Hrm 106 facilities and equipments


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Hrm 106 facilities and equipments

  1. 1. HRM 106 Facilities and Equipment Food Service Equipments
  2. 2. RANGES PICTURES Convection oven base Griddle on top Electrical coil units on top
  3. 3. Foodservice Equipments Pictures <ul><li>OVEN PICTURES </li></ul>All purpose oven Peel Oven Draw plate oven Deck Oven Convection Combo Steamer-Oven
  4. 4. STEAM COOKING EQUIPMENTS Steam-jacketed kettle Convection Steamer
  5. 5. MIXERS Hand Category Counter category Bench Category Floor Category
  6. 6. AGITATORS Wire Whisk Wire Whip attachment Dough Arm agitator Pastry Knife Flat Beater Wing Whip
  7. 7. CUTTERS <ul><li>Food Cutters </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Cutter and Mixer </li></ul>
  8. 8. SLICERS and Processor
  9. 9. Others <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peeler </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Meat processing equipment Meat Saw Grinder Meat Blender Tenderizer
  10. 10. GALLEY UNITS <ul><li>Microwave Oven Convection Oven </li></ul>Charboilers Deep-fat fryers Pressureless Convection Steamer Steam-Jacketed Kettle
  11. 11. GALLEY UNITS Deck Oven Combination Convection Oven/Steamer Pressure Fryer Tilting-Frying Pan
  12. 12. GALLEY EQUIPMENTS Coffee Maker Water Boilers Hot and Cold Jugs Beverage Tray Tray Carriers Carts/ Trolleys
  13. 13. Cooking Equipment <ul><li>The cooking and baking subsystem is the focal point of the food production system. The receiving, storage, preparation, and cleanup subsystems must adequately support the cooking and baking subsystem; therefore, equipment selected for these support subsystems must be designed with the needs of the cooking and baking subsystem in mind. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ovens <ul><li>Ovens in food services may be as large as several hundred square feet and able to cook food for thousands of portions at one time, or they may be as small as 2 ft² and able to cook only a few portions at a time. There are 6 different types of ovens: conventional, mechanical, convection, combo, microwave, and reconstituting. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Kinds of ovens <ul><li>CONVENTIONAL OVENS </li></ul><ul><li>A typical conventional oven is heated by a lower heat source-and perhaps an overhead source as well-in an enclosed chamber. Transfer of heat occurs both by convection (of hot air moving in the chamber) and by conduction (when pans or other equipment in it come into contact with hot surfaces). Variations on the conventional oven include the peel oven (for baking extra-crusty breads), the drawplate oven, and the deck oven. The deck oven is the most common of these. It consists of a stack of ovens built in decks or tiers, one on top of another. Small ovens situated under range tops may be the only ones used in small operations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Kinds of ovens <ul><li>MECHANICAL OVEN </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanical oven evolved from the conventional one. It has a mechanically moving interior that shifts the foods around to different parts of the oven. One variety is the revolving tray or reel oven, which has trays that rotate in a circle around the oven interior. Another variety uses a moving or traveling tray, which passes through a long oven; different temperature ranges are possible within the long are traveled. The shelving on which foods are placed is power-driven and constantly moving. This arrangement offers several advantages: an even distribution of heat; lower costs (because of better heat distribution and more products baked per unit of heat used); and better baking results in terms of volume, color, and texture. Waiting time, temperature recovery time, and goods-shifting time are all said to be lower when these ovens are used-thus reducing costs. Many operations, however, do not have the volume to support these large ovens. The revolving-tray oven holds up to twelve standard-sized pans (18 in. x 26 in.) and the traveling tray ovens hold twenty-four such pans or more. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Kinds of oven <ul><li>CONVECTION OVENS </li></ul><ul><li>Many conventional ovens have stagnant heat areas where heat does not move. If heat is moved around by forced convection, cooking is more rapid, less heat is needed, and more food can be put into the oven. The convention oven-a conventional oven in which the heat is moved by a fan-allows these results to be achieved. Because of the movement of heat, the convection oven bakes or roasts at 50ºF (10ºC) lower, with a 25 to 30 percent reduction in cooking time. The amount of food that can be cooked per cubic foot of space is also increased. </li></ul><ul><li>COMBO-OVENS </li></ul><ul><li>The combo-oven get its name because it cooks both with dry heat and with steam heat, making it possible to have it act as a dry heat oven, an oven that has enough steam to bake hard-crusted breads, or to act as a steamer. It also can act as a cook-and-hold unit. It produces a large quantity of food for the space it takes, is energy efficient, and can reduce food shrinkage in baking because moisture can be introduced. Cooking times are also said to be somewhat shorter. Some facilities also use them as thawing ovens. Because they use solid-state heat control temperatures can be held to within narrow limits (±2ºF for electricity, ±4ºF for gas). Fans circulate heat, which gives them the same advantage that convection ovens have. They use either gas or electricity, as specified when ordering. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Kinds of Oven <ul><li>MICROWAVE OVENS </li></ul><ul><li>Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic energy intermediate in frequency and wavelength between radio and infrared waves. When microwaves penetrate food, molecular activity or movement takes place within the food, creating friction that heats the food internally. Metallic materials reflect microwaves and should not be used, as they can reflect microwaves back to the microwave tube and destroy it. Microwaves pass through glass and nonmetallic materials, so these materials are used to hold foods being cooked in a microwave oven. </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave cooking has not replaced conventional cooking in foodservice operations because they do not allow production of large volumes of food, and because they produce undesirable cooking reactions in some foods. The speed of cooking is often so fast that foods do not respond to heat as they do in other forms of cooking. When it is appropriately used, the unit can bring food from a refrigerated or frozen state to a servable hot state in a few minutes, thus allowing operations to prepare foods on order. The unit also has flexibility. With the proper adjustment of energy input, foods can be thawed, warmed, heated, cooked, or baked in a matter of a few seconds or minutes. It is especially useful in reconditioning or cooking small units, such as individually quick-frozen foods (foods in individual portions that are rapidly frozen at extremely low temperatures). When properly integrated into the food-production and food-service plan, it can do much to reduce costs and produce foods of high quality. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Kinds of Oven <ul><li>RECONSTITUTING OVENS </li></ul><ul><li>Since many frozen foods are used today in foodservices, there is a major need for a unit that can quickly defrost them without damaging their quality. The reconstituting oven can bring -10ºF (-23ºF) items to a serving temperature in less than 30 minutes. Some units combine cycles of heat and refrigeration, which reduces drying on the edges while gently thawing the center. Other units use infrared waves and may reach temperatures as high as 850ºF (454ºF) to bring foods from thawing to serving temperatures. Such energy is called radiation because the heat is transferred by infrared waves. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ranges <ul><li>The range, a combination of an oven and top-cooking units, was invented by the Chinese more than 5000 years ago. Modern ranges, heated either by gas or by electricity, are common in today’s foodservices. The arrangement of top units may be open, closed, or some combination of the two. The menu of the operation dictates whether a heavyweight, medium weight, or lightweight model is necessary. The selling price of the range should not be the deciding factor in determining which type of equipment to purchase. Many operations select light equipment because of its lower price, only to find that these units are not suited to the type of production needed. Instead it should be selected on the basis of its capacity, versatility, consistency of temperature, cleanability, serviceability, and dependability. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Griddles <ul><li>Food services use either gas or electric griddles. They can come incorporated as part of a range, or they may stand alone on a platform. Food is cooked on the griddle surface in a small amount of fat, much as it would be cooked in a fry or sauté pan. Griddles are used to prepare large quantities of fried products quickly and with a minimum of labor. Splash guards contain grease on the griddles surface; they should be of appropriate height, and the grease troughs must be wide and deep enough to capture excess fat and debris. Griddles can be nicked or scratched, which causes food to stick on the cooking surface. Consequently, care should be taken when using metal utensils, and pots or pans should never be placed on the griddle. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Broilers <ul><li>Broilers use radiated heat energy to cook. This is the same kind of energy with which the sun heats the earth. Short energy waves, closely associated with light, result from white heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Most broilers broil from heat that comes from above, but bottom or side broilers are also found. Heating from the top allows fat to drip down into collectors without flaming. The under heat broiler does not have this advantage, but it often yields a better charred product-one that also shows the markings from the broiler. Side broilers are good because the product can baste itself while broiling. Whatever broiler is used, the flames from it must not be allowed to burn fat. This could cause the formation of carcinogenic substances that could get onto food. Broilers should be kept very clean since greasy ones can catch fire. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Steam-cooking equipment <ul><li>Steam-cooking equipment increases efficiency in many kitchens by reducing cooking time and decreasing the amount of work required to produce certain items. Steam imparts heat rapidly and economical to use. Because it does not burn food, steam-cooking eliminates food scorching and the need for extensive pot-and-pan cleanup. Steam equipment maybe self-contained. Manufacturing its own steam or it may receive steam from a central broiler. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Steam cookers <ul><li>Some units bring steam into a chamber where it comes directly into contact with food. The steam vapor circulates in the chamber under pressure, in sufficient volume for good heat distribution. Low-compression compartmented units operating at 5 to 7 psi (pounds per square inch) are used for high volume production. Some hold up to six 12 in. x 20 in. pans in each compartment. One-, two-, three- compartment models are available. High compression, compartmented units operating at 15 to 17 psi use smaller pans but cook much more rapidly. Small quantities can be cooked very quickly, resulting in high-quality, freshly cooked product. One-compartment models are available as countertop units. </li></ul><ul><li>A convection steamer forces steam to circulate in a compartment under normal pressure. The circulating steam disrupts a vapor barrier that is created around the cooking food, thereby decreasing cooking time. Since pressure does not build up, the door of the compartment can be opened at any time. Single-compartment capacity for a convection steamer is three 12 in. x 20 in. x 2.5 in. pans. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Steam cookers <ul><li>Steamers work well for many types of foods, with the exception of cakes and pastries. They can be of great use in defrosting frozen goods; covering the food prevents condensing steam from mixing with the product. After defrosting, the food can then undergo normal preparation. If possible, cooking different-flavored foods together should be avoided. Steam transfers flavors between foods, sometimes producing an undesirable combination of tastes. Perforated pans can be use to aid the circulation of steam, again shortening cooking times. The size of steamer to purchase depends on the maximum number of portions to be served and the portion size required per batch. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Steam-Jacketed Kettles <ul><li>The Steam-Jacketed Kettle works much as a double boiler does. Steam is generated and surrounds food contained in separate compartment. But whereas the steam in the double boiler is not under pressure, the steam in the steam-jacketed kettle is, resulting in higher temperatures. Because the contact surface of the kettle is not at a high heat and because the heat is evenly distributed, food does not scorch easily. Nonetheless, browning meat and performing certain similar processes are possible in these kettles. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Fryers <ul><li>Deep-fat fryers are used to cook food in a bath of hot fat, producing a nicely browned, crisp outer coating with a nutty flavor and a completely cooked, moist interior. In the conventional fryer, fat is used to conduct heat from a gas-fired or electrical heat source to the food. The pressure fryer also cooks in deep fat, trapping moisture from food to generate steam, which increases pressure inside the fryer and reduces cooking times. This has proved especially successful for producing tender moist fried chicken. Both regular and pressure fryers may have automatic, semiautomatic, or hand-operated features. Temperature control is essential, so a precise thermostat should be specified. Temperature recovery must be fast and accurate. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Tilting pans and Skillets <ul><li>One of the most versatile pieces of equipment in the kitchen is the tilting pan or skillet. It can do the jobs oa a range top, griddle, snall kettle, stock pot, fry pan and skillet. The tilting pan comes in various sizes. A large, heavy duty pan has a depth of about 8 – 9 in. it can tilt up to 90 degrees on a horizontal axis. Stewing, simmering, frying, searing, braising, sautéing, boiling, defrosting, and roasting can be done in one. A great dea; of heavy lifting and transferring of foods from one pan to another can be eliminated by this unit. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cook-Chill Equipment <ul><li>The foodservice system is one of the few businesses that still operates under the old guild system; it produces, sells and services its product under one roof. The functions are not separated. This cannot be avoided. However, a partial breakthrough has been made with the introduction of value-added foods. Another partial method has been the introduction of cook-chill system, where foods are mass-produced in individual unit, stored, and partial lots are later taken out for service. Schools, hospitals, correctional facilities, supermarkets, restaurants, hotels and many other institutions now use this cook-chill method, maintaining consistent and satisfactory food quality while reducing food, energy, and labor costs. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Small Tools for Cooking Area <ul><li>Knives, tools, utensils, pots, pans and other small equipment are required in the cooking area as well as in other sections. These items must be selected carefully for durability, suitability for the job to be performed, and cost. Good steel is essential in many cutting tools so that they hold a good edge and wear well. Well designed handles and utensils tools help relieve hand fatigue and increases efficiency. Working parts should be firmly fastened to grasps handle. Weight must be considered in selecting pots and pans. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mixers, Cutters, Slicers, Choppers <ul><li>Food Mixers </li></ul><ul><li>Mixers may vary from 5 to many quarts. Mashed potatoes, doughs, cake batters, whipped cream, icings; meringues, mayonnaise and other products are prepared in them. Various agitators and attachments are available to speed the preparation of virtually every food item placed in the mixer. Horizontal mixers with interior rotating paddles are used for large quantity production of such items like breads and cookies. Small units usually do not need them. Many mixers can handle various additional tasks, too. Attachments can be added to perform slicing, grating, grinding, or sausage extrusion. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Mixers, Cutters, Slicers, Choppers <ul><li>Food Cutters </li></ul><ul><li>One type of food cutter, known as the Buffalo chopper, consists of a rotating bowl that moves food into a path of spinning blade. As the food passes repeatedly through the blades, it is chopped into progressively smaller pieces. The longer the machine is allowed to run, the smaller the particles become. Cutters main function is to the preparation of many items, such as chopped onions and cabbage, cheese for toppings, and meat trimmings for croquettes. Attachments are available for cutting, slicing, grating, shredding, and similar operations. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Mixers, Cutters, Slicers, Choppers <ul><li>The vertical cutter and mixer known as the VCM, chops, cuts, mixes, blends, emulsifies, purees, and homogenizes food in a matter of seconds. It works as much as a home blender does. The chopping is done by two blades in a deep bowl. A baffle extending from the bowl’s lid is used for mixing and ensures that items are properly mixed and uniformly cut. The VCM prepares salads and Cole slaws, emulsifies salad dressings, and mixes batters and dough, blends meats, chops cheeses and cut bread crumbs. The operation may be completed in a short time as it takes to switch the machine on and then off again. It has a few movable parts and is easy to clean. The machine is easily and quickly clean just by adding water and a cleaning solution to the bowl, flicking the switch on momentarily, draining the wash solution and rinsing with a hose. The VCM tilts to facilitate emptying of the bowl. It is available in various sizes. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Mixers, Cutters, Slicers, Choppers <ul><li>Food Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to the VCM, but considerably smaller and more versatile is the food processor. It consists of a bowl sitting on a small, powerful motor. The motor has the ability to drive any of a number of attachments at very high speed. With the blade attachment, objects can be pureed in a matter of seconds. Grating and slicing attachments are available as well. Batches to be processed can be as small as one cup and as large as one gallon. The food processor’s small size makes it highly portable, and its ability to perform a variety of jobs has continued to its popularity in many of today’s operation. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Mixers, Cutters, Slicers, Choppers <ul><li>Food Slicer </li></ul><ul><li>The slicer is basically a circular knife on which items such as cheese, boneless meats, luncheon meats, vegetables and breads can be sliced. A uniform, clean, straight slice of almost any reasonably firm product is possible with this piece of equipment. The item to be sliced glides back and forth on a carriage feeding into the knife. By adjusting the distance between the plate on which the product rests and the knife itself, the operator can adjust the thickness of the slice as desired. Slicers are available in different sizes, depending on the size of the blade. This machine should be obtained in the smallest size that can accommodate the largest item that must be sliced at food service. Safety features should include guards around the blade and few removable parts, all of which can be disassembled easily for thorough cleaning. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Vegetable Peeler <ul><li>The vegetable peeler is used when a quantity of vegetables or hard items must be peeled. Hard root vegetables such as turnips, carrots and potatoes are rapidly peeled by an abrasive, lightweight disk that spins around, removing the skins. Water flowing into the chambers removes wastes as it accumulates. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Moving Equipment <ul><li>Dollies, trucks, and other mobile equipment may be needed to move goods. The type selected depends on the kinds and amount of items to be moved. In large operations, an electric or gasoline-driven truck may be used to move things; it may be equipped with an elevator to load or unload items from stacks. Pallet storage is popular in large operations. The shelving used for storage should be suited to the receiving equipment used. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Receiving Equipment <ul><li>Before any food is received, it should be checked for quality and quantity (count or weight or both). It is then moved to storage or to the using area. (In the case of the former, it is included in the inventory; if the latter, it is considered a direct charge to food cost for the day unless the kitchen does not use it that day and a kitchen inventory is kept.) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Scales <ul><li>Scales must give accurate weights down to ounces or ounce fractions. A small scale may be used for the latter purpose, with a scale large enough to weigh the heaviest items for pounds and ounces, although some large scales can now do both jobs, handling weighs of 1000 or more pounds. Many scales also allow an invoice to be stamped showing the time and date of receipt along with the weight. It is best to see that large scales are level with their platform so that items can be rolled onto them without lifting. Factors to watch for in selecting a scale are durability, compactness, convenient design, accuracy, and a finish that promotes easy cleaning and safe use. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Miscellaneous Receiving Equipment <ul><li>Computer, desk, chairs, and file cabinets are also needed for some receiving subsystems. The specific items needed depend on the particular nature of each facility. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Storage Areas <ul><li>Adequate storage capacity-both dry and cold- is necessary to protect food, ensure proper sanitation, and maintain high food standards. The storage area provided should be designed to receive and hold the specific food stored in it. Some foods are stored for longer periods of time than others. Fresh foods turn over faster than processed ones. Equipment used to move foods, shelving, and containers must be selected for the specific foods stored. Planning storage facilities prior to planning the menu usually leads to inadequate facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Both dry and cold storage should be located near the receiving dock and the preparation and cooking subsystems. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Refrigeration and Low-Temperature Equipment <ul><li>Refrigeration and low-temperature equipment exist to minimize the deterioration of stored foods and to reduce the likelihood of contamination. This equipment keeps food cool or frozen to preserve flavor, color, texture, and nutritional elements. Chilled food remain good much longer than foods held at temperatures, and frozen foods keep much longer still. During the past several decades, foodservices have found it necessary to increase the amount of low-temperature storage provided and to reduce slightly the refrigerated areas. Refrigerators hold foods at temperatures of from about 34 or 40F (1 to 5C), whereas low-temperature units hold foods at temperatures of from about 10 to -10F (-12 to -23C). units offering these temperatures come in a variety of types, including reach-in, roll-in, and walk-in models. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Refrigeration and Low-Temperature Equipment <ul><li>Four factors should be considered in comparing different refrigerated storage units: the ability of the unit to hold the relative humidity at 85 percent (to keep foods from drying out); the ability of the unit to control air distribution so that an even temperature is maintained throughout the unit, regardless of loading pattern; precise temperature control within a range necessary to protect the food and hold its quality; and compliance with the design requirements of the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF), including lack of seams, easily cleaned surfaces, and removable parts in interiors to help in cleaning. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Shelving and Containers <ul><li>Shelving and storage containers are important elements in a good storage system. Properly sized adjustable shelving can increase storage space, and easy shelf removal is of primary importance in facilitating good sanitation. Considerations to bear in mind when selecting shelving or mobile storage equipment (such as carts, dollies, and roll-in racks) include suitability to need, strength, sanitation, safety, size, number needed, and cost. These factors are also applicable to the selection of storage containers; shape and capacity are additional factors to consider in choosing containers. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Preparation Equipment <ul><li>Tasks such as vegetable and fruit cleaning and cutting, salad preparation, and meat cutting or trimming can be performed speedily and efficiently when the right equipment is properly used in the preparation area. Since the extent to which preparation or fabrication of food takes place on the premises depends on the basic menu pattern, most operations using conventional foods allocate considerably more equipment and space to preparation than do those using convenience foods. If conventional foods are used, efficient and effective food preparation must be achieved through proper equipment selection, location, and use. </li></ul>
  46. 46. SCALES <ul><li>Scales may be a necessary part of the preparation subsystem. Weighing food as it is removed from raw storage (especially in ingredient rooms) is most important. Good accounting records cannot be maintained unless this is done. Portion scales, Flat-counter dial scales, and even large scales onto which items are rolled may be used. Accuracy is an important factor in selection as well as ease of use and cleaning. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Galley Units <ul><li>Microwave </li></ul><ul><li>Microwaves have a very short length and are generated by an electromagnetic tube. In use, microwaves penetrate partway into food and agitate water molecules. The friction resulting from this agitation creates heat, which in turn cooks the product. Microwave cooking is not a predominant method in foodservice operations, but microwave ovens are widely used for heating prepared foods for service operations. It is often used in the hospital galleys and vending operations. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Steam Equipment <ul><li>STEAM-JACKETED KETTLE </li></ul><ul><li>The jacket creates the space surrounding the kettle through which steam is introduced to provide the necessary heat. Most kettles today make their own steam and are identified as self-contained. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Steam Equipment <ul><li>COMBINATION CONVECTION OVEN/STEAMER </li></ul><ul><li>This is referred to as the “combo” or “combi”, directs the flow of both convected air and steam through the oven cavity to produce a super-heated, moist internal atmosphere. Combo ovens are considered a revolution in cooking. Foodservice design consultants predict that it will replace most ovens and steamers€ in the foodservice operation in the future. Four cooking methods are combined in one unit: convection, steam, convection plus continuous steam and convection plus cycled steam. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Steam Equipment <ul><li>PRESSURELESS CONVECTION STEAMER </li></ul><ul><li>It has a fan which directs the steam flow throughout the steamer cavity, encircling the food. This eliminates the need for steam pressure to cook the food and is well accepted by cooks because the steamer door can be opened at any time without fearing a gust of steam. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Cooking Equipment <ul><li>TILTING FRY PAN </li></ul><ul><li>Braising may be done on the range or in the oven, although today a covered tilting fry pan or braising pan is frequently used in most of the foodservice operation. </li></ul><ul><li>DECK OVEN </li></ul><ul><li>It has traditionally been standby of hot-air ovens in the foodservice operations, so named because the pans are placed directly on the metal decks. Cooking chambers vary in size, depending on their function, either roasting or baking. Deck ovens may be stacked on each other, up to three sections high, and frequently are identified as stack or sectional ovens. Most deck or stack ovens have a separate heat source under each cooking chamber. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Cooking Equipment <ul><li>CONVECTION OVEN </li></ul><ul><li>It has a fan on the back wall that creates currents of air within the cooking chamber. This process eliminates hot and cold air zones, thereby accelerating the rate of heat transfer. The standard convection oven is the square cabinet type that holds between 6 and 11 full-size baking pans and can be double-stacked to conserve floor space. </li></ul><ul><li>CHARBROILERS </li></ul><ul><li>It uses gas or electricity, with a bed of ceramic briquettes above the heat source and below the grid. Because the heat source in charbroiling is from below, it technically is a grilling and not a broiling method. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Cooking Equipment <ul><li>DEEP FAT FRYERS </li></ul><ul><li>It can monitor the cooking cycle and can control the cooking temperatures of the foods to be fry. Two of the most important developments in frying technology are precise thermostatic control and fast recovery of fat temperature, permitting foodservice operations to produce consistent quality fried food rapidly. The improvements for deep fat fryers have centered on fat filtration and automatic controls. </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURE FRYER </li></ul><ul><li>A pressure fryer can be described as a fryer with an airtight lid that fastens securely over the kettle before frying. The fryer develops steam from moisture escaping the food. The pressurized steam creates equilibrium of pressures between the steam within the food and the fat on the outside, thus minimizing moisture loss. Pressurized fryers are commonly used in restaurants specializing in fried chicken. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Galley Equipment <ul><li>Coffee makers </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee makers are just that-drip coffee makers that brew coffee one pot a time. They differ from coffee makers that might be found in other foodservice operations in that they have self-contained boilers which heat the water drawn from the aircraft’s water system. </li></ul><ul><li>Water Boilers </li></ul><ul><li>Water boilers are similar to coffee makers. Water boilers heat water to the boiling point for brewing tea or coffee. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Galley Equipment <ul><li>Hot and Cold Jugs </li></ul><ul><li>Hot and cold jugs are the modern thermos jugs of the early in-flight foodservice. They are insulated containers that will hold cold beverages cold and hot beverages hot for a limited time only. These jugs have a capacity of two gallons. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulated Trays </li></ul><ul><li>Insulated Trays have compartments made to hold several dishes of hot and cold items required for the meal. </li></ul><ul><li>CARTS/ TROLLEYS </li></ul><ul><li>Carts of all types make up the bulk of the boarding equipment. They are versatile pieces of equipment for both the airline and the in-flight caterer. Carts are used for boarding almost everything for the flight’s food and beverage services except that they are seldom used to transport the hot entrees for a meal. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Galley Equipment <ul><li>TRAY CARRIERS </li></ul><ul><li>Often there is insufficient capacity on the carts for all the passenger trays. Additional trays are boarded through the use of tray carriers which are also refrigerated by dry ice. </li></ul><ul><li>BEVERAGE TRAY </li></ul><ul><li>This one is used to carry beverages to avoid accidents and spillage of liquid. </li></ul>