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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of ...

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  • 1. Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.054-06054 | P a g eAn Innovative Strategy for Maintenance of Highway PavementSandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. AgarwalAsst.Prof. Department of Civil Engineering Sagar Institute Of Technology& Research, Mp IndiaProfessor,Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology Bhopal (Mp) IndiaAbstract :Highway pavement are deteriorating fastdue to lack of timely maintenance, leading tohigher vehicle operating costs, increasing numberof accidents etc. Thus, timely maintenance of thehighway pavement is essential. Because, oncepavements start to deteriorate; they deterioraterapidly beyond the point where maintenance iseffective. Thus, there is an urgent need todevelop a strategy for maintenance of pavementin a huge highway network. In this study, aninnovative strategy for maintenance of highwaypavement is proposed. A two stage maintenancestrategy is proposed. In stage I, it is proposed todetermine priority of highway sections. In StageII, priority of various maintenance activities to becarried out on various sections will bedetermined. Maintenance priority of thepavement is based on importance of the roadsections, present road conditions, and future roadconditions. The methodology proposed in thisstudy is illustrated with the help of example ofsome hypothetical highway network consisting of4 sections. Analysis results indicated that theproposed strategy is considered to be morerational, innovative & logical. Some strategies formaintenance of urban roads are also presented inthis study. Therefore, it is expected that this studywill be useful for maintenance of huge highwaynetwork in India and thus will be useful forpreserving huge asset of pavement infrastructure.Keywords - Highway Maintenance; MaintenanceStrategy; Maintenance Priority; Maintenance ofurban roads,I. INTRODUCTIONThe main objective of this study is todevelop a strategy to select the most appropriateactivities to be carried out at different pavementsections of a highway network considering theirpriority for maintenance. By providing appropriatemaintenance treatment at appropriate time, the rateof deterioration can be deferred to a great extent andthis will reduce the maintenance cost of roads. Iftimely maintenance is not provided, thereconstruction will become unavoidable. Thereforepavement maintenance is one of the most importantcomponents of the entire road system. There aredifferent type of distresses can occur on thepavement like cracks, rutting, potholes, shallowdepressions, hungry Surfaces etc. Photograph 1shows some of the important distresses generallyoccur on highway pavement in India. Pavementdeterioration causes for accidents on roads andwhich will increase the loss of life and properties.Once pavements starts to deteriorate; theydeteriorate rapidly beyond the pointwhere maintenance is effective. Thus, timelymaintenance of the highway pavement is essential.The maintenance process involves the assessment ofpresent conditions of road, judgment of the problemand adopting the most relevant maintenance.Photograph 1 Different Types of Distress onHighway PavementIn a road network it is so difficult to selectthe roads in a order of priority for their maintenance.Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a strategyfor maintenance of pavement in a huge highwaynetwork. Prioritization of maintenance activity maybe depends on several factors such as presentcondition of road i.e. quantity and quality ofdeterioration, increasing rate of deterioration,importance of the selected road, traffic load on theselected road etc. [Agarwal, 2006]. In this study, aninnovative strategy for maintenance of highwaypavement is proposed. A two stage maintenancestrategy is proposed. In stage I, it is proposed todetermine priority of highway sections. In Stage II,priority of various maintenance activities to becarried out on various sections will be determined.Maintenance priority of the pavement is based onimportance of the road sections, present roadconditions, and future road conditions. Themethodology proposed in this study is illustratedwith the help of example of some hypotheticalhighway network consisting of 4 sections. Analysisresults indicated that the proposed strategy isconsidered to be more rational, innovative & logical.Some strategies for maintenance of urban roads arealso presented in this study.The paper consists of five Section of whichthis is the first. The second section presents theproposed Strategy for pavement maintenance briefly.
  • 2. Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.054-06055 | P a g eTo illustrate the strategy and to illustrate how theproposed strategy works, detailed analysis werecarried out. Section 3 presents the analysis andresults obtained. Section 4 presents some strategiesfor maintenance of urban roads. The last sectionpresents the important conclusions drawn based onthis study. It is expected that this study will beuseful for maintenance of huge highway network inIndia and thus will be useful for preserving hugeasset of pavement infrastructure.II. STRATEGY FOR PAVEMENTMAINTENANCEThe main objective of this study is todevelop the Maintenance Strategy for pavement in aHighway Network. It is proposed to selectmaintenance activities to be carried out on differentpavement sections in two stages as follows:Stage I: Pavement Section Priority based on thebasis of the methodology proposed in this studyStage II Priority of activity based on the overallimportance of the section. Overall importance of thesection is determined on the basis of highway class,political importance of the section and importance ofthe section to community etc.Thus, the strategy proposesthat first sections which are more critical formaintenance needs to be selected. The strategyidentifies to select sections using minimal data.Further, strategy proposes that the sections identifiedin stage I needs to be evaluated n more details sothat the various maintenance activities to be carriedout on these sections can be prioritized. Thus, theproposed strategy will be more economical as detailsstudies needs not to be carried out on all sections.The strategy to determine priority for stage I andstage II are briefly explained in sub Section 2.1 andsub section 2.2 as follows. However, for moredetails literature [Choudhary, 2011] can be refereed.2.1 Strategy to determine maintenance priority ofPavement section (Stage-I)The Strategy to determine maintenancepriority of highway section suggests determiningpriority index of various sections (PIs) as follows:………Eq. 1.1 Where:-PIs = Priority Index of SectionPHCI = Present Highway Condition IndexFHCI = Future Highway Condition IndexOHII = Overall Highway Importance IndexNow, how to determine various terms required inequation 3.1 are explained as follows:Present Highway Condition Index:-Future Highway Condition Index:-Overall Highway Importance Index:-….Eq. 1.2Where:-OHII = Overall Highway Importance IndexHCI = Highway Class IndexICI = Importance of Community IndexIPI = Political Importance IndexHighway Class Index:-Importance of Community Index:-Political Importance Index:-Objective of Stage-I is to develop the MaintenanceStrategy for Highway Section.To illustrate the methodology and to illustrate howmethodology works, six Different Types of caseswere analyzed and details of analysis and resultsobtained are presented in [Choudhary, 2011]A Strategy to determine priority of MaintenanceActivities to be carried out on Different highwaysections (Stage-II)The Strategy to determine maintenance priority ofvarious activities to be carried out on highwaysection (PIas) is presented as follows:…Eq.1.3Where:-PIas = Priority Index of activity at that SectionPIas = Wac * Wscd * CIsd * Wd * PIsIPI = _____Political Importance at the section_____Maximum Political Importance at any sectionICI = ___Community Importance at that section_____Maximum Community Importance at any sectionHCI = _____Traffic at the section_____Maximum Traffic at any sectionOHII = 0.22HCI + 0.14 ICI +0.07 IPIPHCI = ____ Future Roughness at the section_____Maximum Future Roughness at any sectionPHCI = Present Roughness at the section .Maximum Present Roughness at any sectionPIs = 0.35 PHCI + 0.22 FHCI +0.43 OHII
  • 3. Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.054-06056 | P a g eWac = Weightage of activity in improving DistressconditionWscd = Weightage of Component C in ImprovingDistress Condition DEX: (Weightage of Distorted surface in improvingStructural Condition)CIsd = Condition Index of Distress D at a sectionSWd =Weightage of the Distress ConditionPIs = Priority Index of SectionNow, how to determine various terms required inequation 1.3 are explained as follows:PDCI consists of three indices are Present FracturedSurface Index (PFSI), Present Distorted SurfaceIndex (PDTSI), Present Disintegrated Surface Index(PDISI).Now the previous equation will be:-Where:-PFSI = Present Fractured Surface IndexFFSI = Future Fractured Surface IndexPDTSI = Present Distorted Surface indexFDTSI = Future Distorted Surface indexPDISI = Present Disintegration SurfaceindexFDISI = Future Disintegration SurfaceindexPSCI = Present structural condition indexFSCI = Future structural condition index2.3 Methodology for Prediction of future highwaycondition:-Prediction of future highway conditionbased on the pavement performance data collectedfrom existing pavement section. Model has beendeveloped to predict initiation and progression ofcracks, rutting, pothole, raveling and structuralcondition. Empirical model have developed topredict the growth of unevenness.Empirical modal for prediction of future highwaycondition are:-FFSI: - Cracking Progression ModalFDSI: - Roughness Progression ModalFDISI: - Pot holes Progression ModalFSCI: - Deflection Progression Modal(1).FFSI: Cracking progression modal: -Where:-CSALYR = Cumulative standard axle per year(millions) MSN = Modified structural numberMSN = 3.28 (DEF) -0.23ΔCRt = Percentage change in crack area overtime (t) in year (%)SCRi = Initial cracking area (%)T = Time interval (year)(2).FDSI: Roughness progression modal: -Where:-UIt = Roughness ProgressioniUI = Initial RoughnessNt = Cumulative standard axle per year(millions)DEF0 = Initial Deflection, in mmAge = Age of the pavement(3). FDISI: -RAVELLING PROGRESSIONMODAL:-Where:-RVt = Raveling at time t (%)AXLEYR = No. of Vehicle axle per year(million)SRVi = Initial Raveling (%(4).FSCI: DEFLECTION PROGRESSIONMODAL:-Where:-iDEF = Initial Deflection(mm)Dt = Corrected Characteristic rebound deflection(mm)at any time tNt = Cumulative standard axle per year(millions)Age = Age of the pavementiDEF Range(mm) Model Form0.44<iDEF<0.61 Dt=iDEF+0.07884[(Nt*Age)iDEF]0.66<iDEF<0.80 Dt=iDEF+0.002exp[(iDEF*Nt)iDEF]+0.859(Age)0.84<iDEF<1.05 Dt=IDEF +0.04513(expNt)0.45+0.0924(expAge)log iDEF1.01<iDEF<1.25 Dt=iDEF+0.03658[exp(iDEF*Nt]0.5+0.19864(Age)0.26RVt = 3.94 AXLEYR 0.32* SRVi0.46tiUIt = iUI [1 + 0.3012 (Nt * DEF0)0.08 AgeΔCRt = 4.26 [CSALYR] 0.56* SCRi0.32ti MSnPIas = [Wac Wsfs (PFSI) Wd PIs] + [Wac Wsfs(FFSI) Wd PIs] + [Wac Wsdts (PDTSI) WdPIs] + [Wac Wsdts (FDTSI) Wd PIs] + [WacWsdis (PDISI) Wd PIs] + [Wac Wsdis (FDISI)Wd PIs] + [Wac Wscd (PSCI) Wd PIs] + [WacWscd (FSCI) Wd PIs]
  • 4. Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.054-06057 | P a g eTo illustrate the methodology and to illustrate howmethodology works, five different types of caseswere analyzed and details of analysis and resultsobtained are presented in [Choudhary, 2011]III. Analysis and ResultsTo illustrate the methodology and toillustrate how the proposed methodology works,detailed analysis were carried out. As explainedearlier, the strategy consists of the following twostages:Stage –I: Strategy to determine maintenancepriority of highway sectionStage II: Strategy to determine priority ofMaintenance Activities to be carried out on Differenthighway sectionsThis section presents the analysis and results forthese two stages. Section 3.1 presents the analysisand results for stage-I and section 3.2 presents theanalysis and results for stage-II3.1 Analysis & Results for Stage-I- Strategy toDetermine Maintenance Priority of HighwaySectionsAs discussed in Section 2, stage–I determines themaintenance priority of highway section. Toillustrate the methodology and to illustrate how theproposed methodology for stage –I works, detailedanalysis were carried out. Six different cases wereanalyzed. A hypothetical network consists of 4highway sections were assumed. Details of differentcases considered, input data and analysis results foreach case is presented elsewhere [Choudhary, 2011].However, analysis & results of a typical case ispresented as follows. Table 1.1 presents the inputdata used for the analysis.Table1.1: Input data: Details of Road SectionThe above data were analyzed to determine thevarious indices. These indices are determined as perthe methodology explained. The analysis results andthe values obtained are given in Table 1.2.Table 1.2: Analysis Results for determination ofcondition indices, PIS & RankThese indices were used to determine maintenancepriority of different section i.e. PIs. Afterdetermining PIAS various sections were ranked inthe order of their PIs. PIs values and Rank of varioussections are also given in Table 1.2. Further, the PIsobtained for different sections are also plotted withrespect to Highway Condition & Overall HighwayImportance. Fig 1.1 presents the maintenancepriority of section with their respective HighwayCondition & Highway Importance. Ranks obtainedfor different section are also shown in the Fig 1.1. Itis clear from the Fig 1.1 that Section S2 gets highestPriority for maintenance. S2 section is havingHighest Present Roughness and highest FutureRoughness and Section 2 also having highesthighway Class (Traffic).PIs V/s SectionFig 1.1: Variation of PIs for different highwaysections3.2 Analysis & Results for Stage-II: Strategy toDetermine Priority of Maintenance Activities tobe carried out on Different highway sectionsAs discussed in section 2, stage–II determines themaintenance priority of maintenance activity. ToHighwayDesignationHighwayClassIndexImportanceOfcommunityIndexPoliticalImportanceindexPresentHighwayConditionIndexFutureHighwayConditionIndexOverallHighwayImportanceIndexPriorityIndexofSectionRankHCIICI ICI PHCI FHCI OHIIPISS1 1 1 1 0.488 0.488 0.43 0.463 3S2 1 1 1 0.249 0.249 0.43 0.327 4S3 1 1 1 0.695 0.695 0.43 0.581 2S4 1 1 1 1.000 1.000 0.43 0.755 1S.No.HighwayDesignationOverall HighwayConditionOverall HighwayImportancePresentHighwayCondition(Roughness)mm/kmFutureHighwayCondition(Roughness)mm/kmHighwayClassTraffic(CVPD)ImportantplacesconnectedPoliticalImportance1 S1 658 1019.37 2338 0.4 0.52 S2 1350 2125.87 4125 0.9 0.73 S3 938 1469.37 3445 0.6 0.84 S4 368 567.21 1952 0.3 0.2
  • 5. Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.054-06058 | P a g eillustrate the methodology and to illustrate how theproposed methodology for stage –II works, detailedanalysis were carried out. Five different cases wereanalyzed. A hypothetical network consists of 4highway sections were assumed. Details of differentcases considered, input data and analysis results foreach case is presented elsewhere [Choudhary, 2011].Table 1.3 presents the input data used for theanalysis.Table 1.3: Input data Details of Road SectionActivitiesPFS(m)PDTS(m)PDIS(m)PSC(mm)FFS(m)FDTS(m)FDIS(m)FSC(mm)m2m2m2m2m2m2mmS1352658.75041.84509.06876.34821.552.06S2280335.64300.78417.97437.64720.830.88S347313509311.43630.511792.791146.931.65S45609537351.75744.751275.041086.522.12The above data were analyzed to determine thevarious indices. These indices are determined as perthe methodology explained. The analysis results andthe values obtained are given in table 1.4These indices were used to determine maintenancepriority of Activities. PIAs. PIAS values and Rank ofvarious sections are also given in Table 1.4. Further,the PIAS obtained for different sections are alsoplotted with respect to Structural Condition. Fig 1.2presents the maintenance priority of Activity withtheir respective Structural Conduction. . Ranksobtained for different activity are also shown in theFig 1.2. It is clear form the Fig 1.2 that activity ofHigher Weightage on section with highest PoorCondition gets highest priority for maintenanceTABLE 1.4: ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR CASE II-EDETERMINATION OF CONDITION INDICES, PIAS &RANKSectionsActivitiesWacWscdWdTrafficCalculatedPIASRankS1A110.20.02280.01142338PI110.001014A120.250.05130.02852338PI120.002912A130.250.09120.0572338PI130.00619A140.30.18810.11972338PI140.02213S2A210.20.02280.01141952PI210.000516A220.250.05130.02851952PI220.000915A230.250.09120.0571952PI230.003411A240.30.18810.11971952I240.00618S3A310.20.02280.01142745PI310.002613A320.250.05130.02852745PI320.01107A330.250.09120.0572745PI330.01935A340.30.18810.11972745PI340.03282S4A410.20.02280.01143256PI410.005210A420.250.05130.02853256PI420.01336A430.250.09120.0573256PI430.02774A440.30.18810.11973256PI440.03981
  • 6. Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.054-06059 | P a g eFig 1.2: Variation of PIAS of Activity for differenthighway sectionsIV. Strategy for Maintenance of UrbanRoadsThe maintenance of urban roads has more specificproblems. Some of the specific problems areidentified as follows [Nagabhushana, 2010]: Temperature of mix goes down due totransportation of mix from long leads, which isturn result in poor compaction. Quality control at plant at a distance form layingsite is difficult. Tendency of overheating causes sharp decreasein durability of mix. Repeated overlaying by thicker layer of hotmixes causes severe drainage problems. Cooking of mastic asphalt for 3-4 hours incookers is another serious cause ofenvironmental pollution in habitat areas. Bituminous produced and available is deficientwith respect to its chemical composition Wide variation in daily and seasonaltemperature in urban roads Inadequate drainage condition in many of theroads Poor adhesion of bitumen with aggregate due tohigher stripping value of the aggregatesavailable for use Fast ageing of the bituminous mix duringprocessing , laying as well as in service causeearly cracking bitumen surfacingThus, there is an urgent need to evolve innovativestrategy for maintenance of pavement of urbanroads. The strategy should be to technically feasibleand economical. In view of the above problems, thefollowing types of cement concrete overlays may beadopted: Dry lean concrete Roller compacted cement concrete Cement concrete for PQC Ultrathin overlayThe use of cement concrete technologies in place ofbituminous technologies for urban roads has thefollowing advantages: Higher durability Cost effectiveness. Frequent intervention for maintenance notrequired Poor drainage Conditions in urban roads causingfrequent damage of bituminous road Suitable for heavy and slow moving traffic inurban areaThus, there is an urgent need to develop anappropriate pavement management system for rigidpavement for urban roads in India [Choudhary,2011]V. ConclusionsThe following important conclusions may be madebased on this study:[1] The strategy proposes that first pavementsections which are more critical for maintenanceneeds to be selected. The strategy identifies toselect such pavement sections using minimaldata. Further, strategy proposes that the sectionsidentified in stage I needs to be evaluated in moredetails so that the various maintenance activitiesto be carried out on these sections can beprioritized. Thus, the proposed strategy will bemore economical as detailed studies needs not tobe carried out on all sections.[2] It can be concluded from the above study thatproposed strategy priorities the pavement sectionon more important section as well as moreimportant distress i.e. section will get higherpriority if it is to be carried out on moreimportant section as well as for more importantdistress. Therefore the proposed methodology isconsidered to be more rational and logical
  • 7. Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.054-06060 | P a g e[3] It can be concluded from proposed methodologyfor priorities the Activity on more importantsection as well as more important distress i.e.Activity will get higher priority and if it is to becarried out on more important pavement sectionas well as for more important distress. Thereforethe proposed methodology is considered to bemore rational and logical.[4] The maintenance of urban roads has morespecific problems. The use of cement concretetechnologies in place of bituminous technologieshas the several advantages such as higherdurability and cost effectiveness.This study presents a simple (easy to use) strategyfor maintenance of pavement in a huge highwaynetwork. This proposed methodology is less timeconsuming simple and cost effective and can beexecuted with minimal data and those can beobtained easily and economically from each sectionof a highway networkReferences1) Agarwal, P.K.,“Road Condition,Prioritization and optimal resourceallocation for Highway Maintenance atNetwork Level”, Ph. D. thesis, Departmentof Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur,2006.2) Choudhary, S. “An Innovative Strategy forHighway Maintenance in India” M.TechThesis, Department of Civil EngineeringMANIT, Bhopal, 2011 (thesis submitted).3) G. Shailendra and Veeraragavan, . A.,“Quantification of benefits of ImprovedPavement performance due to GoodDrainage,” IRC Journal Volume. 71-1January March 20104) IRC: 82-1982 “Code of Practice forMaintenance of Bituminous Surfaces ofHighway”, Indian Road Congress, NewDelhi.5) Jain, S.S., Gupta A.K. and Khanna, S.K.,“Pavement Evaluation and Overlay Designfor Efficient Management System in India”,Proc. 14thARRB Conference, Australia,Aug-Sept. 1988.6) Jain, S.S. and Gupta, A.K, Khanna, S.K. &Dayanand, “ Development of Maintenanceand Rehabilitation Investment Strategy forFlexible Pavements”, IRC Journal Volume57-2, in june-19967) Jain, S.S. and Gupta, A.K & RastogiSanjeev, “Study of influencing Parametersfor Efficient Maintenance Management ofFlexible Pavements”, Paper No. 411, IRCJournal Volume 53-1, in June 1992, pp. 93-143.8) Khanna, S.K., and Justo, C.E.G., (1993),“Highway Engineering”, New Chand andBros, 7thedition, New Delhi.9) Nagabhushana, M.N., Jain, P.K.,Kanchan.P.K. “Innovative Strategies forMaintenance and Rehabilitation ofMetropolitan City Roads-A Case Study,”Indian Highways, June 2010, pp. 33 - 43.10) Puare S., “An Development of PavementManagement System for Rigid Pavement inIndia: Some Issues” M.Tech Thesis,Department of Civil Engineering MANIT,Bhopal, 2011 (thesis submitted).11) Reddy, Sathees Kumar, Veeraragavan,C.V., “Pragmatic Approach for theMaintenance Management of RuralHighways,” Indian Road Congress JournalVolume 56-2, New Delhi, 1995.