship.b) Identification and analysis of factors which hinders the growth and development of women entrepreneur.c) To exhibit the push and pull factors in an enterprise.d) To provide suggestive strategies to the problems faced by the women entrepreneur group.Methodology of the studyThis research paper is a logical analytical review on the recent advancement in the field of womenentrepreneur in India.hence this paper would be answering following questions:1. Why women opt for entrepreneurship?2. What is the need of women entrepreneur?3. What are the barriers against women entrepreneurship?4. What are the various suggestive strategies for solving the problems of women entrepreneurs?1. Why women opt for entrepreneurship?Women often leave the corporate world and move towards the entrepreneurship by starting theirown business to show their creativity and talents to this men dominating society. This way helpsthem providing additional flexibility and life balance in managing their personal life as a wife and asa mother.Generally, women start their own business because of three personal benefitsa) Personal freedomb) Securityc) Self satisfactionWe describe these as:Freedom seekersThey are those who are dissatisfied with the inequities in pay and discrimination among co-workersand had a desire to choose their working hours, environment and people.Security seekersThey are those who have been stimulated to become entrepreneur because of some personalmisfortune such as layoff, dismissal, divorce, death or retirement of their spouse.
Satisfaction seekersThese are generally house wives, who do not have previous experience or skills but want to provethat they can be effective and become efficient part of the society.According to Helms the reason behind women‘s entering into business is ―internal stable reason‖ (Iwant to be my own boss) while men have ―external stable reason‖ (I saw a terrific marketopportunity).2. What is the need of women entrepreneur?i. To utilize the available time and workforce in productive manner.ii. To raise the standard of livingiii. To provide the opportunity to feel self actualization.iv. To support ‗home business‖3. What are the barriers against women entrepreneurship?There are some umpteen problems faced by women at various stages beginning from their initialcommencement of enterprise, in running their enterprise. Their various problems are as follows:a)Arrangement of FinanceFor every business undertaking Finance is said to be the ―life blood‖, whether it is large, medium orsmall enterprise. Women entrepreneurs face the problems of shortage of finance on two importantbases. Firstly, women do not in general have property on their own names to use that as collateralsecurities for obtaining loans/funds from banks and other financial institutions. Thus their access toexternal sources is very limited .Secondly, obtaining the support of bankers, managing the workingcapital, lack of credit resources are the problems which still remain in the male‘s domain.b) Cut-throat CompetitionWomen entrepreneurs do not have a proper organizational set-up to pump in a lot of money forcanvassing and advertisements. Thus they have to face a stiff competition with the menentrepreneurs who easily involve in the promotion and development area and carry out easymarketing of their products with both the organized sector and their male counterparts. Such acompetition ultimately results in the liquidation of women entrepreneurs.c) Lack of education and prevalent levels of illiteracy amongst womenIn India, around (40%) of women are still illiterate. Illiteracy is the root cause of socioeconomicbarriers or hurdles. Due to lack of Knowledge of latest technological change, know-how andeducation creates problems before women to set up competitive enterprises.d)Domination by male and ideology of male dominated societyMale chauvinism is still prevalent in many parts of the country yet. The constitution of India speaksabout the equality between both the sexes, i.e. men and women. But in practice, women are lookedupon as ―abla‖ i.e. weak in all respects. Thus women suffer from a number of problems, in a nutshellin a male dominated society; women are not treated equal to men. This in turn, serves as a barrier towoman‘s entry into business.e) Lesser risk and uncertainty bearing attitudeWomen in India lead a protected life. They are even less educated and economically not stableneither self-dependent. All these factors reduce their ability to bear risks and uncertainties involvedin a business unit, which is the most important criteria of every business activity.f) Lack of self-confidence and optimistic attitude amongst womenToday all the women are suffering from one major problem of lack of self-confidence, will-power,strong mental outlook, optimism etc. They always fear from committing mistakes while doing theirpiece of work, moreover there is limited initiative of taking risk and bearing uncertainty in them.Thus all these psychological factors often obstruct their path of achieving success in the area ofenterprise.
g) Old and outdated social outlook to stop women from entering in thefield of entrepreneurshipAlso one of the dominant reasons for their failure is the attitude of society people towards theirmodern business prospects and developing attitude. Women nowadays have low risktaking ability because of the number of questions put forward by the conservative society people.Thus they are under a social pressure which restrains them to prosper and achieve success in thefield of entrepreneurship.h) Absence of proper support and back-up for women by their ownfamily members and the outside world peopleMany a times their own family members are not supporting and cooperating as well as havingencouraging attitude to dare to enter into the entrepreneurship field. They are always making manypessimistic feelings to be aroused in their minds and making them feel that family and not businessis a place meant for them. Due to such limited scope of help and cooperation from family and otherpeople, they drop the idea of excelling in the enterprise field.Apart from the above discussed problems there may occur other series of serious problems faced bywomen entrepreneurs are improper infrastructural facilities, high cost of production, attitude ofpeople of society towards the women modern business outlook, low needs of achievement and socio-economic constraints often puts women behind in the field of enterprise.various suggestive strategies for solving the above discussed problemsOn the basis of the problems faced by women entrepreneurs, there is a provision of a number ofsolution measures to overcome the aforesaid problems:i) Attempts should be taken to inspire, encourage, motivate and co-operate women entrepreneurs.ii) Proper training institutes should be established for enhancing their work knowledge, skills, risk taking abilities, enhancing their capabilities.iii) Attempts by various NGO‘s and government organizations to spread information about policies, plans and strategies on the development of women in the field of industry, trade and commerce.iv) Establishing various policies to offer easy finance schemes for economically strengthening the position of women.v) Offering seed capital, up-liftmen schemes, women entrepreneurs fund etc. to encourage them economically.vi) To extend confessional rates facilities and schemes for women entrepreneurs to prosper in the field of enterprise.vii) To establish all India forums to discuss the problems, grievances, issues, and filing complaints against constraints or shortcomings towards the economic progress path of women entrepreneurs and giving suitable decisions in the favors of women entrepreneurs and taking strict standagainst the policies or strategies that obstruct the path of economic development of such group of women entrepreneurs..ConclusionThere is a great scope of women entrepreneur in India. As we know India is a developing countryand so many opportunities are available for the growth of women in India. It can be said that todaywe are in a better position wherein women participation in the field of entrepreneurship isincreasing at a considerable rate, efforts are being taken at the economy as well as global level toenhance woman‘s involvement in the enterprise sector. This is mainly because of attitude change,diverted conservative mindset of society to modern one, daring and risk-taking abilities of women,support and cooperation by society members, changes and relaxations in government policies,granting various up-liftment schemes to women entrepreneurs etc.
Thus, what else is required is to continue with the above changed trend, emphasizing on educatingwomen strata of population, spreading awareness and consciousness amongst women to outshine inthe enterprise field, making them realize their strengths, and important position in the society andthe great contribution they can make for their industry as well as the entire economy. If every citizenworks with such an attitude towards respecting the important position occupied by women in societyand understanding their vital role in the modern business field too, then very soon we can pre-estimate our chances of out beating our own conservative and rigid thought process which is thebiggest barrier in our country‘s development process. We can promise ourselves and make a sincerecommitment of contributing to the field of women entrepreneurship at individual level which un-doubted bring drastic positive change in growth and development of women entrepreneurship atcountry and even at a global level.References1. http://ezinearticles.com/?An-Insight-Into-the-Emergence-of-Women-Owned-Businesses-As-an- Economic-Force-in-India&id=17972362. http://www.articlesbase.com/entrepreneurship-articles/women-entrepreneurship-in-india- 909659.htmlhttp://www.ghallabhansali.com/admin/file/Women%20Entrepreneurs.pdf3. http://ssmrae.com/admin/images/551ea2ac7e7ef2e570798fb5bbbee9b5.pdf www.answers.com4. http://www.ifad.org/evaluation/public_html/eksyst/doc/insight/pi/india-13.htm5. http://blogs.worldwatch.org/nourishingtheplanet/sewa-a-movement-to-transform- women%E2%80%99s-lives-in-india-and-beyond/ www.wikipedia.org Self Skills Enhancement Among Women Entrepreneurs Based On - Emotional IntelligenceDr. Sangeeta Saxena1, Harshit Agarwal2AbstractEntrepreneurs are the driving force of any given economy as they help in building an economy. Traditionally there has beendearth of women entrepreneurs in the country, but lately the numbers are burgeoning which augurs all good for the nationaleconomy. Presently women entrepreneurs comprise about 10% of the total entrepreneurs in India. If prevailing trends continueto grow, it is likely that in another five years, women will comprise 20% of the entrepreneurial force in India. They areflourishing as designers, interior decorators, exporters, publishers, garment manufacturers and still exploring new avenues ofeconomic participation. As their participation is growing the dimensions in the form of challenges and opportunities in case ofwomen entrepreneurs in digital era are scaling to new proportions. In case of women entrepreneurs self skills enhancement canbe achieved by overcoming psychological disorders such as Depression, Unexplained fear of rejection, pessimism, Investmentphobia, ADD (Attention Deficiency Syndrome), workaholic tendencies, Low self-esteem etc.
The current paper is an investigation about the common psychological disorders among women entrepreneurs and how they canbe trained to enhance self skills through building emotional intelligence for their bright future.Keywords: Women Entreprenerus, self skill enhancement, psychological disorders, emotional intelligence.1. Asstt. Professor, Future Institute of Management & Technology, Bareilly.2. Lecturer, Future Institute of Management & Technology, Bareilly.IntroductionEntrepreneurs are the driving force of any given economy as they help in building an economy. It is amulti- dimensional task and essentially a creative activity. Traditionally there has been dearth ofwomen entrepreneurs in the country, but lately the numbers are burgeoning which augurs all goodfor the national economy. Presently women entrepreneurs comprise about 10% of the totalentrepreneurs in India. If prevailing trends continue to grow, it is likely that in another five years,women will comprise 20% of the entrepreneurial force in India. They are flourishing as designers,interior decorators, exporters, publishers, garment manufacturers and still exploring new avenues ofeconomic participation. As their participation is growing the dimensions in the form of challengesand opportunities in case of women entrepreneurs in digital era are scaling to new proportions.Women entrepreneurship is a recent phenomenon and in the process have to face various problems.In case of women entrepreneurs self skills enhancement can be achieved by overcoming psychologicaldisorders such as Depression, Unexplained fear of rejection, pessimism, Investment phobia, ADD(Attention Deficiency Syndrome), workaholic tendencies, Low self-esteem etc. through developingemotional intelligence .Research MethodologyThe current research is based on analysis of the secondary data relating to the evaluation of self skillenhancement among women entrepreneurs while building emotional intelligence. The sources forcollecting secondary data are journals, reviews, referred books and websites.Review of LiteratureThe methodology in leadership studies involving emotional intelligence is gradually improving.Many early studies had the leader complete measures of emotional intelligence, evaluate their ownleadership style, and rate their own effectiveness as leaders. More recent studies have used multi-measures and had both supervisors and subordinates rating the leaders for style and effectiveness.These later studies find that some traits or competencies of emotional intelligence are related toeffective leadership and/or transformational leadership style but there is more support for emotionalintelligence and effective leadership having a connection because they have similar features incommon, e.g. empathy or involvement. Another approach to the study of emotional intelligence andleadership is through the demonstration that emotional intelligence abilities and competencies canbe taught to trainees and that these abilities or competencies continue to be evident years afterindividuals have completed training programs. There is a gap between the ―promise‖ for emotionalintelligence and what has been empirically demonstrated to be the abilities or competencies that areactually needed for an individual to be an effective leader. There is a need for emotional intelligenceresearchers to take a step backwards and consider including some of the contributions otherleadership researchers have been making over the last 60 years. It is also important to determinewhether it is necessary for every effective leader to have acquired the entire arsenal of emotionalintelligence competencies.Few examples that have resulted in developing emotional intelligence in business:1. An analysis of more than 300 top-level executives from fifteen global companies showed that six emotional competencies distinguished stars from the average: Influence, Team Leadership, Organizational Awareness, self-confidence, Achievement Drive, and Leadership (Spencer, L. M., Jr., 1997).
2. Research by the Center for Creative Leadership has found that the primary causes ofderailment in executives involve deficits in emotional competence. The three primary ones are difficulty in handling change, not being able to work well in a team, and poor interpersonal relations.3. After supervisors in a manufacturing plant received training in emotional competencies such as how to listen better and help employees resolve problems on their own, lost-time accidents were reduced by 50 percent, formal grievances were reduced from an average of 15 per year to 3 per year, and the plant exceeded productivity goals by $250,000 (Pesuric & Byham, 1996). Inanother manufacturing plant where supervisors received similar training, production increased 17percent. There was no such increase in production for a group of matched supervisors who were not trained (Porras & Anderson, 1981).4. One of the foundations of emotional competence — accurate self-assessment — was associated with superior performance among several hundred managers from 12 different organizations (Boyatzis, 1982).5. Another emotional competence, the ability to handle stress, was linked to success as a store manager in a retail chain. The most successful store managers were those best able to handle stress. Success was based on net profits, sales per square foot, sales per employee, and per dollar inventory investment (Lusch & Serpkeuci, 1990).Psychological problems faced by women entrepreneurs:Women undergo various emotional changes when they give up their regular jobs for whateverreason. When they feel they are ready to pick up the threats again, they might find that they havebeen left far behind in the race as newer and more qualified people have entered the fray. Either insheer frustration, or in an attempt to prove their worth to themselves, some women might turn tohome-based businesses as an alternative to a job. Others might do so with every intention of beingsuccessful in their venture. Whatever might be the reason for becoming an entrepreneur, it will doyou good to analyze yourself and have an action plan to deal with the emotions that control you. Thevarious psychological problems are as follows:An unexplained fear of rejectionA person may be intimidated by the marketing and sales aspect of a business. Any home-basedbusiness will prosper only with some marketing which could be just PR or a soft sell. If a person shyaway from ‗selling‘ his/her product or recoil at the thought, it is time to overcome this by reading upbooks on marketing skills, or even practicing sales talk with friends as an audience.DepressionA person might be prone to depression which will cloud all his abilities to think straight. A severeemotional problem is which the person cannot stop feeling sad or ―down‖ or ―empty‖ and constantlyfeels helpless and hopeless. Depressed people often struggle with anxiety and irritability, a lack ofmotivation, a loss of pleasure in things they used to like to do, and problems with eating, sleeping,and pains. Many depressed people have suicidal thoughts, and 10-15% will eventually take their ownlives.ADD (Attention Deficiency Syndrome)Generally extremely creative people are so brilliant with their new ideas that they go from one to theother without pausing to think ‗ in short, they are visionaries with broad and far reaching creativeideas. They cannot allow themselves to get bored but then they do have a problem with focus. What aperson got to understand is that a home business would require twice as much concentration as aregular job because the responsibilities are that much more. Such people would do well to practicemeditation to calm and focus the mind.low self-esteem
This is quite common, especially when people are in the grip of the fear of rejection and depression.Low self-esteem is a huge problem that one has to overcome in life in general ‗ but it can becomeabsolutely insurmountable in the office environment. Actually being self employed is tougher most ofthe time but once a person take a firm hold of him/her and believe in their capabilities to make ithappen and succeed, it is a gamble a person should make. Never let low self esteem hamper one‘sprogress. It is advisable for everyone to go to a counselor to get rid of the problem real fast.workaholic tendenciesKeep clear boundaries between work and the home office. In the beginning, a person might findhim/her working long hours. The danger is that a person might get used to working this way andforget to balance the hours spent with his/her family. Therefore strike a clear balance right from thebeginning and schedule their family time and stick to it. It is so easy to neglect their family ‗just thisonce‘, but it may become an unwelcome habit.pessimistic Attitude―A Pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an Optimist sees the opportunity in everydifficulty‖. Once a person focus on what he/she wants rather than what they don‘t want, he/she willfind that things have a knack of working out. One of the best quotes we read recently goes ―Come tome with your solutions, not your problems‖. So ask yourself positive questions so that we get betteranswers. Ask ―How can I reward my clients who pay me promptly?‖ instead of asking ―Why is it thatmy clients are such poor paymasters?‖ This way, a person may become a positive thinker and can getmore things done faster.StressWhen faced with important events (stressors) which are threatening or very hard to deal (cope) with,people experience stress. Psychological symptoms of stress include anxiety and tension,uncontrollable worrying, irritability, distractibility, and difficulty in learning new things. Physicalsymptoms include difficulty in sleeping, loss of appetite or excessive appetite, fatigue, and pains.NeurosisA neurosis is characterized by anxiety, internal tensions and conflicts, uncontrollable avoidance ofthreatening situations, and ineffective coping. Examples include panic, phobia, obsessive-compulsivedisorder, and posttraumatic stress.SchizophreniaA set of severe psychological symptoms which make it very hard to work, play, and be with otherpeople. ―Positive‖ symptoms include delusions (irrational beliefs), hallucinations (sensoryexperiences in the absence of stimuli), incoherent thought and speech, intense and uncontrollableanxiety or paranoia, and bizarre behavior. ―Negative‖ symptoms include loss of both emotionalexperiences and emotional expressiveness, loss of willpower and initiative, inability to experiencepleasure or interest in things, and withdrawal from contact with others.NarcissismPeople with this personality characteristic have an uncontrollable need to feel important, successful,and admired by other people. They act as if they are unique and entitled to special favors. Theyreally don‘t care about how other people are feeling and resent (are jealous of) other people‘saccomplishments.Inferences DrawnOn the basis of the review of literature and by examining the secondary data we have drawn certaininferences and these may be summarized as below:Regardless the type of work you do and how amicable you are as a person, we can almost guaranteethat you will eventually be in a situation where you have to work with someone you just don‘t like. Itcould be a coworker at your job, an employee or team member of a client, a board member of anorganization where you volunteer, or a teacher or coach at your child‘s school.
The dynamics may change, but the factors that comprise the interpersonal relationship are the sameacross all situations, and when animosity enters the mix it can be a challenge to keep therelationship civil and productive. This is where emotional intelligence comes into play.Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence refers to the ability to understand and empathize with others. According toHoward Gardner, a Harvard psychologist who authored, ―Frames of Mind: The Theory of MultipleIntelligences,‖ your emotional intelligence is the level of your ability to understand other people,what motivates them and how to work cooperatively with them.Characteristics that are believed to be a part of emotional intelligence include:The Four Domains of Emotional IntelligenceIn the book, ―Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ,‖ Daniel Goleman,psychologist and science journalist for The New York Times, outlines these four domains ofemotional intelligence:1. Self-awareness (emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assessment and self confidence)2. Self-management (emotional self-control, transparency, trustworthiness, adaptability,achievement orientation, initiative, optimism, conscientiousness)3. Social awareness (empathy, organizational awareness, service orientation)4. Relationship management (inspirational leadership, influence, developing others, changecatalyst, conflict management, building bonds, teamwork and collaboration, communication)Developing Emotional IntelligenceAt its core, emotional intelligence really relates to people skills; how good you are at communicating,understanding and relating to those around you. It can be argued that if you can improve your levelof emotional intelligence, you will be able to work more effectively with those you may not like or getalong with. In fact, you may even become more successful in all aspects of your life.Here are some actions you can take to develop your emotional intelligence so all of yourrelationships, including the difficult ones, are more productive.All of these actions will improve your empathy and that can be one of the most valuable traits toexhibit when working with someone you don‘t like. When you‘re empathetic, you act withcompassion, respect and tolerance. And if those are your prevailing qualities in a challengingsituation, you are certain to make it a productive relationship.ConclusionAs we are living in the dynamic environment which results in the numerous problems andchallenges that come across by women entrepreneurs which required the women to overcome thesechallenges by imbibing the characteristics of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is aboutbehavior which is regarded as the core area to control beliefs and feelings that automatically affectour decision making process which is of utmost important for the entrepreneurs. Womenentrepreneurs faced constraints in aspects of financial, marketing production, work place facility andhealth problems. Entrepreneurs mainly faced Psychological problems/health problems such asfatigue, tension, and headache etc. Developing Emotional Intelligence can be a solution to deal withthese problems effectively.ReferencesGardner, L., & Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership andEmotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadership & Organization
Development Journal, 23(2), 68-78.Wong, C., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotionalintelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. LeadershipQuarterly, 13, 243-374.Boyatzis, R. (1982). The competent manager: A model for effective performance. New York: JohnWiley and Sons.Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.Lusch, R. F., & Serpkeuci, R. (1990). Personal differences, job tension, job outcomes, and storeperformance: A study of retail managers. Journal of Marketing.Porras, J. I., & Anderson, B. (1981). Improving managerial effectiveness through modeling-basedtraining. Organizational Dynamics, 9, 60-77.Kothari C.R. Research Methodology.World Wide Web A Journey of Women from: Home-maker to Factory- ownerAbhiruchi Pandey1, Ankita Aron2AbstractIndian society which is male dominant finds it hard to accept women empowerment. The globalization and industrialization hasmade it possible for the fairer sex to come forward and work distinctively and differently. The support from regulatory bodies,NGOs and SHGs has helped the local artisans to enhance their regional skills and grow at national level by supporting andpromoting women force. These programs are very helpful for new rural and urban entrepreneurs and youth creating unity ofsmall-scale enterprises (SSEs) and cottage enterprises.This paper tries to find out the means and measures to enhance the skills and methods for betterment of women, so that they canbe globally acknowledged and nationally accepted. This paper will focus on various Indian organizations started and supportedby women entrepreneurs and how their empowerment led to the growth of similar trend.Keywords: NGOs, SHGs, SSE, Cottage enterprisees, Rural and Urban entrepreneurs.1. Sr. Lecture, MBA Deptt., SRMCEM, Lucknow.2. Lecturer, MBA Deptt., SRMCEM, Lucknow.IntroductionIndian society believed or rather still believes that a son is better than a daughter. A son would bringfame, money and help in livelihood. But now the trend is changing. The mindset is shifting frommale-dominated society towards the acceptance of fairer-sex as the face of a business. To bringwomen in the mainstream of economic growth Government of India, declared 2001 as the ―Year ofWomen Empowerment‖. Entrepreneurship is first and foremost requirement for the development ofany nation. And thus, the contributions of women entrepreneurs provides for nation building.
The paper examines issues related to women as an entrepreneur, the factors that help in theirsuccess and the measures taken by regulatory bodies and non-government organizations towardstheir betterment and growth.MethodologyThis paper is based on exploratory and descriptive research, and focuses on answering the followingquestions:1. What are the characteristics of women entrepreneurs in India?2. What are the push and pull factors faced by women entrepreneurs?3. What are the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs?4. What steps have been taken and should be taken to encourage the women empowerment and women entrepreneurship in India?What is an Entrepreneur?The term entrepreneurship is basically concerned with the change and innovation. The person whoinitiates and is ready to take the risk is an entrepreneur. Thus,―An entrepreneur is an individual who accepts financial risks and undertakes new financialventures. The word is derived from the French ― entre‖ (to enter) and ―prendre‖ (to take), and ingeneral sense applies to any person starting a new project or trying a new opportunity.The characteristics of an entrepreneur include spontaneous creativity, the ability and willingness tomake decisions in the absence of solid data, and a generally risk-taking personality.Women Entrepreneurs?Following the definition of entrepreneurship Women entrepreneur may be defined as the group ofwomen or single women running an enterprise or an organization in order to earn returns.Nowadays women are entering into the industries and are taking top-notch positions and replacingmen. Women are operating from in very sphere, whose area is spanning from small business likebeauty parlors, switching shops, boutiques, to big production houses producing goods or services.Characteristics which make a women entrepreneurAlthough entrepreneurship can be practiced by any gender, still few characteristics are important forwomen to propel her to reach heights unattainable by her counterparts. A woman from birth isinstilled with the caressing properties like nurturing, teaching, securing etc. which gives them anelevation in business decisions, only if properly utilized. The ability to multi-task is also helps her tolook into every matter and area.As a new-born requires attention and care, similarly a self-initiated unit requires her to becomeadministrative wizard, who would manage all odds to make ensure smooth working.So few qualities and features that women entrepreneur should possess are:-1. Self-confidence2. Achievement Oriented3. Risk Taker4. Passion5. Persistence6. Ability to deal with pain (work undeterred)7. Calculated risk-taking8. Strong family bonding9. Team LeadershipPush and Pull factors of Women Entrepreneurship
Pull factors are factors that induce women towards practicing entrepreneurship.Few of them are:1. Desire to do something.2. Need for independence.3. Availability of finance.4. Concessions and subsidies given by the govt.Push factors are the factors that compel women to undertake the role of initiator,they are:1. Unfortunate family circumstances (death of husband & or father).2. Financial difficulties.3. Responsibility towards family.4. Increased level of literacy and educationThe Need Of Women Entrepreneurs In India1) Easy access to finance/credit is the need of women entrepreneurs in India.2) Information about the external environment which affects the business.3) Training on business issues and related issues4) Better understanding and access to local and foreign markets.5) Care centres & nurseries for children and elders;6) Building confidence by changing mentality n building positive image.7) To bring about awareness at government and private level and create entrepreneurialopportunities and not just programs that stay on paper.Some of the top women entrepreneurs of India:1. Dr Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, Chairman & Managing Director of Biocon Ltd.-She founded Biocon India with a capital of Rs.10,000 in her garage. Her application for funds were turned down by banks just because women entrepreneurs were a rarity.2. Ekta Kapoor, creative head of Balaji Telefilms-She has been synonymous with the rage of soap operas in Indian TV.3. Neelam Dhawan, Managing Director, Microsoft India- leads Microsoft India. Then she was keen on joining FMCG majors like Hindustan Lever and Asian Paints, both companies rejected Dhawan, as they did not wish to appoint women for marketing and sales.4. Simone Tata, has been instrumental in changing a small subsidary of Tata Oil Mills into the largest cosmetic brand in India – LAKME, synonymous today with Indian Fashion.5. Indra Nooyi - Chief Executive, Pepsi Co.- She joined Pepsi Co. in 1994. She turned the company into a bold risk taker. In 1998, Pepsi acquired Tropicana. In 1997, Pepsi started its own fast food chain. In 2001, she became President of Pepsi Cola.The Constraints faced by Women while stepping out-1. The greatest problem is that they are the weaker section of the society.2. As women rarely have tangible property, they are unable to provide security for the external funds and thus suffer from insufficient financial resources.3. The role of family decides the success of Women as entrepreneur.4. Often women entrepreneurs lack in the marketing and sales side of business.5. As the society is male-dominated, women face tough competition.6. Lack of knowledge of different available sources and bargaining skills.7. The literacy rate of women in India is low compared to male population.8. Women are generally risk- averse which is due to low-level education, low-level self- confidence and self-reliance to the women folk to engage in business.The Role of Regulatory bodies and NGOs / SHGs
Indian Government was concerned for bringing women into the mainstream of economicdevelopment for which, 2001 was declared as the ―Year of Women Empowerment‖. Governemtsupports women entrepreneurs by providing support in the form of incentives and subsidies towomen initiated organisationsVarious Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) are working towards the upliftment andimprovement of women in rural and semi-urban areas for which initiatives have been taken toeducate and train fairer-sex regarding the business acumen.Few examples:1. Sanhita, an initiative of women activists in West Bengal, was born out of a need for information activism and networking among grassroots organizations working towards the empowerment of women. Sanhita aims to increase women‘s access to information.2. Akshara began informally in 1987 as result of the women‘s movement and its campaigns in Bombay. It started by producing low cost publications for women‘s organizations and activists.3. The major objective of Maitreyi is to develop a feminist perspective in understanding women‘s issues and the women‘s movement, and to sensitize everyone about women‘s issues.4. Center for Health Education, Training and Nutrition Awareness (CHETNA), mission is to contribute towards the empowerment of disadvantaged women and children to enable them to gain control over their own, their families‘ and their communities‘ health. Its trainings target supervisors, trainers, program managers and practitioners of NGOs and GOs.Self-Help GroupsThe role of SHGs is increasing remarkably as more and more poor women are enrolling themselvesas self-employed to alleviate poverty.The concept of Self Help Groups fulfills the idea of community participation and equitablydistributed, as sustainable community development requires the active participation of the entirecommunity. SHGs are voluntary and focuses on sharing knowledge experience to provide emotionaland financial support. It is usually led by its members.SHGs work towards inter-loaning and encouraging women to come collectively and work towards acommon goal. They are assisted with micro-capital to start with their Small Enterprises. Forexample, the Firsipur branch of the Bank of Maharashtra is financing more than 400 self-helpgroups in the district. The bank has set up its own in-house NGO to support these efforts.SEWA- Self Employed Women AssociationThe Self-employed Women‘s Association (SEWA) is a member-based Indian trade union, whosephilosophy is inspired by Mahatma Gandhi‘s principle of self-reliance. The organization is helpingempower women to achieve full employment, providing them with much-needed work, income, foodand social security.SEWA is a country-wide network of cooperatives, self-help groups (SHGs), banks and trainingcenters that help address the multiple constraints that women face. Together this support systemhelps to end exclusion, and foster social, economic and political empowerment.Since SEWA was founded in 1972, its membership has grown to include 1.3 million women. While 54percent of its members are small and marginal farmers based in rural areas, SEWA‘s members alsoinclude street vendors, construction workers, embroiderers, and textile workers.SEWA also helps women farmers build their own productive capacity. The SEWA Academy, SEWAManager‘s School, and ―life schools‖ conduct workshops that improve literacy and leadership skills.Given the movement‘s success, SEWA has expanded to other South Asian countries, includingBangladesh, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. SEWA‘s work offers a model for the world. As itsmembership grows and it expands its reach, this grassroots movement is empowering women to takethe lead in combating hunger and poverty.Steps Need To Be Initiated For Women Entrepreneurial DevelopmentIn India
1. Proper planning, execution and training, is required at all levels2. Promoting policies, laws and overall regulatory environment in such a way that women entrepreneurs see the advantages of and benefits that come with compliance.3. Taking into account those factors that act as barriers to expansion and growth of women entrepreneurs.4. Providing knowledge on recent technology like computers, internet, mobile so as to minimize the administrative burdens on women entrepreneurs5. Arranging interactive sessions for women with the entrepreneur‘s association and financial institutions, etc.6. Encouraging women entrepreneurs by rewarding.7. Conducting women development programs to encourage entrepreneurship.8. Ensuring synergies between (a) women related ministry (b) economic ministry (c) welfare & social development ministry in the government.ConclusionIf women are provided relevant education, work experience, improved economic conditions andfinancial opportunities they can achieve new heights. This will not only affect the economy of ourcountry but will also change the status of women in the society. As the 21 st century is progressingand blooming, this century will be taken century of the entrepreneur in general and of the WomenEntrepreneur in particular. Women entrepreneurship can bring about women empowerment whichwould provide social upliftment. Thus, social entrepreneurship will eliminate the ignorance andpoverty.References:http://www.articlesbase.com/entrepreneurship-articles/women-entrepreneurship-in-india-909659.htmlhttp://www.ghallabhansali.com/admin/file/Women%20Entrepreneurs.pdfhttp://ssmrae.com/admin/images/551ea2ac7e7ef2e570798fb5bbbee9b5.pdfhttp://ezinearticles.com/?An-Insight-Into-the-Emergence-of-Women-Owned-Businesses-As-an-Economic-Force-in-India&id=1797236http://www.ifad.org/evaluation/public_html/eksyst/doc/insight/pi/india-13.htmhttp://blogs.worldwatch.org/nourishingtheplanet/sewa-a-movement-to-transform-women%E2%80%99s-lives-in-india-and-beyond/www.wikipedia.orgwww.answers.comShod Samiksha Aur Mulyankan- International Referred Research Journal ISSN-0974-2832 VOL. I *ISSUE—17 RNI : RAJBIL/2009/29954 ―Push And Pull Factors Influencing Women EntrepreneursParul Arora1, Ashish Gaba2AbstractIndian women are considered as shakti, which means a source of power. In today‟s world of globalization, entrepreneurshipdevelopment for women is the topic which is taken a new flash, in today‟s era. The role of Entrepreneurship in the global
economy has received additional attention in recent years and women‟s are choosing Entrepreneurship profession as achallenge, as an adventure with an urge to do something new and independent and to fulfill the need of family. Womenentrepreneurs engaged in business due to push and pull factors which encourage women to have an independent occupationwhich helps to achieve their self identity. Various Pull and Push factors which are influencing women entrepreneurs go hand inhand. Pull factors are encouraging factors like desire to do something, need for independence, availability of finance,concessions given by the government and on the other hand there are Push factors which are compelling factors like unfortunatefamily circumstances, financial difficulties and responsibility towards family.Keywords: Women Entrepreneurs, Pull Factors, Push Factors, Entrepreneurship Development.1. Lecturer, Future Institute of Management & Technology, Bareilly.2. Lecture, Future Institute of Management & Technology, Bareilly.ObjectiveMost of the studies on entrepreneurship are based on male characteristics and are focused on actionsthat belong to male-gendered area. Only a small number of studies look closely at the femalecharacteristics of entrepreneurship and their typical actions. It is thus a prerequisite to make preciseconceptualizations of female entrepreneurship and various factors that motive women entrepreneursto initialize a business and compete with the male entrepreneurs. This research is a preliminaryinvestigation in which we identified certain motives for starting business amongst womenentrepreneurs which are Independence, Flexibility, Achievement, Money, Opportunity, Escape,Family Support and Recognition from other. These motives can be broadly classified into push andpull elements where statistics show that pull motives attract women entrepreneurs more than thepush motives for starting business.IntroductionIn today‘s world of globalization, entrepreneurship development for women is the topic which istaken a new flash, in today‘s era. The role of Entrepreneurship in the global economy has receivedadditional attention in recent years and women‘s are choosing Entrepreneurship profession as achallenge, as an adventure with an urge to do something new and independent and to fulfill the needof family. Government of India has defined women entrepreneurs as an enterprise owned andcontrolled by a women having a minimum financial interest of 51% of the capital and giving at least51% of employment generated in the enterprise to women. Like a male entrepreneurs a womenentrepreneur has many functions. They should explore the prospects of starting new enterprise;undertake risks, introduction of new innovations, coordination administration and control ofbusiness and providing effective leadership in all aspects of business.Factors Influencing Women To Become EntrepreneursThe factors to motivate women to become entrepreneurs are quite diverse, depending on personalcharacteristics, locations, etc. This comes down to satisfaction level, motivation, opportunities, skillsand practicalities and there are various other factors. These factors can be broadly classified as pullfactors and push factors which are:Pull FactorsThe pull factor is generally described as a positive factor for entrepreneurship. The opportunities arewidely open to the persons under this factor, specially the potential entrepreneurs. There isattractiveness on the options provided. Though this factor equally comes up for men and women, it isworth mentioning that 80 per cent of the women entrepreneurs are the ones to grab this opportunity.The pull factor is more of an internal force, rather than forced, you feel more ―led‖ to proceed.Common pull factors into small business: