Brain-Computer Interface: Alexander Kaplan Head of Laboratory for Neurophysiology and Neuro-Computer Interfaces (NNCI Moscow) Contacts: [email_address] ; http:// brain.bio.msu.ru Lomonosov Moscow State University Faculty of Biology Dean of the Faculty: A cademician Mikhail P. Kirpichnikov Rebuilding radically new output of the Human Brain
Dr. Neal Miller (1909-2002 , USA ) , the psychologist and neuroscientist, was one of the first research workers to demonstrate experimentally: The rats can “voluntary” change own EEG In Dr. James Olds (1956) paradigm “ THE POWER OF MIND OVER MATTER” i.e. MIND IS REAL POWER! THE KNOWLEDGE IS POWER, OK! What about MIND per se ?
<ul><li>“ A Brain-Computer Interface is a communication system that do not depend on peripheral nerves and muscles “ </li></ul><ul><li>[J. R. Wolpaw et al. “Brain- computer interface technology: A review of the first international meeting,” IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 164–173, 2000] </li></ul>What is the Definition of BCI ?
In the last few years, a lot of labs begin to research the DIRECT communicate interface between brain and external environment – Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). The purpose is for human to communicate with external device WITHOUT MUSCLES but DIRECTLY by using only the electrical brain activity - EEG. Peer-reviewed papers To this time we already published some basic papers on EEG computing for example: A.Ya.Kaplan et al. Nonstationary nature of the brain activity as revealed by EEG/MEG . In: Signal processing , 2005;85:2190–2212 and established new so called segmental approach in EEG analysis. BCI has seen increasing interest since 2000
2005 et al. Our startup in BCI research in 2005
Our nearest patents which incorporate the BCI technology
<ul><li>A possible approach how to overcome </li></ul><ul><li>this disconnection is bypassing the </li></ul><ul><li>damaged area by means of a </li></ul><ul><li>technical device which can detect </li></ul><ul><li>cortex commands and translate ones </li></ul><ul><li>to the commands for electronic devices </li></ul><ul><li>that replaced the muscle actions. </li></ul>What is the idea of BCI in Neuroengineering ? The practical idea is very simple: when a disconnection of the main motor pathway occurs, the motor commands generated in the cortex cannot travel through the pyramidal (spinal) tract to reach the executing organ, the muscles.
<ul><li>The aim of BCI research is to establish a new augmented communication system that translates human intentions — reflected by suitable brain signals — into a control signal for an output device such as a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain electrical activity or EEG is a most suitable signal for BCI implementation </li></ul>What is fundamental aim of the BCI technology ?
Psychological Effort (Intention) Modification of EEG Brain Signals Signal Features Classification Of Intent appropriate feature extraction appropriate feedback strategy user training computer training Environment Brain Computer What is logical scheme of BCI ?
Only in USA, more than 200,000 patients live with the motor consequences of serious injury. Nicolelis, 2001 What is the motivation for BCI Research ? Motivation for Patients: is to give disable people to communicate, to operate prostheses, and even to operate wheelchairs using brain signals Only the INVASIVE SURGEON TECHNIQUE allows putting electrode into a very local area of a brain uniting a few neurons. These neurons could be belong to the cortex center, for example, for finger control.
Even if patients can not act, they also can use Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) to communicate with environment or control the devices. The EEG is the residual signal that can be used as command signal for HUNDRED THOUSANDS neurologically impaired patients with: - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, - stroke, - old man with disabilities , - spinal injur i es with limb paralysis (tetraplegia etc.) , - Locked-in syndrome What is EEG for BCI Research ?
<ul><li>Philip Kennedy and Roy Bakay (Emory University in Atlanta) were first to install a brain implant in a human that produced signals of high enough quality to simulate movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Implant was installed in 1998 and the patient lived long enough to start working with the implant, eventually learning to control a computer cursor. </li></ul>Kennedy, P.R., Bakay R.A. (1998) Restoration of neural output from a paralysed patient by a direct brain connection. Neuroreport. ;9(8):1707-11 John P. Donoghue, et al. Assistive technology and robotic control using motor cortex ensemble-based neural interface systems in humans with tetraplegia. J Physiol 579.3 (2007) pp 603–611 10 array of electrodes, each separated by 400 μ m What is invasive technology for BCI ?
<ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroprosthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental control </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics / Manipulators/ Mobility devices </li></ul>Disability Level and Application: BCI for common people Most Disable people Health people
<ul><li>For more than 40,000 years evolution adapted Homo sapiens brain abilities to control the environment only by means of muscular output. </li></ul><ul><li>A contemporary industry (high speed physical objects, processes and informational streams) make this output like bottleneck for human activity </li></ul><ul><li>Thought Driven Control is not fantasy now. </li></ul>Motivation BCI for Health people
How it is possible? EEG code for BCI <ul><li>In 1990s researches realized that if a person can change her own EEG therefore she can give the conscious signals to BCI by means of EEG changes. </li></ul><ul><li>BCI should react to changes in EEG. If the person could produce two distinct changes in EEG it will make the binary code for BCI! </li></ul>
<ul><li>Only few persons in the world are supported в by BCI systems, WHY?: </li></ul><ul><li>Because contemporary BCI technology is not practical, for ex.: </li></ul><ul><li>- a lot of time needs to one page typing for disable person </li></ul><ul><li>- there is no automation, BCI - action is needed conscious effort at any moment </li></ul><ul><li>- … etc </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION: we have high level fundamental results but very pure application! </li></ul>Very sensitive and still unsolved problems in BCI technology
1. Feature extraction; 2. EEG changes classification; 3. Command translation; 4. Feedback Precision microelectronics Neuro- and Psychophysiology Mathematics and Programming Signal processing 1 2 3 4 Neuro- and Psychophysiology 1 Medicine 5 Precision microelectronics 2 Automatic control theory 6 Feedback Functional scheme of “internal” type BCI
Neurophysiology and Psycho- Mathematics Medicine Micro- electronics Statistics Signal processing Programming EEG analysis Neuro theory Mind-body problem Rehabilitation Surgery Clinics Amplifiers Wireless tech Chip design Nanotechnology for dry EEG sensors and for money The multi-disciplinary approach is a key for new generation of BCI technology
<ul><li>One mental state one BCI command </li></ul><ul><li>Too slow (24 bit per min – 6-8 letters per min) </li></ul><ul><li>Low accuracy (no more then 75% for cursor control) </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredictable training results (how many days or months?) </li></ul>What are the problems with “internal” type BCI?
Alfa Theta Gamma t S(2) S(1) S(3) S(4) S(5) S(6) S( i) Dynamics of neuronal ensembles
Subject New 1 Finding repeating spatial EEG patterns New 2 On-line EEG pattern classification Selection of functional commands only A B C Electronic drivers Neurofeedback A B C External objects New 3 P > 75% Multimodality Cognitions Emotions Executive part Neurofeedback part Pattern detection part USER part Creativity Moscow Brain-Computer Interface EEG Recognizing single channel EEG patterns Setting EEG commands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5… Instrumental conditioning training
<ul><li>To design the cognitive training for EEG patter conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate what is the key cortex area for unconscious BCI control - EEG/fMRI study. </li></ul><ul><li>To design the adaptive algorithms for unconscious training with EEG pattern recognition </li></ul><ul><li>New microelectronics </li></ul>How to realize the Moscow BCI?
(Donchin, 1988, 2000) Flashing of rows/columns containing the desired letter will elicit P300 response at vertex <ul><li>Online testing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 or above trials averaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct letter - 56% of all trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct row/column – 36% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>totally wrong – 8% </li></ul></ul>Experiment Design for “external” type BCI
P300 wave “external” type BCI P300 NCI lab in Moscow P300 driven typing … ..I am Ivan Basul… High-speed Moscow P300 BCI is only first step for real BCI spelling system 16-20 chatacters per min with 97% accuracy in Moscow N NCI lab – is the world record at the moment! P300
Attention dissociation is big problem for “external” type BCI Hybrid Brain-Gaze-Computer Interface (BGCI) is the final decision for “Attention dissociation” problem.
The integration eye tracker date with ongoing EEG date will correct the “Attention dissociation” problem
The toy car directly controlled by Dr. Kaplan’s Brain Kaplan A.Ya., et. al. Unconscious operant conditioning in the paradigm of brain-computer interface based on color perception Intern. J. Neuroscience, 2005 115:781–802, Kaplan A.Ya., et. al. Nonstationary nature of the brain activity as revealed by EEG/MEG: methodological, practical and conceptual challenges Signal processing. Signal Processing 85 (2005) 2190–2212 Full-text papers of Dr. Kaplan are available at: http:// brain.bio.msu.ru
Motor execution vs. Movement imagination (lee_stbdayAY10.ppt) Execution Subject g3, 16-20 Hz Subject f7, 20-24 Hz time Imagination ERD ERS 500ms
Fundamental research in NNC Lab at Faculty of Biology Silicon Skolkovo supports the BCI research for aplications NPO ENERGIYA – industry for limb prosthesis and manipulators OUR key project is EEG driven limb prosthesis and manipulators
Dr. Emanuel Donchin He designed first BCI for mind driven speller at 1988 (University of South Florida) Dr. Christoph Guger ( Graz, Austria ) the owner of “ g.tec Medical Engineering GmbH ” Dr. Philip Kennedy First implantation for BCI (Emory University) Academician Victor A.Sadovnichiy Rector of Lomonosov MSU (Russia) Partners for collaboration