Ch14 fish and shelfish


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Ch14 fish and shelfish

  1. 1. Chapter 7Understanding Fish and Shellfish Copyright © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Understanding Fish and ShellfishFish products are divided into two categories:• Fin fish, or fish with fins and internal skeletons.• Shellfish, or fish with external shells but no internal bone structure. 2
  3. 3. Composition and StructureThe edible flesh of fish consists of:• Water• Proteins• Fats• Small amounts of minerals, vitamins, and other substances 3
  4. 4. Composition and StructureFish has very little connective tissue.• This means that: • Fish cooks very quickly. • Fish is naturally tender. • Moist-heat cooking methods are used not to create tenderness but to preserve moistness. • Cooked fish must be handled very carefully or it will fall apart. 4
  5. 5. Special Problems in Cooking Fish Cooking Fat Fish and Lean FishThe fat content of fish ranges from 0.5% to 20%.• Lean fish are those that are low in fat.• Fat fish are those that are high in fat. 5
  6. 6. Cutting Fish Market FormsWhole or round: completely Drawn: viscera removed. intact, as caught. 6
  7. 7. Cutting Fish Market FormsDressed: viscera, scales, Steaks: cross-section slices, head, tail and fins each containing a section of removed. backbone. 7
  8. 8. Cutting Fish Market FormsFillets: boneless sides of Sticks or tranches: cross- fish, with skin on or off. section slices of fillets. 8
  9. 9. Cutting Fish Market FormsButterflied Fillets: both sides of a fish still joined. 9
  10. 10. Cutting Fish Dressing a FishScale the Fish. Cut off the tail and fins. Slit the belly and pull Scissors are easiest to out the viscera. Rinse use. the cavity. 10
  11. 11. Cutting Fish Dressing a FishRemove the head. Cut through The fish is dressed.the flesh just behind gills. Cutor break the backbone at thecut and pull off the head. 11
  12. 12. Cutting Fish Filleting a FlatfishUse a thin-bladed, flexible Make a cut from head to tail,knife. Cut off the head just just to one side of the centerbehind the gills (this step is line down to the backbone.optional). 12
  13. 13. Cutting Fish Filleting a FlatfishTurn the knife so it is almost Remove the fillet completely.parallel to the table. Makinglong, smooth cuts, cuthorizontally against thebackbone toward the outer edgeof the fish. Gently separate thefillet from the bone. 13
  14. 14. Cutting Fish Filleting a Round FishCut into the top of the fish Cut under the flesh towardalong one side of the tail; the tail and detach the cutdetach the backbone from piece.head to tail. 14
  15. 15. Cutting Fish Filleting a Round FishCut along the curved rib bones and finish detaching the filletat the head. Turn the fish over and repeat to remove thesecond fillet. 15
  16. 16. Handling and Storage Checklist for Fish FreshnessOverall appearance• Good appearanceClear slime• Moist and pliable finsOdor• Fresh and mild with no off-odorsEyes• Clear, shiny and bulging 16
  17. 17. Handling and Storage Checklist for Fish FreshnessGills• Red or pinkTexture of flesh• Firm; elasticScales• Shiny; tight on skinBelly cavity• No belly burn; natural-colored flesh, pink or red along backbone 17
  18. 18. Handling and Storage Storing Fresh FishObjectives2. To maintain temperature of 29° to 32°F (–2° to 0°C).3. To keep the fish moist.4. To prevent fish odors and flavors from transferring to other foods.5. To protect the delicate flesh from being bruised or crushed. 18
  19. 19. Handling and Storage Storing Fresh FishMethods• On crushed ice (preferred method): • Use drip pans to allow for drainage of melted ice. • Change ice daily.• In refrigerated box at 29° to 32°F (–2° to 0°C): • Use if crushed ice storage is not available or practical. • Wrap all fish or leave in original moisture proof wrap. 19
  20. 20. Handling and Storage Storing Fresh FishStorage Time• Fresh fish may be stored for 1 or 2 days. If it must be kept longer, you may: 1. Wrap and freeze it immediately. 2. Cook and then refrigerate it for later use in recipes calling for cooked fish. 20
  21. 21. Handling and Storage Frozen, Canned, and Other Processed FishFederal InspectionIn the United States, voluntary inspections are conducted by:3. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).4. The Department of Commerce. • Promotes the safety of processed fish and shellfish. 21
  22. 22. Handling and Storage Frozen, Canned, and Other Processed FishFederal Inspection (cont’d)3. Processors who wish to take part in the programs must pay for the service.4. They may then use official seals or marks on their product packaging and in advertising. • PUFI seal (Processed Under Federal Inspection) • U.S. Grade A shield 22
  23. 23. Handling and Storage Frozen, Canned and Other Processed FishThawing and Handling• Frozen raw fish • Thaw in refrigerator. • Small pieces can be cooked from a frozen state. • Fillets, or other portions to be breaded or prepared in some other way before cooking, may be partially thawed. • Handle thawed fish as you would fresh fish. • Do not refreeze. 23
  24. 24. Shellfish ClassificationThere are two classifications of shellfish:2. Mollusks: Soft sea animals that fall into three main categories: • Bivalves, which have a pair of hinged shells (such as clams and oysters). • Univalves, which have a single shell (such as abalone and conch). • Cephalopods (such as octopus, squid and cuttlefish).3. Crustaceans: Animals with segmented shells and jointed legs. 24
  25. 25. Shellfish MollusksOysters MusselsClams Scallops 25
  26. 26. ShellfishCephalapods Squid • Usually referred to on menus by their Italian name, calamari. Octopus • The name means “eight feet.” 26
  27. 27. Shellfish CrustaceansLobster Shrimp Crab 27